Nonprofit Ch 6, 7, & 10

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Accountability means taking responsibility for your actions.
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true
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Requirements of the law include the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Pension Protection Act of 2006.
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true
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The Better Business Bureau has a mechanism that can “certify” a nonprofit based on how they conduct business.
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true
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A certificate or “seal of approval” by a charity watchdog tells potential donors that your nonprofit is beyond reproach.
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false
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How much a nonprofit spends on fundraising is a method of financial performance measurement.
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true
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Benchmarking is a way for nonprofits to compare themselves among other similar organizations.
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true
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The logic model is a method for measuring a nonprofit’s financial management capabilities.
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false
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SROI stands for “standard run on inventory.”
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false
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Performance measurement is one of the ways a nonprofit can ensure it is achieving its mission.
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true
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core competencies
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ablitlity that an organization can manage and that ideally helps it perform well
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distinctive core competencies
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something that the organization does well and that others find difficult to do well
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portfolio analysis
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used by business firms to determine if their various programs, products, and services are in line with their strategies and goals
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mission creep
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performance management
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is on-going, internal process used to collect and analyze data in order to track the effectiveness of programs on an ongoing basis
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program ecaluation
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method used to determine whether specific programs are effective in acheiving results
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effiency
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produce outputs to attain inputs (cost ratios)
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effectivness
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output vs input
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inputs
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resources dedicated to the program (money, staff, resources)
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activities
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what the program does to meet its mission
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outputs
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direct products of the activities
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outcomes
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change (impact) experienced by the participants in the program (knowledge, skills, improved conditions)
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what things does strategy focus on
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focuses on the way to acheive goal, long ter, may be written or intangible, requires planning and creative thinking
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Kearns 3 approaches to stratgies
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1. visioning approach 2. incremental approach 3. analytical approach
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visioning approach
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begin with leader’s vision then work backward to determine how and what is needed to make strategy work
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incremental approach
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strategy evolves out of experience, 1 deision @ time, buffered by bargaining
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analytical approach
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use of logic and in-depth analysis to improve strategic fit between org and it’s environment
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strategic management
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integrated dapproach to managing the organization that is based on strat planning
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what is the strategic planning process?
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perpare-clafigy mission, values, and vision assess situation-develop goals, strategies, and objectives write plan- implement plans execute plans- evaluate results
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SWOT analysis
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internal survey- Strengths and Weaknesses externam survey- Oppertunities and Threats
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OBJECTIVES
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specific, quantified targets tat represent steps toward accomplishing goals (must be SMART: Simple, measureable, attainable, realistic, and timely)
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outcome
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the actual results (positively/negatively defined)
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offical goal
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mission statement
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goal
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expected outcome (maybe multiple)
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Strategic planning is focused on the day-to-day operations of the nonprofit.
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False
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Strategic management is an integrated approach that links strategy to implementation.
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true
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The SWOT exercise is used to identify an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opposition, and trends.
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false
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The mission statement explains the reason an organization exists.
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true
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Values are the principles that an organization holds most important.
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true
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Strategies are mainly defined as the directions that an organization will pursue with respect to strategic issues.
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false
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One of the characteristics of a good objective it that it is specific
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true
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Once a strategic plan has been written, it should be used to stimulate wider discussion throughout the organization and its constituencies.
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true
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The final draft of a strategic plan does not need to be approved by the board of directors prior to implementation
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false
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A portfolio analysis is a technique used to determine if programs and services are in line with strategies and goals.
