Nutrition 2 test

question

In which form are most dietary lipids found
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Triglycerides
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Lipids that are solid at room temperature are known as
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fats
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Lipids that are liquid at room temperature are known as
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oils
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What is the chemical composition of fats
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Fatty acids and glycerol
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Which item is a chief source of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids
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Dairy
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Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of
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double bonds
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What is a common dietary saturated fatty acid
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Stearic acid
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Which compound is missing four or more hydrogen atoms
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Polyunsaturated fatty acid
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The easiest way to increase intake of oleic acid is to consume more
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olive oil
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What product has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form?
answer

Coconut oil
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Which product has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form
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Corn oil
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Which product provides abundant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids
answer

Flaxseed oil
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Which product is considered a major source of polyunsaturated fat
answer

Corn oil
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What is a conjugated linoleic acid
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A fatty acid with the chemical make-up of linoleic acid but with a different configuration
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Which statement describes a feature of trans-fatty acids
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In the body, trans-fatty acids are metabolized more like saturated fats than like unsaturated fats
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What type of compound is lecithin
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Phospholipid
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Which statement describes is a feature of choline?
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It is a part of lecithin
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About how much cholesterol is synthesized by the liver every day
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800 to 1500 mg
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Which food contains cholesterol
answer

Roasted turkey
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What is the major source of \”good\” cholesterol
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Endogenous synthesis
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Which of the following is a characteristic of cholesterol
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It is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
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What term may be used to describe a hydrophobic substance
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Lipophilic
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Which statement characterizes the lipase enzymes
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Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants
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In the digestion of fats, emulsifiers function as
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detergents
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What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis
answer

Small intestine
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Chylomicrons are synthesized within the
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intestinal cells
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How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level
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It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover.
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Bile is known to assist in the absorption of
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fat
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Spherical complexes of emulsified fats are known as
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micelles
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Which example characterizes enterohepatic circulation?
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Recycling of bile from the intestine to the liver
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In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains
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less lipid
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Which lipoprotein contains the highest percentage of cholesterol
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Low-density lipoprotein
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After a fat-containing meal is absorbed, about how many hours does it take the body to remove the chylomicrons from the blood
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14
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What tissue contains special receptors for removing low-density lipoproteins from the circulation
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Liver
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A high risk of heart attack correlates with high blood levels of
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low-density lipoproteins
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What are the substances resistin and adiponectin
answer

question

An important function of fat in the body is to
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protect vital organs against shock
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Which lipid is an essential nutrient
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Linoleic acid
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Which acid is an omega-3 fat
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Docosahexaenoic acid
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What is the immediate precursor for the eicosanoids
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Fatty acids
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Aspirin works to reduce the symptoms of infection or pain by retarding the synthesis of
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certain eicosanoids
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What are the precursors for synthesis of the eicosanoids
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Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
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What is the function of lipoprotein lipase
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Hydrolyzes blood triglycerides for uptake into cells
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What is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase
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Hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells
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Approximately what percentage of the body’s energy needs at rest is supplied by fat
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60
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How much energy does one gram of fat provide
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9 kcal
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The results of blood tests that reveal a person’s total cholesterol and triglycerides are called a
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lipid profile
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Which source of lipids should be substituted for saturated fats to help lower blood cholesterol levels?
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Canola oi
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Which statement best describes the nutritional value of eggs
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Although it is high in cholesterol, the egg is low in saturated fat
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Which statement is true of the relationship fat intake and health
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Intake of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more than intake of cholesterol
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What is the approximate average daily trans-fatty acid intake in the United States
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5 g
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When consumed regularly, which fatty acid helps prevent the formation of blood clots
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Eicosapentaenoic acid
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Approximately how much saturated fat is in 8 ounces of whole milk
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5 g
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Approximately how much saturated fat is in a plain baked potato
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0 g
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A lacto-ovo vegetarian wishing to ensure a liberal intake of linolenic acid should consume
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canola oil and walnuts
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Which product is a good source of eicosapentaenoic acid?
answer

Tuna
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The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed
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linolenic acid
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Which statement describes a recognized relationship between dietary fat and cancer?
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Fat from milk does not increase risk for cancer
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According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake
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35
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For most adults, what is the recommended minimum amount of fat that should be consumed, as a percentage of total energy intak
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20
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What is the recommended range of daily fat consumption for an individual on a 2000 calorie diet?
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45 to 75 grams
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Surveys show that U.S. adults’ average intake of fat as a percentage of total energy intake is
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34%
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The average daily cholesterol intake of U.S. women is abou
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224 mg
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Which statement is true of fat in the diet of athletes
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A minimum of 20% fat energy in the diet is needed
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Which statement describes the lipid content of livestock
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Grass-fed animals contain more omega-3 fats in the meat than grain-fed animals
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What dietary advice is appropriate for reducing fat intake
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Limit intake of all fried foods because they contain abundant fat
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Which statement describes a drawback of olestra consumption
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It inhibits absorption of vitamin E
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Of the total fat content of the most commonly eaten nuts in the United States, what is the approximate percentage of monounsaturated fat
answer

