Myers, Psychology 9e Prologue

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introspection
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To study inner sensations, images, and feelings, Edward Titchener engaged people in self-reflective
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functionalism
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Which school of psychology was most clearly concerned with the adaptive value of complex mental processes?
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physiologist and philosopher.
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Wilhelm Wundt was both a
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humanistic psychology.
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The growth potential of healthy people was emphasized by
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cognitive neuroscience.
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A study of the relationship between reasoning capacities and brain functions would be of most direct interest to
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scientific
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The suggestion that psychology is less a set of facts than a method of evaluating ideas best highlights the ________ character of psychology.
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nature and nurture
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In debating the origins of human traits, Plato and Aristotle disagreed about the relative importance of
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Charles Darwin.
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The importance of inherited behavioral traits was most clearly highlighted by
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behavior genetics
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Professor Reed attempts to assess the relative contributions of heredity and home environment on children’s susceptibility to depression. Her research best illustrates the concerns of the ________ perspective.
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neuroscience
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Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the links between hormone levels and sexual motivation?
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psychodynamic
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Focusing on the extent to which personality is influenced by motives outside our own awareness is most relevant to the ________ perspective.
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social-cultural
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The marriage rituals of different ethnic groups are of most relevance to the _______ perspective.
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developmental
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Professor Helms conducts basic research on the progressive changes in infants’ perceptual skills during the first year of life. Professor Helms is most likely a ________ psychologist.
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clinical
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Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety. Dr. Stevens is most likely a ________ psychologist.
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study method.
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SQ3R is an acronym for an effective
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structuralism
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an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
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functionalism
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a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
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behaviorism
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The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
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humanistic psychology
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historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth
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cognitive neuroscience
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the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
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psychology
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the science of behavior and mental processes
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nature-nurture issue
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the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from interaction of nature and nurture
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natural selection
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the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
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levels of analysis
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the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
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biopsychosocial approach
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an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
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basic research
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pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
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applied research
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scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
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counseling psychology
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a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
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clinical psychology
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a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
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psychiatry
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a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy

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