NSC Advanced First Aid, CPR & AED

question

Goals of First Aid
answer

1. Keep victim alive 2. Prevent victim’s condition from getting worse 3. Help promote early recovery 4. Ensure victim receives appropriate medical care
question

Consent
answer

Need to have victim’s consent before using first aid
question

Types of consent
answer

Expressed and Implied
question

Expressed consent
answer

Responsive victim communicates consent, can include head nods
question

Implied consent
answer

Unresponsive or child’s parent not present or reached
question

Refusing consent
answer

Victim can refuse consent – if they go unresponsive consent is now implied Get second witness to refusal
question

Scope of care
answer

Set of first aid techniques learned in first aid course
question

Standard of Care
answer

Care expected from any trained EMT under similar circumstances
question

Abandoment
answer

If you leave victim and injury or illness becomes worse Justified reasons: Exhaustion, imminent danger, or replacement comes (equal or higher skill level)
question

Confidentiality
answer

Only give victim’s information to the treating medical professionals
question

Infectious Diseases Transmitted
answer

1. Someone has infection 2. Infection leaves body 3. Infection reaches another person, enters body (through blood) 4. Second person develops infection
question

Bloodborne Diseases
answer

1. HIV 2. Hep B (Has vaccine) 3. Hep C
question

Protection against bloodborne diseases
answer

use gloves
question

Steps in an Emergency
answer

1. Recognize the emergency 2. Check the scene 3. Check the victim 4. Call 9-1-1 5. Give first aid 6. Have victim seek medical attention
question

10 Body Systems
answer

1. Respiratory 2. Cardiovascular 3. Nervous 4. Musculoskeletal 5. Integumentary 6. Gastrointestinal 7. Endocrine 8. Immune 9. Urinary 10. Reproductive
question

Assessment
answer

1. Initial assessment 2. Secondary assessment 3. Monitor for change
question

Initial Assessment
answer

Check for life-threatening conditions Move only if – immediate danger or cannot give lifesaving care
question

How to check for responsiveness
answer

Tap on shoulder and ask “Are you okay?”, doesn’t respond then call 9-1-1 and provide care
question

AVPU Scale
answer

Alert Verbal – Response to verbal Painful – Responses to pain Unresponsive
question

Initial Assessment Steps
answer

1. Check for responsiveness and normal breathing 2. Unresponsive – Call 9-1-1, if unresponsive and not breathing provide BLS 3. Breathing – Check for severe bleeding and other threats 4. Care for life threatening conditions
question

Recovery Position
answer

Keeps airway open, allows fluids to drain, prevents from inhaling stomach contents HAINES High Arm IN Endangered Spine Extend arms over victim’s head, position arm closest to you over victim’s chest, bend victim’s leg closest to you at the knee, put forearm under victim’s shoulder while supporting the neck and carefully roll, bend both legs and open mouth
question

SAMPLE
answer

Signs and symptoms Allergies Medications Previous problems Last food or drink Events
question

Physical Exam
answer

Head to toe DOTS Deformities Open injuries and wounds Tenderness Swelling
question

Universal sign of choking
answer

Hands around the throat
question

Choking care for Responsive Adult and Child
answer

1. Consent 2. 9-1-1 3. Stand behind with one leg in between theirs 4. Locate navel, create fist with hand above navel 5. Grasp fist with other hand and thrust inward and upward
question

Choking care for Responsive Infant
answer

1. 5 back blows 2. Check for expelled object 3. 5 chest thrusts 4. Continue cycle, if alone call 9-1-1 after 1 minute
question

Effects of blood loss
answer

causes a decrease in oxygen supply to the body; blood pressure drops; heart pumps faster to compensate for the decreased volume and BP; body will attempt to clot the blood to halt bleeding; usually requiring 6-7 minutes; uncontrolled, bleeding can result in shock and death
question