59
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A major feature of the Mediterranean diet is liberal intake of
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olive oil
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What is the primary factor that differentiates one amino acid from another
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The side group
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Which element is found in certain amino acids
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Sulfur
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Which term is used to classify amino acids in the diet
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Essential
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Which item is contained in an amino acid
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An acid group
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What is the simplest amino acid
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Glycine
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Which item is a nonessential amino acid in human nutrition
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Proline
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Which item is an essential amino acid
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Leucine
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What amino acid is classified as conditionally essential when dietary intake of phenylalanine is insufficient or the body cannot normally metabolize phenylalanine
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Tyrosine
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What type of reaction is required to bind two molecules of glycine together and release a molecule of water
answer

Condensation
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When two amino acids are chemically joined together, the resulting structure is called
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dipeptide
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Which of the following is a feature of hemoglobin
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It is constructed of four polypeptide chains
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An example of a protein with quaternary polypeptide structures is
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hemoglobin
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What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain
answer

Denaturation
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The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as
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denaturation
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In what organ is pepsin active
answer

Stomach
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What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid
answer

Pepsin
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The function of a protease is to
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hydrolyze proteins
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The chief function of pepsin is to
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cleave proteins into smaller polypeptides
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What is the usual fate of orally ingested enzyme supplements
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Digestion by gastrointestinal proteases
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What best describes the structure of pepsin
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Protein
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The process whereby messenger RNA is made from a DNA template is
answer

transcription
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What is a ribosome
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A structure upon which proteins are assembled
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A common genetic variation which causes a change in the amino acid sequence in the structure of hemoglobin leads to the disease
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sickle-cell anemia
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What type of protein would the body make in order to heal a wound
answer

Collagen
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What is the relationship between body proteins and water
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Proteins attract water
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What function does a buffer perform
answer

It helps maintain a constant pH
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How do sodium and potassium travel into and out of cells
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Transport proteins within the cell membrane pick up and release the minerals across the membrane
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What is opsin
answer

A light-sensitive protein
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Which of the following describes the structure of an antibody
answer

Huge protein molecule
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Which substance is involved in the clotting of blood
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Fibrin
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Which of the following may be used to determine protein utilization
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Nitrogen balance
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When nitrogen taken into the body exceeds nitrogen losses, we say the person is in
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positive nitrogen balance
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What is the amino acid pool
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A mix of essential and nonessential amino acids derived from protein breakdown and dietary protein intake
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What is the usual state of nitrogen balance for healthy infants, children, and pregnant women?
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Positive
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What amino acid is used to synthesize the neurotransmitter serotonin and the vitamin niacin?
answer

Tryptophan
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What is meant by protein turnover?
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The synthesis and degradation of body proteins
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When amino acids are deaminated, the immediate products are ammonia and often a
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keto acid
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Protein sparing in the body is best achieved when a person ingests
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adequate levels of carbohydrate and fat
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Approximately how much urea (g) can be produced daily by the average adult
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250 g
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What is the most likely side effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet?
answer

Increased thirst
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What is a consequence of excess protein intake
answer

Increased production and excretion of urea
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What is the process whereby an amino group is combined with a keto acid to form an amino acid
answer

Transamination
question

In the metabolism of amino acids for energy, what is the fate of the amino group
answer

Excreted as urea
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What is the most likely reason for a person to have abnormally high blood ammonia levels?
answer

Liver dysfunction
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What is the most likely reason for having an abnormally high blood urea level
answer

Kidney dysfunction
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What is the percent digestibility of most plant proteins
answer

70-90
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What is the percent digestibility of most animal proteins
answer

90-99
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Which of the following food proteins has the best assortment of essential amino acids for the human body
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Egg
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Which animal-derived protein is classified as a poor-quality protein
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Gelatin
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If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the likely course of action
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Protein synthesis will be limited
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What is a \”limiting\” amino acid in a protein
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An essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place
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Which statement characterizes the protein nutrition in vegetarians
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Most vegetarians eating a variety of foods need not balance essential amino acid intake at each meal
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In general, the protein quality in grains would be most improved by the addition of a plant protein rich in
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lysine
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In general, the protein quality of legumes would be most improved by the addition of a plant protein rich in
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methionine
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Excessive amounts of homocysteine in the blood are thought to increase the risk for
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heart disease
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Which amino acid has been reported to lower blood pressure and reduce homocysteine levels?
answer

