Nuclear Chemistry: Unit 5

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Most chemical reactions involve
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The exchange or shafing of electrons which does not affect the nucleus
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How is nuclear chemistry different than other chemical reactions?
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Bc it involves changes in the nucleus
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Transmutation
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When the nucleus of one element is changed into the nucleus of a different element Which means the number of protons is changing (doesn’t happen at your house, not normal)
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What determines the stability of a nucleus?
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Ration of neutrons to protons
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For elements with low atomic numbers the ration is close to
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One:one
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For elements with higher atomic numbers they need
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More neutrons than protons
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All nucleiwith atomic numbers greater than ___ are unstable
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83 They are radioactive
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Radioactive
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Wrong ratio of neutrons to protons An unstable nucleus decays spontaneously to form protons that are more stable, realeasing radiation
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Radioactive isotopes
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Radioisotopes
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When a nucleus decays it emits radiation in the form of either
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Alpha particles Beta particles Positrons Gamma rays
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Alpha particle
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Helium nucleus with two protons and two neutrons
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Beta particle
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Electrons that came out of the nucleus
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Positron
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Electrons with a positive charge (Atoms like electrons, same thing but with a positive charge)
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Gamma rays
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Energy
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Penetrating power
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Ability to go through matter
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Alpha -mass -charge -symbol -penetrating power
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4 u 2+ 4 2 He Low (biggest mass)
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Beta -mass -charge -symbol -penetrating power
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0 u 1- 0 -1 e Moderate
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Positron -mass -charge -symbol -penetrating power
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0u 1+ 0 -1 e Moderate
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Gamma -mass -charge -symbol -penetrating power
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0u 0 0 0 y High (no mass)
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Alpha particles
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Are deflected toward the negative place
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Particles
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Are deflected toward the positive plate
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Gamma rays
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Not deflected- no charge
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Beta particles
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Are deflected more than alpha particles because they have a smaller mass (lighter)
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Radiation
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Can be harmful to living things
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How can radiation harm living things?
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1. Can ionize (cause to form ions which can damage tissue) 2. Can cause cells to be unable to carry on normal functions and can lead to cell death 3. Can cause mutations (cancer)
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Alpha emitter
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Unstable nucleus that emits an alpha particle Usually heavy nuclei with atomic numbers greater than 82
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83 and up are considered
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Radioactive, unstable
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Alpha: Atomic number
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Decreases by 2
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Alpha: Mass number
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Decreases by 4
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Alpha: number of neutrons
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Decreases by 2
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Beta emitter
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An unstable nucleus that emits beta particles
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How can this happen?
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The neutron splits into a proton and electron Too many neutrons, so they make more protons and electrons. They only need protons so the electron comes out of the nucleus
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Beta: atomic number
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Increases by 1
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Beta: mass number
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Stays the same (bc the protons goes up so neutrons goes down)
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Beta: number of neutrons
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Decreases by 1
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Positron emitter
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Unstable nucleus that emits a positron
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How can this happen?
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The proton splits into a neutron and a positron
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Positron: atomic number
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Decreases by one
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Positron: mass number
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Stays the same
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Positron: number of neutrons
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Increases by one

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