Class 1 blood loss
answer

Up to 15%
question

Class 2 blood loss
answer

15-30%
question

Class 3 blood loss
answer

30-40% At 30% body can no longer compensate
question

Class 4 blood loss
answer

>40%
question

Types of External Bleeding
answer

1. Arterial 2. Venous 3. Capillary
question

Controlling bleeding
answer

Apply direct pressure and raise above the head
question

Symptoms of internal bleeding
answer

Abdomen – tender, swollen, bruised, hard Blood vomited or present in urine or stool Cool, clammy skin, pale, ashen, or bluish Thirst Confusion or lightheadness
question

Shock – Severe blood loss
answer

Not enough oxygen-rich blood reaching organs, life-threatening, may develop quickly or gradually
question

Common Types of Shock
answer

1. Hypovolemic 2. Cardiogenic 3. Neurogenic 4. Anaphylactic
question

First Aid for Shock
answer

1. Check responsiveness 2. Call 9-1-1 3. Lie on back 4. Feet 6-12″ above ground
question

First Aid for Anaphylactic Shock
answer

1. Call 9-1-1 2. Help administer epi-pen
question

What shouldn’t you use to clean a wound?
answer

Never use alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or iodine
question

Types of Open Wounds
answer

Abrasions, Lacerations, Punctures, Avulsions, Amputations, Burns
question

Scalp Wound W/O Fracture First Aid
answer

1. Replace any skin flaps, cover with dressing 2. Use direct pressure to control bleeding 3. Roller or triangle bandage around head to secure dressing
question

Blow to Eye
answer

1. If eye is bleeding or leaking fluids – CALL 911 2. Cold pack with barrier (up to 15 min) 3. Lie still, cover uninjured eye 4. Seek medical attention
question

Ear Injuries
answer

1. Clear fluid or watery blood from the ear could mean skull fracture – call 911 2. Help vic sit up, tilting affect ear lower to let blood or other fluid drain 3. Cover ear with loose sterile dressing – No pressure 4. Medical attention
question

Teeth and Mouth Injuries
answer

Bleeding, control with direct pressure. Knocked out teeth can be replanted. Priority of first aid is keeping airway open and controlling bleeding
question

Knocked out teeth
answer

1. Vic sit still, titled forward to allow blood to drain 2. Rinse with tap water or saline 3. Control bleeding by having vic bite down for 20-30 minutes on gauze 4. Save the tooth. Pick up by crown and place in milk 5. See dentist immediately
question

Nosebleed First Aid
answer

1. Tilt head forward, mouth open 2. Pinch nostrils together just below the bridge for 10 min 3. Gasping or choking on blood call 911
question

Function of skin (three things)
answer

Protection Regulates temperature Sensation
question

What Happen With a Burn?
answer

May damage any layer of skin Can allow pathogens – risk of infection Fluid loss (2nd degree) Loss of body heat (severe burn) Damage to nerve endings
question

Where are the majority of deaths by fires and burn at?
answer

The Home
question

Heat Burns
answer

Caused by sun, flames, steam
question

Assessing a Burn
answer

What type of burn is it? (1st, 2nd, 3rd) How extensive? What specific body area?
question

Classifications of Burns
answer

1st degree 2nd degree 3rd degree
question

1st degree
answer

Superficial burns Damage only the outer skin layer
question

2nd degree
answer

Partial-thickness burn Damages deeper layers Blisters present Depending on size, may require medical attention
question

3rd degree
answer

Full thickness burn Damages all layers
question

What do you use for assessing burn size and severity?
answer

Rule of nines
question

When do you call 911 for burns?
answer

Any 3rd degree burn that is larger than 50-cent piece Any 2nd degree that covers more than 10%, (5% in kids) 2nd and 3rd on face, genital, hand, feet Circumferential burns Chronic health disorders
question

First Aid: Heat Burns
answer

1. Stop burning, cool area 2. Protect area 3. Provide supportive care 4. Ensure medical attention
question

First Aid: 1st Degree Burns
answer

1. Stop burning 2. Cool burned area with cool water 3. Remove constricting items 4. Protect
question

First Aid: 2nd Degree Burns
answer

1. Stop burning 2. Cool burned area with cool water 3. Large burns call 911 4. Remove constricting items 5. Nonstick dressing – keep loose
question

