Mythology and Folklore

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Most myths are based in religion or on supernatural events.
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True
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Like myths, legends are narratives that tell the story of supernatural beings.
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False
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One purpose of a myth is to explain the customs, beliefs, and traditions of an existing society.
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True
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Which of the following is a characteristic of folktales?
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They do not have a single, identifiable author, They reflect the culture from which they come, They contain universal themes. (All of these are characteristics of folktales)
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Myths take place in more recent times, so that there is a written record of them.
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False
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To caution someone about a dangerous situation, you might read a___________.
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morality tale
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A short story that clearly illustrates a lesson and usually includes an animal as the main character is___________.
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a fable
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Narratives that tell the story of a mortal person and his/her actions, and are passed down from generation to generation and eventually written, are called___________.
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legends
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The origin of a myth is usually unknown.
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True
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Legends are based on figures in history, so we know that they are true.
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False
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A myth that explains the spots on the moon is called a[n] ___________.
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nature myth
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Most myths have their basis in___________.
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supernatural events
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Myths that seek to explain how the earth came to be, usually through the death of a god or an animal, are___________.
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creation myths
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A myth that is like a “family tree” in that it explains the relationships between gods and creatures is called a[n] ___________.
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theogenic myth
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While typically told to young children, fairy tales actually have sophisticated meanings, including metaphors for the battle between good and evil.
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True
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The origin of which oral tradition is usually unknown?
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myths, legends, folktales (All of these)
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The word “myth” comes from the Greek word mythos, which means “false.”
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False
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The main characters in myths were usually___________.
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gods
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Mythical Amazons were allowed to procreate once a year, and all children that resulted from that event were treasured members of the Amazon community
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False
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One explanation for the Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, is the mourning cry of the Valkyries over the dead on the battlefield.
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False
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Celtic women played an integral role in public life. They could__________.
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serve as diplomats, mediators, and judges, choose the man they wished to marry, own and inherit property independent of their husbands (all of these)
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Like many women in early cultures, Viking women were considered the property of their husband.
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False
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The Celtic warrior-queen Boudica led the British uprising against the Romans in the first century because__________.
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the Roman soldiers took all of her dead husband’s property and property of other Iceni leaders, the Romans public stripped and beat her, Roman soldiers raped her daughters (all of these)
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The Norse warrior woman, Freydis Eriksdotter, was said to have been a fierce warrior. She reportedly____________:
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single-handedly turned back Vinland natives who were at war with the Norse
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Women warriors and warrior goddesses have a strong sense of honor that molds them into saviors.
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True
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The fate of male children born to the mythical Amazons included__________.
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abandoned to die in the wilderness, sent to their fathers to be raised (both A and C)
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In Celtic mythology and folklore, pre-Christian Celtic goddesses were described as having two natures, both of whom could bestow great power. These natures were __________.
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beautiful and hag-like
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The Dahomey Amazons originated as a__________.
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group of elephant hunters
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The genre of art that depicts the actions of mythical Amazons is__________.
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Amazonomachy
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Which of the following statements does NOT represent events from the Franco-Dahomean War in the late 1800s?
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The French soldiers immediately attacked the Dahomey Amazons.
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A tribe of women warriors who were rumored to have had their right breast amputated so that they could more easily throw a spear or wield a bow were__________.
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Amazons
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Celtic goddesses often took the form of a__________.
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crow or raven
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Celtic warrior-queen Boudica led the Britons against the Romans in the first century A.D., and succeeded in killing 400 Roman soldiers.
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True
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Archetypes change according to the culture the hero story originated in, but the hero’s weapons, magic, and religious beliefs are usually the same in all cultures.
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False
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During which part of the hero’s quest does the hero have a final showdown between life and death?
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The Resurrection
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Signs of greatness usually do not emerge until a hero has reached adulthood.
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False
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Who is the mythologist who first used the term monomyth in regards to the universal hero storyline?
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Campbell, Joseph
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Hero tales can be found in every large culture, but are rarely found in smaller ones.
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False
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The hero’s quest is lateral, and he often ends up far from where he began once the quest is complete.
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True
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Which of the following heroes was conceived by a drop of buffalo blood?
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Kutoyis
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Hero myths are always purely based on fiction.