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true
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commercial marketing
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products and services to sell by a for or nonprofit bc its goal is to attract more people to programs and services
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social marketing
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is intended to change human behavior and improve society (reduce smoking, increase condom use)
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cause-related marketing
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(fundraising) partnership btwn nonprofit and corporation intended to increase sales of forprofit’s products with financial or other benefits going to nonprofit or a cause
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product mind-set
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to be an effective marketer, you must build a mousetrap and in effect consumer will come running (henry t and the model t) QUALITY OF PRODUCE
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sales mind-set
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goal is to convince customers they should buy the companies product rather than buy nothing at all or a competitior’s product (HOW WELL YOU CONVINCE SOMEONE TO BUY PRODUCT)
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target audience mind-set (modern marketing)
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outside in, not inside out—focus on our audiences and not ourselves ( FOCUSES ON NEEDS OF CUSTOMERS)
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value propositions
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improve individual’s situations, through better health or in some other aspects of life—-target audience must see benefit in the exchange
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generic competion
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alternative uses of individuals time and money ( 2 colleges competing for students, or 2 theaters competin for audiences)
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communication
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the transmission or exchange of information (honing and delivering the messages)
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communication as a discipline
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encompasses an understanding of the principles by which information is transmitted and recieved as well as print and electronic media
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marketing
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a process that may encompass communications, but with a specific purpose: to influence someone else’s behaviors
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What does marketing focus on?
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exchanges— buying a ticket to hear the smyphony in exchange for tour payment— exchanges only occur when individual takes action
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marketing mix
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4 Ps of marketing
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4 Ps of marketing ( 4 key variables)
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product, place, promotion, price
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Nonprofit organizations must weigh the value of using social media with the costs of maintaining that presence.
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true
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Nonprofit organizations can enhance interaction with their donors and clients by maintaining a static website.
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false
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IMC in marketing refers to Integrated Marketing Communication.
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true
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The most effective method of communication is word-of-mouth.
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true
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Brand is a name, term, symbol, etc., that identifies the goods and services of one seller from other competitors.
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true
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Communication is the means by which an organization seeks to influence the behavior of someone else.
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false
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Nonprofit organizations need to engage in marketing because of the competition for funding from corporations, foundations, and individuals.
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true
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Product mind-set is effective marketing that depends on convincing consumers.
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false
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Social marketing seeks to change human behavior and improve society
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true
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avtivity based profitablitiy model
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balanced scorecard
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created by Kaplan and Norton as a way for businesses to obtain a balanced perspective on performance by combingin financial data with other considerations.
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What are the 4 perspectives of a balanced scorecard?
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1. financial perspectives 2. the customer or client perspective 3. internal busniess perspective 4. innovation and learning perspectives
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chartiy watchdogs
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organizations that proactively examine nonprofit organizations and apply their own standards.
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blended value
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value should be thought of as having three components: economic, social, and environmental value. Companies and nonprofits should be measured by how much of all three they create in total
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corporate benchmarking
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compares organizations with similar services and deems who is best at what they do. identifies the most effective or efficent methods of perfoming specific funtions.
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cost-benefit analysis
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attemps to assess a program or project by determining whether societal welfare has or will increase because of the program or project.
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dashboard
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variation of the balanced scorecard. Answers two questions 1. Do the different activities, services, and programs acheive broadly the results intended? 2. Is the organzation run well?
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What is a nonprofit dashboard and what kinds of items should one place on it?
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It provides and overview of performance to executives and the governing board. It should include the following: key variables and graphic displays, comprehensive snapshot of the organization at a point in time, change compared to previous periods, and progress towards goals. Summarizes key indicators with regards to program and financial outcomes.
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impact investing
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investments made into companies, organizations, and funds with the intention to generate measurable social and environmental impact alongside a financial return
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logic model
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a theorhetical explanation of the links all the way through the process from inputs to outcomes.
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When designing a logic model, what basic elements should be represented and why?
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inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes. Because you are step by step explaining logically what it is that you will be providing and how you will accomplish your end goal (outcomes)
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Why are logic models important?
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a logic model makes clear who will be served, what should be accomplished, and specifically how it will be done
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pension protection act of 2006
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focused on the reform of pensions, BUT includes changing laws about giving
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social return on investment (SROI)
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a way to put a dollar figure on the social value created by nonprofits. Generates a single number (in dollars) that could be used as an indicator of the organization’s performance and value.