First Aid: 3rd Degree Burns
answer

1. Stop burning 2. Cool burned area with cool water 3. Remove constricting items 4. Call 911 5. Treat for shock 6. Cover burn with nonstick dressing – keep loose *Do not cool burn if larger than 20% of the body or 10% for a child
question

Smoke Inhalation
answer

Potential airway or lung injuries Airway swells Symptoms may not be obvious until 48 hours after exposure
question

First Aid: Smoke Inhalation
answer

1. Get victim to fresh air 2. Call 911 3. Help victim into comfortable position for breathing, keep calm
question

First Aid: Chemical Burns
answer

1. Check MSDS 2. Move away from fumes or ventilate area 3. Gloved hand, brush off any dry chemical 4. Flush area with running water. Flush until EMS arrive. 5. Remove clothing and jewelry 6. Call 911 for any chemical burn
question

Electrical Burns and Shocks
answer

External injuries may include entrance and exit wounds Internal injuries caused by electricity flowing through body includes irregular heart rhythms or cardiac arrest
question

First Aid: Electrical Burns
answer

1. Do not touch victim until area is safe. Unplug or turn off power. 2. Call 911 3. Unresponsive victim – Give BLS 4. Care for the burn 5. Treat for shock
question

Head and Spinal Injuries
answer

May be life-threatening Damage or trauma to the brain and spine
question

Assessment of Head and Spinal Injuries
answer

Mechanism of injury Focus on physical exam Recognize possibility of head/spinal injury
question

Sign and Symptoms of Head/Spinal Injuries
answer

Lumps Changing levels of responsiveness (AVPU) Confusion Fluids Stiff neck Inability to move a body part Dizziness Unequal pupils Headache Tingling in hands/feet
question

Physical Exam of Head/Spinal Injuries
answer

Unresponsive – NO exam -Do not move victim with possible spinal injury -Maintain spinal motion restriction to prevent head movement Responsive – Carefully assess -Need 2 people, one to hold head in place -Reveal problems call 911 -Don’t assume lack of certain symptoms means no spinal injuries Assessment 1. Check victim’s head 2. Check neck 3. Check feet sensation 4. Ask victim to point toes 5. Check strength (Can you push on my hands) 6. Check in hands too
question

Skull Fracture
answer

Check for fractures before applying direct pressure to scalp bleeding (can push bone fragments back into brain) Life-threatening
question

First Aid: Skull Fracture
answer

1. Call 911, Stay with victim 2. Put breathing unresponsive victims into recovery position, unless spinal injury suspected 3. Do not clean wound, press on it, or remove impaled object 4. Cover with sterile dressing 5. If bleeding use a ring dressing
question

Brain Injury
answer

May occur with blow to head Likely with skull fracture Range of signs and symptoms, signs may progress 911 (immediately if nausea, vomiting, headache, seizures, vision or speech problems, changing levels of responsiveness present) Suspected spinal injury
question

First Aid: Brain Injury
answer

1. Have victim lie down 2. Keep victim still and comfortable 3. Call 911 4. Support head and neck
question

Concussion
answer

Temporary swelling of the brain Usually no head wound May have been “knocked out” and regain consciousness Second impact syndrome can be fatal
question

Signs and Symptoms of a Concussion
answer

Headache Temporary confusion, altered mental status Memory loss Brief loss of responsiveness
question

A&O (Alert and Oriented X4)
answer

Person (Do they know who they are?) Place (Where are they?) Time (What time of day is it?) Disposition (Do they know what happened?)
question

First Aid: Concussion
answer

Difficult to determine seriousness Seek medical attention Call 911, keep victim still and give supportive care Victim should never continue the activity (possibility of second impact syndrome if they do)
question