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False
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Which of the following heroes was raised by a guardian for his own safety?
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King Arthur
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Which of the following heroes did NOT have to perform a specific task only he could accomplish?
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Odysseus
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Which of the following archetypes is often portrayed as an animal?
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The Trickster
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_______ archetype poses as an ally.
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The Shapeshifter
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What did the boy Krishna do to prove his bravery?
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Subdued a great water serpent
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A monomyth is a universal myth that speaks to all humankind.
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True
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Psychiatrist Carl Jung believed humans possess a universal collective unconscious that is revealed in the similarities seen in world myths.
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True
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A poem or song that tells the story of a hero’s adventure is called a(n) ____?
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Epic
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Legends are simpler than folk tales and more regional in nature.
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False
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How might the elixir the hero returns with help the people of his land?
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It brings knowledge, It brings peace, It brings healing (All of these are correct)
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The _______________ marks the beginning of the hero’s journey.
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Crossing of the Threshold
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Which of the following is NOT true of the human psyche?
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There is little similarity between cultures
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What calendar is the Chinese Zodiac based on?
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Lunar
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Where did the Brer Rabbit tales originate?
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The United States
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What does a totem represent?
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A clan’s ancestry
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Bats can represent both good luck and revenge depending on the cultures myths.
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True
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Which of the following is an example of a Cryptid?
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Yeti
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According to Japanese legend what creature was used as the foundation of the earth?
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The Trout
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The animals of the Greek Zodiac competed in a race to determine what order they would be placed.
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False
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Which of these characters is an example of an antagonist?
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The Big Bad Wolf
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Shape shifters always have evil intentions towards humankind.
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False
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Which animal often symbolizes death in myths and legends?
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Raven
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Birds of myths and legends are often mediators between the gods and humankind.
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True
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What is the name of the literary element used to give human attributes to animals?
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Personification
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Animals play many different parts in myths and legends.
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True
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Cryptid legends exist all over the world.
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True
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When of the following cryptids resemble a large man or ape?
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The Yeti of the Himalayas, The Yeren of China, The Yowei of Australia (All of the above are correct)
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Which deity often transforms into the form of an owl?
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Athena
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Which of these is NOT an animal represented n the Chinese Zodiac?
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Scorpion
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Lord Vishnu, of Indian myth, slept in the coils of the great Rainbow Serpent before forming the earth.
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False
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Myths and legends unite cultures by giving people a shared purpose and common belief.
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True
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The Nuremberg Chronicle tells the history of the world based on the sacred myths in the Bible.
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True
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What place is the origin of the volcano legend attributing eruptions to a deity’s bad temper?
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Hawaii
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What is Polytheism?
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The belief in more than one god
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Christianity, Buddism, and Hinduism are all examples of what kind of myth?
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Sacred Myths
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Pagan myths are usually characterized by omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent deities.
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False
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Fu Xi and his sister were the only survivors after a great earthquake.
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False
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What did the eight trigrams represent according to the I-Ching?
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The Powers of Nature
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“Place and Object” myths exist in monotheistic and polytheistic societies.
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True
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Which of the following books tells the history of the world through a biblical view?
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The Nuremberg Chronicle
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What drink gave immortality to those who drank it?
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Nectar
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What is Valhalla made of?
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Spears and shields
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Which of the following myths explain the natural world?
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Primitive Myths
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Which natural event is attributed to the spirits of the dead playing football with a walrus skull?
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Aurora borealis
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Which culture believed their leaders were the embodiment of a god?
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Egyptian
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When children play make-believe, they are often dramatizing myths and legends.
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True
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What does ethnogenesis refer to?
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A common ancestry
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Bogeyman legends were created to frighten children.
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False
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Which two cultures believed their royal families were descendents of the sun deity?
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Japanese and Incan
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Myths and legends unite cultures by giving people a shared purpose and common belief.
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True
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The worship of a god who is omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent is called?
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Monotheism
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The Chinese trace their ancestral line to the Avatar of Manu.
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False
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Freya, queen of the Valkyries, often comforted those who were dying and helped ease their passing into Valhalla. What is Valhalla?
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the Norse hall that houses the souls of those who died in battle
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Heroes often resist their initial call due to their own insecurities or because they do not want to leave their familiar surroundings in search of the unknown.
