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Network+ Chapter 1

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A+
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The professional certification established by CompTIA that verifies knowledge about PC operation, repair, and management.
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access server
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See remote access server.
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address
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A number that uniquely identifies each workstation and device on a network. Without unique _____, computers on the network could not reliably communicate.
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address management
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The process of centrally administering a finite number of network addresses for an entire LAN. Usually this task can be accomplished without touching the client workstations.
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addressing
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The scheme for assigning a unique identifying number to every workstation and device on the network. The type of ____ used on a network depends on its protocols and network operating system.
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asset management
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The process of collecting and storing data on the number and types of software and hardware assets in an organization’s network. The data collection is automated by electronically examining each network client from a server.
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backbone
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The part of a network to which segments and significant shared devices (such as routers, switches, and servers) connect. Also sometimes referred to as “a network of networks” because of its role in interconnecting smaller parts of a LAN or WAN.
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backing up
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The process of copying critical data files to a secure storage area. Often, performed according to a formulaic schedule.
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CCIE (Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert)
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An elite certification that recognizes expert-level installation, configuration, management, and troubleshooting skills on networks that use a range of Cisco Systems’ devices.
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CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate)
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A professional certification that attests to one’s skills in installing, configuring, maintaining, and troubleshooting medium-sized networks that use Cisco Systems’ switches and routers.
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certification
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The process of mastering material pertaining to a particular hardware system, operating system, programming language, or other software program, then proving your mastery by passing a series of exams.
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Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert
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See CCIE.
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Cisco Certified Network Associate
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See CCNA.
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client
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A computer on the network that requests resources or services from another computer on a network. In some cases, a ____ could also act as a server. The term may also refer to the user of a ____ workstation or a ____ software application installed on the workstation.
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client/server architecture
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A network design in which client computers use a centrally administered server to share data, data storage space, and devices.
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client/server network
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A network that uses centrally administered computers, known as servers, to enable resource sharing for and to facilitate communication between the other computers on the network.
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CompTIA (Computing Technology Industry Association)
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An association of computer resellers, manufacturers, and training companies that sets industry-wide standards for computer professionals. ____ established and sponsors the A+ and Network+ (Net+) certification.
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Computing Technology Industry Association
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See CompTIA.
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connectivity device
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One of several types of specialized devices that allows two or more networks or multiple parts of one network to connect and exchange data.
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convergence
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The use of data networks to carry voice (or telephone), video, and other communications services in addition to data.
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file server
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A specialized server that enables clients to share applications and data across the network.
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file services
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The functions of a file server that allow users to share data files, applications, and storage areas.
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host
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A computer that enables resource sharing by other computers on the same network.
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Internet
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A complex WAN that connects LANs and clients around the globe.
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Internet services
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The services that enable a network to communicate with the Internet, including Web servers and browsers, file transfer capabilities, Internet addressing schemes, security filters, and a means for directly logging on to other computers.
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LAN (local area network)
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A network of computers and other devices that is confined to a relatively small space, such as one building or even one office.
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license tracking
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The process of determining the number of copies of a single application that are currently in use on the network and whether the number in use exceeds the authorized number of licenses.
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load balancing
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The process of distributing data transfer activity evenly so that no single device is overwhelmed.
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local area network
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See LAN.
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mail server
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A server that manages the storage and transfer of e-mail messages.
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mail services
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The network services that manage the storage and transfer or e-mail between users on a network. In addition to sending, receiving, and storing mail, ____ can include filtering, routing, notification, scheduling, and data exchange with other mail servers.
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MAN (metropolitan area network)
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A network that is larger than a LAN, typically connecting clients and servers from multiple buildings, but within a limited geographic area. For example, a ____ could connect multiple city government buildings around a city’s center.
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management services
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The network services that centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on the network. Examples include license tracking, security auditing, asset management, address management, software distribution, traffic monitoring, load balancing, and hardware diagnosis.
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MCITP (Microsoft Certified IT Professional)
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A professional certification established by Microsoft that demonstrates in-depth knowledge about Microsoft products.
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metropolitan area network
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See MAN.
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Microsoft Certified IT Professional
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See MCITP.
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motherboard
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The main circuit board that controls a computer.
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network
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A group of computers and other devices (such as printers) that are connected by and can exchange data via some type of transmission media, such as a cable, a wire, or the atmosphere.