Spinal Injury
answer

Fracture of neck or back always serious Perform spinal motion restriction *Hold the head in the position you found them in (unless unresponsive then give CPR – keeping head in line with body)
question

First Aid: Spinal Injury
answer

1. Ask a responsive victim what happened. Assess responsive victim. 2. Stabilize neck in position found 3. Monitor breathing – prepare for CPR 4. Send someone to call 911
question

Log Roll
answer

1. Hold victim’s head with both hands over ears 2. First aider at head directs the others to roll as a unit 3. Keep supporting head
question

Lower Back Injuries
answer

Usually mechanical/pain May not damage spinal cord Usually not an emergency
question

Chest, Abdomen, Pelvic Injuries
answer

Blunt force trauma or penetrating Can be life-threatening Shock Always call 911
question

Common Causes of Chest Injuries
answer

Car crash Blow to chest Falling Sports
question

Signs/Symptoms of Chest
answer

Breathing problems Severe pain Coughing blood Bruising and Swelling Deformity
question

Pneumothorax
answer

Air escapes from injured lung, causing it to collapse Respiratory distress – Call 911
question

Hemothorax
answer

Blood from injury builds up in the thoracic cavity – compressing the lung Shock 911
question

Broken Ribs
answer

Typically from trauma Lower ribs and side weaker – more common injuries Sever pain, dislocation, swelling Injuries to lungs or underlying organs can be damaging as well Always call 911
question

First Aid: Ribs
answer

1. Help victim sit into comfortable position 2. Support ribs with pillow, loosely bandage 3. Call 911
question

Flail Chest
answer

Two or more ribs broken in two or more places From severe blow to the chest Paradoxical movement – flail segment moves in opposite direction
question

First Aid: Chest Flail
answer

1. Comfortable position 2. Splint with pillow and bandage 3. Position victim lying on injured side 4. 911
question

First Aid: Impaled Object
answer

1. Keep victim still 2. Stabilize with dressing 3. Bandage around and over object 4. Call 911
question

Sucking Chest Wound
answer

Open wound in chest caused by penetrating injury Wound lets air move in and out of chest during breathing Can be life-threatening Can collapse both lungs
question

First Aid: Sucking Chest Wound
answer

1. Put thin sterile dressing over wound 2. Cover dressing with plastic wrap to make air-tight seal, tape on three sides 3. Position victim inclined toward injured side 4. Call 911
question

Abdominal Injuries
answer

Closed or open Blow to abdomen Internal or external bleeding Needs immediate medical attention
question

Closed Abdominal Injuries
answer

Can be life-threatening Internal organs may have ruptures + severe bleeding
question

First Aid: Closed Ab Injury
answer

1. Position comfortable, loosen tight clothing 2. Call 911 3. Treat for shock and monitor breathing
question

Open Abdominal Injuries
answer

Visually injuries – internal organs Large wound creates evisceration – ab organs protrude, serious emergency
question

First Aid: Open Ab Injury
answer

1. Victim on back 2. Cover would with dry non-inherent or moist sterile dressing 3. Cover with large occlusive dressing 4. 911 5. Treat for shock *Intestine Taco for exposed organs, Make pouch of large pad, Tape
question

Pelvic Injuries
answer

Common in elderly Can cause internal bleeding and shock May also have spinal injury
question

First Aid: Pelvic
answer

1. Victim lie on back 2. 911 3. Immobilize legs together 4. Treat for shock
question

Bones, Joints, Muscle Injuries
answer

Most common injuries Caused by blow, impact, fall, sports
question

Musculoskeletal Injuries
answer

Fractures Dislocation Sprains Strains Contusions Cramps
question

Assessment (SAMPLE) for Musculoskeletal Injuries
answer

Initial assessment first – life threatening conditions Perform physical exam Mechanism of Injury Ask for history Do no move unnecessarily
question

Signs and Symptoms for Musculoskeletal Injuries
answer

Compare injured arm or leg to opposite DOTS Pain Bleeding Discoloration/Bruising Abnormal sensation Inability to move Difference in temperature
question