Arginine
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Which statement describe a relationship between protein/amino acids and heart disease?
answer

Elevated blood homocysteine levels are associated with smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol
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Which statement describes an association between protein intake and kidney function
answer

Restricting protein intake may slow the progression of kidney disease
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What is the actual ratio of calcium to protein intake (mg to g) for most U.S. women
answer

13:1
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What would be the primary principle of wise diet planning as related to protein nutrition?
answer

Moderation
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What is a feature of the protein RDA
answer

The recommendations are generous
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Which of the following is an assumption made in the formulation of the RDA for protein?
answer

Dietary carbohydrate and fat intakes are adequate
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Which of the following is a feature of whey protein
answer

when
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What amino acid has been linked to the development of the rare blood disorder eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome in people who took it as a supplement
answer

Tryptophan
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What amino acid supplement has been advertised in the popular media for treating herpes infections?
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Lysine
question

The disease phenylketonuria is related chiefly to abnormal metabolism of
answer

a specific amino acid
question

The study of how food interacts with genes is known as
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nutritional genomics
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Dietary restriction of phenylalanine combined with adequate tyrosine is the usual treatment for people born with the disorder
answer

PKU
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A variation in a single nucleotide of a DNA strand is called a
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single nucleotide polymorphism
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he area of study that examines how environmental factors influence gene expression without changing the DNA is known as
answer

epigenetics
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What proportion of the U.S. adult population is considered overweight or obese
answer

69%
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Which of the following is a characteristic of fat cell development
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More and larger fat cells are found in obese people compared with healthy-weight persons
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What is the rationale for the fat cell theory of obesity
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Fat cell number increases most readily in late childhood and early puberty
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Which of the following is known to promote fat storage in adipocytes
answer

Lipoprotein lipase
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The major function of lipoprotein lipase is to
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remove triglycerides from blood for storage
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The most likely explanation for why women readily store fat around the hips whereas men readily store fat around the abdomen is gender differences in
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the activity of lipoprotein lipase
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Which of the following is a feature of the lipoprotein lipase enzyme
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Its activities in men and women are sex-related and explain the differences in major fat storage regions of the body
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Obesity resulting from an increase in the number of fat cells is termed
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hyperplastic obesity
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Which of the following defines the body’s set point
answer

question

Which of the following is a characteristic of the rate of dietary fat oxidation
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It is lower in obese people
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What is Prader-Willi syndrome
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A genetic disorder resulting in obesity
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Which of the following is a feature of weight gain and genetics
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Adopted children tend to have body weights more like their biological parents than their adoptive parents
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On which organ or tissue does leptin primarily act
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Hypothalamus
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What are the observed effects of sleep deprivation on leptin and ghrelin?
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Leptin decreases while ghrelin increases
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Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance?
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Blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat.
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Why, in part, is weight loss more successful with exercise and also after bypass surgery?
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Ghrelin levels are relatively low
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What is the significance of the uncoupling proteins in adipose tissue
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Increased loss of energy as heat
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Kirima is a Native Eskimo who lives in one of the coldest regions in the world. What type of adipose tissue is most effective at helping her to maintain warm body temperatures during the coldest parts of the year?
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Brown
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Which of the following is a characteristic of the body’s major types of adipose tissue
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Very little brown fat is found in adults, whereas more is seen in infants
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Which of the following is the best evidence that environment must play a role in obesity
answer

The rate of obesity has been rising while the gene pool has remained relatively constant
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Which of the following is a feature of taking diet histories to gauge energy intake
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Both normal and obese people commonly misreport actual energy intakes
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Compared with non-obese people, obese people have a lower
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physical activity level
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Which of the following is a feature of physical inactivity and energy balance
answer

Differences in the time obese and lean people spend lying, sitting, standing, and moving account for about 350 kcalories per day
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Tonya is an overweight cigarette smoker. Which of the following risk factors would make it especially important for her to lose weight
answer

family history of heart disease
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What percentage of people in the United States who use nonprescription weight-loss products have a normal weight
answer

10
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What is the principal reason that the FDA has banned the sale of products containing ephedrine?
answer

The products were implicated in several cases of heart attacks and seizures
question

Clinically severe obesity is also known as
answer

morbid obesity
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Which of the following is a feature of prescription drug use for treatment of obesity?
answer

The use of \”off-label\” drugs is common to take advantage of their modest weight loss effects
question