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network adapter
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See NIC. (Different Name)
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Network+ (Net+)
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The professional certification established by CompTIA that verifies broad, vendor-independent networking technology skills, such as an understanding of protocols, topologies, networking hardware, and networking troubleshooting.
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network interface card
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See NIC. (Spelled out)
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network operating system
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See NOS.
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network services
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The functions provided by a network.
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NIC (network interface card)
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The device that enables a workstation to connect to the network and communicate with other computers. They are manufactured by several different companies and come with a variety of specifications that are tailored to the workstation’s and the network’s requirements. Also called network adapters.
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node
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A computer or other device connected to a network, which has a unique address and is capable of sending or receiving.
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NOS (network operating system)
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The software that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The most popular are UNIX, Linux, and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2.
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P2P network
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See peer-to-peer network.
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packet
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A discrete unit of information sent from one node on a network to another.
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peer-to-peer network
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A network in which every computer can communicate directly with every other computer. By default, no computer on network has more authority than another. However, each computer can be configured to share only some of its resources and keep other resources inaccessible to other nodes on the network.
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print services
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The network service that allows printers to be shared by several users on a network.
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protocol
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A standard method or format for communication between network devices. For example, some ensure that data are transferred in sequence and without error from one node on the network to another. Others ensure that data belonging to a Web page are formatted to appear correctly in a Web browser window.
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remote access server
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A server that runs communications services that enable remote users to log on to a network.
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remote user
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A person working on a computer on a different network or in a different geographical location from the LAN’s server.
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resources
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The devices, data, and data storage space provided by a computer, whether stand-alone or shared.
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restoring
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The process of retrieving files from a backup. It is necessary to perform this task if the original files are lost or deleted.
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scalable
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The property of a network that allows you to add nodes or increase its size easily.
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security auditing
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The process of evaluating security measures currently in place on a network and notifying the network administrator if a security breach occurs.
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segment
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A part of a network. Usually, composed of a group of nodes that share the same communications channel for all their traffic.
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server
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A computer on the network that manages shared resources. Usually have more processing power, memory, and hard disk space than clients. They run network operating software that can manage not only data, but also users, groups, security, and applications on the network.
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sneakernet
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A way of exchanging data between computers that are not connected on a network. The term was coined before the widespread use of networks, when data was copied from a computer to a removable storage device, carried to another computer, then copied from the storage device onto the second computer.
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soft skills
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The skills such as customer relations, oral and written communications, dependability, teamwork, and leadership abilities, which are not easily measured, but are nevertheless important in a networking career.
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software distribution
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The process of automatically transferring a data file or installing a software application from the server to a client on the network.
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spam
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Unsolicited, unwanted e-mail.
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stand-alone computer
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A computer that uses applications and data only from its local disks and that is not connected to a network.
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topology
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The physical layout of computers on a network.
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traffic
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The data transmission and processing activity taking place on a computer network at any given time.
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traffic monitoring
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The process of determining how much data transfer activity is taking place on a network or network segment and notifying administrators when a segment becomes overloaded.
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transmission media
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The means through which data are transmitted and received. May be physical, such as wire or cable, or wireless, such as radio waves.
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unified communications
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The centralized management of multiple types of network-based communications, such as voice, video, fax, and messaging service.
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user
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A person who uses a computer.
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WAN (wide area network)
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A network that spans a long distance and connects two or more LANs.
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Web server
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A computer that manages Web site services, such as supplying a Web page to multiple users on demand.
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wide area network
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See WAN
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workstation
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A computer that runs a desktop operating system and connects to a network.
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A: Stand-alone computer
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Q: What type of computer is not connected to other computers and uses software applications and data stored on its local disks?
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A: resources
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Q: Devices and data are collectively known as the network’s ________ .
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A: They are simple to configure.
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Q: What is an advantage of peer-to-peer networks?
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A: Scalability
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Q: What describes the ease with which one can add computers and other devices to a client/server network?
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A: WAN
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Q: The Internet is the largest and most varied ________ in the world.
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A: Server
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Q: What type of computer runs network operating system software?
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A: nodes
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Q: Usually, a segment is composed of a group of ________ that use the same communications channel for all their traffic.
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A: File services
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Q: What enables a server to share data files, application, and disk storage space?
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A: Unified communications
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Q: What is the centralized management of multiple network-based communications?
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A: A+
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Q: If you want to become a PC technician, you should attain ________ certification.