RICE
answer

Rest Ice Compression Elevation
question

Rest
answer

Don’t move Rest until medical help
question

Ice
answer

Cold reduces swelling, pain, and bruising Put on as soon as possible (except for open wound) Plastic bag with ice-water with cloth barrier Apply for 20 min, remove for 30
question

Compression
answer

Comfort and support Elastic roller bandages over injured area, ice pack, another loose ace bandage Can be used for 24-48 hours
question

Elevation
answer

Helps prevent swelling Helps control internal or external bleeding Splint fracture first and elevate above the heart
question

Fractures
answer

Bones completely broken or only cracked Bleeding can be severe with open Nearby organs can be damaged Closed and Open
question

Closed Fracture
answer

Simple fracture Skin not broken
question

Open Fracture
answer

Compound fracture Skin broken
question

First Aid: Fractures
answer

1. Immobilize area (above and below the suspected fracture) 2. 911 3. Treat open wound 4. Apply RICE 5. Splint
question

Joint Injury: Dislocation
answer

One or more bones moved out of normal position in joint Usually involves tearing of ligaments Pain, swelling, bruising, looks deformed Can damage nerves and cause serious bleeding
question

Joint Injury: Sprains
answer

Bone remain in place but ligaments and other structures injured Overextended joint Ankles, knees, wrist common Swelling, pain, bruising Looks similar to a fracture Circulation check
question

Joint Injury
answer

Both types can look like a fracture Treat as severe, call 911
question

First Aid: Dislocations
answer

1. Immobilize/Splint 2. 911 3. RICE
question

First Aid: Sprains
answer

1. Immobilize 2. RICE 3. Soft Splint 4. Medical attention
question

Muscle Injuries
answer

Overexertion, careless, sudden move Strains, contusions, cramps Less serious than bone and joint Repeated injury can lead to chronic pain
question

Strains
answer

Tearing of muscle or tendon Overexertion First Aid: RICE, cold pack 20 min on and 30 off
question

Contusion
answer

Bruised muscle May result from a blow Pain, swelling, discoloration May persist First Aid: 1. Apply RICE, DO NOT massage 2. Cold pack, 20 on 30 off 3. Repeat 24-48 hours
question

Muscle Cramps
answer

Tightness and overexertion Thigh and calf common Different from heat cramps Flexibility and stretches can reduce First Aid: 1. Stop activity 2. Stretch 3. Cold pack 20 on, 30 off 4. Gently massage
question

Splinting
answer

Restricts movement Always splint if suspected fracture Reduces pain Minimizes swellings Can be improvised Check and treat life-threatening first Consider mechanism of injury and possibility of spinal injury
question

Types of Splints
answer

Rigid Soft Anatomic
question

Rigid Splint
answer

Board, plastic, metal, cardboard
question

Soft Splint
answer

Pillow, folded blanket, or towel Triangular bandage formed into a sling
question

Anatomic
answer

“Buddy Taping” Bandage uninjured leg, toe, or finger to injured one
question

Securing Splints
answer

Bandages, strips of cloth, velcro strips Knots or tape (not on skin)
question

Guidelines for Splinting
answer

Dress any open wound first Splint injury in position found Immobilize entire area (above and below) Place padding between skin and splint Do not secure over open would Elevate if possible, ice Check circulation
question

Slings
answer

Prevent movement, provide elevation Splint first Splint in position found, slings may not be possible Cold packs can be used (20 on, 30 off) Do not cover fingers inside sling
question

Hips
answer

Fractures and dislocations First Aid similar to pelvic injury Call 911 Do not move Anatomic splint legs, pad between Treat for shock, but do not elevate
question

Upper Leg
answer

Femur fracture 911 Keep from moving Use anatomic splint
question

Knees
answer

Strain, dislocation Call 911, do not transport yourself Soft splint Straight – use anatomic
question