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statistical benchmarking
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stats on client outcomes across a group of organizations providing services to individuals with similar problems, highlighting strengths and weaknesses to be analyzed
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brand attributes
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name or logos that are shorthand for a collection of perceived qualities of the organizationi or its products
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brand promise
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expectations that YOU have about what YOU will recieve when you buy a specific product
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brand equity
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a positive brand image with monetary value
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integrated marketing communication (IMC)
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building a positive and consistent brand image requires an organization to integrate is marketing and communication efforts
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What makes a message effective?
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CRAM communication, promise reward, inspire action, stick in memory
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advertising
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bringing product or services to attention of potential and current customers
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promotion
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keeps product in minds of the customers and helps stimulate demand for product. involves ongoing publicity and advertising
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public relations
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ongoing activities to ensure coman has strong public image and helps public understand company and its products. often conducted through media
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publicity
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mention in media and organization has very little control over what the writer/reporter will say
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Why marketing?
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nonprofits compete with others hand in hand in raising funds, advocating, and for peoples time and money
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no quid pro quo
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nonprogits do not charge for services/goods at market rates
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What are the other “P”‘s
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planning- helping achebe its strategic goal positioning- becoming widely known so that they can compete with market perserverance- how much effort they put in
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cost oriented pricing
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price charged to customer or client is set to cover only what it cost the nonprofit to provide or produce
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competitive anaylsis
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look at competing organizations to develop a price
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value based
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consideration of what may be perceived value to the customer, which may or may not be closely related to the cost of production ( no quid pro quo)
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price discrimination
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market strategy charging different prices based on which market sector they belong to based on objective variables ( sliding scale) (income, neighborhoods, jobs, social class)
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tarket marget
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group who will utilize nonprofit looks at dempographics, geography, behavioral, and psychographic
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psychographic
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dempgraphic data variables combined wiht knowledge about individuals lifestyle
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niche market
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the subset of the larger tarket market on which a specific product is focusing on strongest market
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What is the difference between a goal, objective, and outcome?
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goals- what you want the expected outcome to be objective- specific, quantified targets that represent steps towards accomplishing a goal ( increase (something) from (some number) to (another number) by a (deadline)) outcome- the actual results (positively and negatively defined)
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Identify and define the different types of goals that an organization can utilize?
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program thrusts: those that go to services that the organization provides institutional concerns: matters that need to be addressed to build more effective oraganization (capacity, culture) financial goals- have to do with recources (money, funding, time, services, supplies)
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What is the difference between organizational performance, organizational effectiveness, and organizational efficiency?
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organizational performance- how the organization is opertated and measured organizational effectiveness- mesures acheivement against mission, and encompasses concepts such as efficiency, productivity, and quality organizational efficiency- measure of the proportion of resources used to produce outputs or attain inputs-cost ratios
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What are the basic steps in a strategic planning model?
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-Plan to plan -clarify the organization’s mission, values, and vision -assess the situation -indentify the strategic issues or questions that need to be addressed -develop goals, strategies, and an objective write and communicate the plan -develop operational/implementation plans -execute the plan -evaluate results
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What are the different types of plans that a nonprofit can utilize?
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Why is the Strategies Matrix an important model for nonprofit organizations to consider
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It provides nonprofits with an oppertunity to recognize patterns that may help clarify thinking about each spefific program and also about the relation ship of its portfolio to its mission as an organization.
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What is a SWOT Analysis?
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Havard policy model. The purpose is to develop a comparison between organization’s own strenthgs and weakness and the oppertunities and threats facig it in the external environment, in order to identify the strategic issues that need to be addressed. S-strengths W-weaknesses O-oppertunities T-threats
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Why is brand awareness important for a nonprofit organization?
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It allows for people to differentiate that organization’s products or services from other non profits in the market.

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