Nomenclature & Formula Writing

metals want to…
lose electrons
non-metals want to…
gain electrons
types of compounds

  1. ionic (salts)
  2. covalent (molecules)
  3. acids

Cations

  1. have lost electrons
  2. + charge

anions

  1. have extra electrons
  2. – charge

ammonium
NH4+1
hydrogen
H+1
Lithium
Li+1
potassium
K+1
silver
Ag+1
Cuprous
Cu+1
mercurous
Hg+1
Sodium
Na+1
Barium
Ba+2

Calcium

Ca+2
Chromium
Cr+2
Cobalt
Co+2
Cupric
Cu+2
Ferrous
Fe+2
Lead
Pb+2
Magnesium
Mg+2
Mercury
Hg+2
Nickel
Ni+2
Stannous
Sn+2
zinc
Zn+2
aluminum
Al+3

arsenic

As+3
Chromic
Cr+3
Cobaltic
Co+3
Feric
Fe+3
cerium
Ce+4
plumbic
Pb+4
Stannic
Sn+4
titanium
Ti+4
ion
a charged particle or a group of atoms that has a charge
acetate
C2H3O2-1
bromate
BrO3-1
bromide
Br-1
chlorate
ClO3-1
chloride

Cl-1

chlorite
ClO2-1
cyanate
CNO-1
cyanide
CN-1
fluoride
F-1
hydride
H-1
hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate
HCO3-1
hydroxide
OH-1
hypochlorite
ClO-1
Iodate
IO3-1
iodide
I-1

nitrate

NO3-1
nitrite
NO2-1
perchlorate
ClO4-1
permanganate
MnO4-1
thiocyanate
SCN-1

benzoate

C6H3CO2-1
carbonate
CO3-2
chromate
CrO4-2
dichromate
Cr2O7-2
monohydrogen phosphate
HPO4-2
oxalate
C2O4-2
oxide
O-2
peroxide
O2-2
sulfate
SO4-2
sulfide
S-2
sulfite
SO3-2
thiosulfate
S2O3-2
ferricyanide
FeCn6-3
nitride
N-3
phosphate
PO4-3
ferrocyanide
FeCN6-4
ionic substances

  1. metals + non-metals
  2. end in -ide, -ite, or -ate
  3. no di-, tri- except for dichromate
  4. cation + anion

covalent substances

  1. all non-metals (usually)
  2. uses di-, tri-. tetra-
  3. ends in -ide

acids

  1. all start with hydrogen + anion
  2. when hydrogen is the anion, it’s an acid
  3. if the salt WOULD BE -ide…Hrydo;;;;;;;;; ic acid
  4. if the salt WOULD BE -ite…;;;;;;;; ous acid
  5. if the salt WOULD BE -ate…;;;;;;;; ic acid

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