General Signs of Symptoms of Sudden Illness
answer

Ill, dizzy, confused, weak Skin color changes Sweating Breathing changes Nausea and vomiting
question

General Care for Sudden Illness
answer

911 for unexplained illness Help victim rest, avoid getting chilled/overheated Reassure No food or drink Watch for changes
question

Heart Attack
answer

Precursor to cardiac arrest Reduced blood flow to heart Can occur at any age
question

Symptoms of Heart Attack
answer

Varies from slight discomfort to crushing pain No signs until collapse Signs and symptoms come and go before heart attack occurs Shortness of breath, jaw or back pain (left side), indigestion, nausea, vomiting Act quickly – early identification
question

Aspirin and Heart Attack
answer

Chew one uncoated adult aspirin
question

Nitroglycerin for Heart Attack
answer

Often prescribed for angina Assist victim who is prescribed Do not attempt if unresponsive
question

First Aid: Heart Attack
answer

1. 911 2. Comfy position 3. Ask about meds 4. Encourage victim to chew one uncoated adult aspirin 5. Stay with victim, reassure
question

Angina
answer

Chest pain caused by heart disease Pain lasts a few minutes People know if they have it Prescribed meds
question

Stroke
answer

Interruption of blood flow to the brain 911, medical attention immediately (Can decrease permanent damage) Time is critical – know what time the symptoms started
question

Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale
answer

1. Ask victim to smile 2. Ask victim to close eyes and raise both arms out in front of body 3. Ask victim to repeat a sentence “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks”
question

First Aid: Stroke
answer

1. 911 2. Monitor 3. Lie on back, shoulders slightly raised 4. Loosen clothes 5. Turn victim’s head on affected side
question

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
answer

Temporary interruption to blood flow to brain Similar signs as a stroke 911
question

Respiratory Distress
answer

Difficulty breathing Distress does not go away
question

First Aid: Respiratory Distress
answer

1. 911 2. Help into comfy position 3. If hyperventilating, ask to breathe slowly 4. Ask about meds 5. Stay with victim and monitor
question

First Aid: Hyperventilation
answer

1. No other cause 2. Reassure 3. 911 if doesn’t return to normal
question

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
answer

Includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis May cause respiratory problems Follow first aid for respiratory distress
question

First Aid: Fainting
answer

1. Monitor breathing, ready for CPR 2. Lay down, raise legs 6-12″ off ground, loosen clothing 3. Check for possible injuries (head) 4. Reassure
question

Types of Seizures
answer

1. Complex partial – person seems dazed, mumble or wander 2. Absence – person stares blankly, doesn’t respond 3. Generalized tonic – convulsions, loses consciousness, muscle spasms 4. Febrile – caused by high fever in infants/children
question

First Aid: Seizures
answer

1. Prevent injury 2. Loosen clothing (check for med ID) 3. Turn to one side if vomiting 4. After seizure, keep airway open 5. Be reassuring
question

Altered Mental Status
answer

Changes in normal behavior Sign or results of injury or illness Common Causes: stroke seizures head injury fever poison diabetic emergency
question

Diabetic Emergencies
answer

Hypoglycemia (Low blood sugar) Hyperglycemia (High blood sugar)
question

First Aid: Hypoglycemia
answer

1. Confirm victim has diabetes. Look for medical ID 2. Give sugar 3. Give more sugar after 15 min if still feeling ill 4. 911 for unresponsive or significant symptoms
question

First Aid: Hyperglycemia
answer

1. 911 2. Early signs – hard to tell if low or high blood sugar (give sugar, if doesn’t improve 911) 3. Later stage – 911 immediately
question

Poison
answer

Any substance that enters or touches the body with effects that injures Most accidental poisonings occur at home
question