The prescription drug phentermine acts by regulating the utilization of
answer

norepinephrine
question

Your patient, Mr. Sinclair, has a BMI of 43 and is taking drugs to lose weight. He has heard that some drugs cause lots of gastrointestinal discomfort and would prefer to take one that doesn’t give him any of these side effects. Which of the following should be prescribed for Mr. Sinclair?
answer

Phentermine
question

What is the primary action of orlistat, a weight-loss drug
answer

It inhibits pancreatic lipase
question

Which of the following is a feature of gastric surgery for the treatment of clinically severe obesity?
answer

It diminishes the amount of food that can be eaten without GI distress.
question

Which of the following is a characteristic of liposuction
answer

It results in a return of body fat within a year, primarily to the abdomen
question

What proportion of U.S. adults have maintained a 10% weight loss for at least a year
answer

1 in 6
question

In a weight reduction regimen, the most realistic time frame for losing 10% of initial body weight is
answer

6 months
question

What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people?
answer

0.5-2 lbs/week
question

What minimum amount of body weight loss (lbs) is shown to improve physical capabilities and quality of life?
answer

5-10
question

As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight in women
answer

1200
question

As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight in men
answer

1600
question

Which of the following is a characteristic of breakfast eating
answer

People who eat breakfast frequently have a lower BMI than breakfast skippers
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Which of the following would be most effective at lowering energy intake in a person on a weight reduction program
answer

Select less energy-dense foods
question

Incorporating large quantities of low-energy-density foods in a diet is sometimes referred to as
answer

volumetrics
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Which of the following is a feature of meal eating
answer

Faster eating correlates with higher body weight
question

What is the best approach to weight loss
answer

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
question

An important aid in any weight-loss diet program is to
answer

increase physical activity
question

Which of the following describes a connection between physical activity and energy expenditure?
answer

The number of kcalories spent in an activity depends on body weight, intensity, and duration
question

Which of the following is a feature of the use of artificial sweeteners to control body weight?
answer

They may lead to weight gain in some people.
question

Which of the following is a feature of the body’s response to engaging in physical activity?
answer

After an intense and vigorous workout, metabolism remains elevated for several hours
question

A typical person who burns 200 kcalories during a 2-mile run would, in the postexercise period, burn an additional
answer

30 kcalories
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What is the principal reason that appetite is turned off immediately after a person finishes an intense workout?
answer

Glucose and fatty acids are still abundant in the blood
question

What is the chief reason that health-care professionals advise people to engage only in low-to-moderate intensity activities for prolonged duration rather than more intense, shorter routines
answer

Compliance is better
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Which of the following is a relation of \”spot reducing\” to exercise
answer

No exercise can target fat removal from any specific area of the body.
question

Individuals who are able to lose weight and successfully keep it off for at least a year typically
answer

limit television to less than 10 hours per week
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Approximately how many kcalories per week should be expended in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss
answer

2500
question

To help maximize the long-term success of a person’s weight-loss program, which of the following personal attitudes should be encouraged in the individual
answer

Strongly believing that weight can be lost
question

An example of a behavior modification technique for weight control is to
answer

keep a record of your eating habits.
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Which of the following is a feature of smoking and weight maintenance
answer

People who give up smoking gain an average of 10 lbs in the first year.
question

Which of the following is a feature of energy metabolism in formerly obese people who have lost weight
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Energy requirements are lower than expected for their current body weight
question

How many calories does a 16 ounce cafe mocha have
answer

400
question

What is the energy density of hard-boiled egg weighing 50 grams and delivering 78 kcalories
answer

1.6
question

Because obesity apparently has many causes, even in a single individual, the best approach seems to be
answer

prevention.
question

Approximately what percentage of U.S. adults are classified as underweight
answer

2
question

The classification of underweight is achieved when the BMI first drops below
answer

18.5.
question

Among the following, which is the most important strategy for an underweight person who wishes to achieve a healthy body weight
answer

A high-kcalorie diet plus regular exercise
question

Of the following, which is among the recommended strategies for weight gain in an underweight person
answer

Behavior modification training
question

What is the best meal-planning strategies for underweight people who desire to gain weight?
answer

Eat meaty appetizers rather than salads
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Which of the following would be part of a successful program of weight gain in an underweight individual
answer

Eat energy-dense foods
question

Fad diets often produce weight loss, at least initially, because they
answer

are designed to limit energy intake to around 1200 kcal/day
question

Which of the following is a characteristic of most fad diets
answer

They limit food choices, thereby reducing energy intake
question

Jody is taking a nutrition class, and has been assigned to evaluate a popular diet plan. She finds a description of a plan for her assignment in a magazine at the grocery store. Which of the following statements in the magazine would suggest that this plan is an unsound, fad diet
answer

\”Once you complete this 6-month plan, you’ll never have to diet again

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