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True
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In a fairy tale, you will often find___________.
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something related to the number three
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At what stage do the hero and his men regain their strength?
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Approach to the Inmost Cave
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A Spartan woman’s life revolved around marriage and production of children.
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False
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Freydis Eiriksdottir was a daughter of Erik the Red, the Norseman who was associated with the exploration of North America.
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True
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Myths in which creation begins with an animal bringing mud up from the bottom of the ocean are called earth-diver tales.
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True
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Valkyries were daughters of the Norse god Odin, and their purpose was to__________
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fly over battlefields and choose the souls of the dead to carry to heaven
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A literary archetype who protects and defends against all enemies is called a(n)__________.
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warrior
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Which world tree only produces fruit every three thousand years?
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Chinese Tree of Life
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Comparative mythology is the study of myths from different cultures in order to find the differences.
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False
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What are some of the serpent themes found in sacred myths?
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All of the above
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Particularists search for similarities in myths and comparativists search for differences in myths.
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False
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Mythemes were first identified by Levi Strauss.
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True
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Which of the following look for patterns in history that help them predict events in the modern sky?
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Historic Astrologers
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Flood stories can be found in almost every culture.
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True
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According to Greek Legend, Pandora let evil into the world on purpose.
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False
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Which creature is used symbolically in most world religions?
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Serpent
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What is the Ethnologue?
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Comprehensive list of languages
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Which of the following traces stories, themes, and words back to their roots?
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Comparative Mythologists
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Myths evolve over the years to reflect changes in society and the cultures that adopt them.
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True
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Which culture had serpents guarding the secrets of the gods?
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Greek
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Which of the following themes is NOT a balanced theme often found in comparative religions?
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Hopelessness and despair
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Zeus, Jupiter, and Dyaus all can be traced to a common root.
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True
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Which deity had a helmet that makes him invisible?
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Hades
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Which civilization’s myths refer to the Tablet of Destinies?
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Mesopotamian
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The Fields of Hetep and Iaru is the Greek version of the afterlife.
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False
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The term Ragarnok means “Blessing of the Gods”.
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False
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What was the purpose of the Olympic Games?
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To honor Zeus
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Both Greek men and women competed in the Olympic games.
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False
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The Flower Wars were “fought” specifically to get human sacrifices for their gods.
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True
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Which of these ancient sources contain the Babylonian creation myth?
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Enuma Elish
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The Norse Universe is divided into three levels.
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True
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According to Mesopotamian mythology, the earth rose from Nu, a swirly watery chaos.
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False
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The themes of the Aztec mythological system are duality, predetermined fate, and sacrifice.
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True
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Amon-Ra was the god of the underworld in Egyptian mythology.
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False
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Which poem describes the origin of the gods in Greek mythology?
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Theogony
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Which three brothers are the three main rulers of Greek mythology?
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Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades
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What is Ragnarok?
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An apocalyptic prophecy
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The Japanese government abandoned their research of the Dragon’s Triangle after a research ship and its crew disappeared.
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True
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What might cause ships to sink quickly and without warning in the Bermuda Triangle?
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Methane gas pockets
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Which floor will you not find on most skyscrapers?
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The thirteenth
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Which is NOT true of anecdotal stories?
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They are strongly supported by facts
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Which of the following lost cities has been discovered?
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Malhabalipurim
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What is the most likely cause of the strange occurrences in the Dragon’s Triangle?
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Underwater volcanoes
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What famous explorer was executed for trying to find El Dorado?
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Sir Walter Raleigh
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Which unknown creature was discovered in Hawaii?
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The megamouth shark
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The urban legend of the car thief is an example of what theme?
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A Cautionary Tale
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The Bermuda Triangle and the Devil’s Sea are both included in the Vile Vortices.
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True
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What term did Bernard Heuvelmans coin?
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Cryptozoology
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Superstitions help people to feel like they have an element of control in life.
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True
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The Kraken of nautical legend has not been discovered yet.
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False
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The Vile Vortices are all located around the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer.
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False
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According to the Prophecy of Shambhala, the closer a traveler gets to the mythical city, the more difficult it becomes to find.
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True

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