Poison Control Center
answer

800-222-1222 Provide info and treatment advice
question

4 Ways Poison Enters the Body
answer

Swallow Injected Inhaled Absorbed
question

Poison Care
answer

Unresponsive – 911 Responsive – PCC
question

First Aid: Swallowed Poison
answer

1. Determine what was swallowed and how much 2. Responsive – PCC 3. Unresponsive – 911
question

First Aid: Food Poisoning
answer

1. Have victim rest 2. Clear fluids 3. Seek medical attention
question

First Aid: Inhaled Poisons/CO
answer

1. Get victim to fresh air 2. Call 911 3. Monitor and be ready for CPR 4. Unresponsive in recovery position
question

First Aid: Animal Bites
answer

1. Clean w/o soap and water (unless bleeding) 2. Control bleeding 3. Cover with dressing and bandage 4. Health care provider
question

Snake Bites – 4 common poisonous in US
answer

Rattesnakes Copperhead Cotton mouth Coral snake
question

First Aid: Snake Bite
answer

1. Have victim lie down, calm down and keep bite lower than heart 2. Call 911 3. Wash bite 4. Wrap with ACE bandage – top down, snug 5. Remove constricting items
question

Spider Bites – 2 common in US
answer

Black widow – red hourglass shape on abdomen Brown recluse – brown violin shape on back
question

First Aid: Spider Bites
answer

1. Breathing problems (brown recluse bite) – 911 2. Keep bite below heart 3. Wash with soap and water 4. Ice pack, 20 on 30 off
question

First Aid: Ticks
answer

1. Remove tick with tweezers close to skin, pull gently until tick lets go 2. Wash with soap and water 3. Antiseptic 4. Medical attention if flu-like symptoms begin
question

Ticks – Diseases it Carries
answer

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease
question

Marine Bites
answer

Stop bleeding Care for Shock Lifeguard 911
question

Stings
answer

Can cause difficulty breathing, shock, muscle paralysis, seizures
question

First Aid: Marine Stings
answer

1. Wash with vinegar for 30 sec 2. Remove any tentacles 3. No vinegar, use baking soda water mix 4. Reduce pain by soaking in hot water for 20 min 5. Pain returns – soak again 6. Call 911 if swelling around mouth, large area, difficulty breathing, or from box jelly sting
question

Three Conditions of Negligence
answer

1. You had a duty to act 2. You breached that duty 3. Your actions or inactions caused damage or injury
question

Respiratory System
answer

Gas exchange Possible emergencies: airway obstruction, airway swelling, punctured lung
question

Cardiovascular System
answer

Primary Organs: Heart, blood, blood vessels Transport blood to lungs Regulates body temperature Fluid balance Emergencies: Any condition that affects respiratory, severe bleeding, stroke, heart attack
question

Nervous System
answer

Brain, spinal cord, sensory receptors, nerves Function is sensory receptors gather info about environment and send to brain. Brain integrates and analyzes info and signals lead to actions. Emergencies: Head/spinal injury, stroke
question

Signs of Infection
answer

Wound area is red, swollen, and warm Pain Pus Fever Red streaks or trails on skin (call health care provider immediately)
question

When to Seek Medical Attention for a Wound…
answer

Severe bleeding Deep/large wound Face wounds Infected Bites Foreign objects in wound Puncture wounds Unknown tetanus Requires stitches (longer than 1 inch) Unsure about wound
question

Puncture Wound
answer

High risk of infection Irrigate the wound, press around wound to help promote bleeding (helps push fluid out), dressing, medical attention
question

Impaled Object
answer

Don’t remove Dress wound around/over it Direct pressure around Stabilize and still Medical attention
question

Avulsion
answer

Try to move into normal position Control bleeding Provide wound care If completely separate, treat as amputation
question

Amputation
answer

Control bleeding, care for victim and wound Then recover and care for amputated part -wrap severed part in sterile dry dressing -place in plastic bag, sealed -Place in another container of ice -emergency personal
question

Genital Wound
answer

Provide privacy Use direct pressure to control external bleeding
question

Head and Face Wounds
answer

Possible neck or spinal damage Do not move head Scalp wound Never wrap around neck

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member