mycology study guide

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Microsporum audouini
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produces antler and raquet shaped hyphae; fluorescent with woods lamp
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trichophyton mentagrophytes
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produce perpendicular peg-like invasion of hair shaft
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rhizopus
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produce rhizoids
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aspergillus fumigatus
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produce opportunistic infection in neutropenic patients
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cryptococcus neoformans
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turns brown on birdseed agar, budding yeast; capsules stained with india ink
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histoplasma capsulatum
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yeast cells may be seen within monocytes and macrophages
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microsporum gypseum
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produce rough, thick walled, spindle shaped macroconidia; hair and skin infection
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candida albicans
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produce in germ tube in 3 hours. blastoconidia, hyphae, pseudophyphae.
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epidermophyton floccosum
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\”Beaver tail\” macrocondia
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paracoccidiodes brasiliensis
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produce \”mariners wheel\”, \”lollypop\” or \”mickey mouse\” budding yeast at 37 degrees C
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sprothrix schenckii
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\”daisy head\” flowerettes, rose gardeners disease, nodules along infected lymph ducts
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fonsecaea
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\”cauliflower\” like skin lesions, dark septte hyphae, primary, secondary, tertiary
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coccidioides immitis
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inhaled barrel shaped arthoconidia
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trichophyton tonsurans
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endothrix hair invasion
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pseudallescheria boydii
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hyaline, septate hyphae, produce cleistothecia (closed) sacs filled with ascospores
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blastomyces dermiditis
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yeast in tissue produce large double contoured walls
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trichophyton rubrum
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red pigment on potato dextrose agar
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phialophora verrucosa
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produce subcutaneous chromoblastomycosis
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pneumocystis jiroveci
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cyst cell walls found in bronchial samples stain black or fluoresce w calcofluor white
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geotricum
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from arthoconidia singly or in chains or branched
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protozoa
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eukaryotic and unicellular
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protozoa multiply this way
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binary fission
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throphozoites are
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motile, reproducing, feeding, lower GI tract; ID’d by nuclei, size, inclusions and motility
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cyst stage is
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non-feeding, non-motile, infectious stage; ID by nuclear structure, size shape, # of nuclei, inclusions
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entamoeba histolytica causes
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amebic dysentery
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E. histolytica cysts have how many nuclei
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1,2 or 4, cigar shaped chromatoid body are central and have bull-eye karysome
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E. Histolytica trphozoites have how many nuclei
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only one, may have residual red cell in nucleus
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entamoeba hartmanni cyst have how many nuclei
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1,2 or 4 with central karyosome, chromatoid body
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Entamoeba coli cyst has how many nuclei
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1-8 nuclei eccentric karyosome, splinter shape chromatin
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Giardia lamblia trophozoite
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2 nuclei, median body, suckling disk, 8 flagella, axonmes, falling leaf motility
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giardia lamblia cyst
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up to 4 nuclei
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trichomonas vaginalis throphozites
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single nuclei, 4 anterior flagella, axostyle, undulating membrane
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trichomonas vaginalis cyst
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no cyst form
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trypanosoma cruzi causes
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chagas disease, ruduviid bug bite, then infects with feces
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diagnostic stages of T. cruzi in humans
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amastigote stage in muscle and trypomastigote form in blood with terminal kinetoplast
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plasmodium sp. (malaria)
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members of sporozoa, from mosquitoes, obligate endoparasitic protozoa, non-motile, ID by trophozoites, schionts and gametocytes in blood, thick and think smears used
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plasmodum vivax
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48 hour paroxysmal cycle, schuffners dots, 12-24 merozoites, gamete fill cell
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plasmodium falciparum
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malignant malaria, irregular life cycle, small delicate, double chromatin dots, crescent shaped gametocyts
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plasmodium malariae
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72 hour cycle, band form of trophozoite, 8 \”daisy-petal\” merozoites in schizont
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plasmodium ovale
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red cell has fringed edge, schuffners dots, resembles P. vivax
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toxoplasma gondii
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reside in cats, dangerous if crosses placenta, crencent shaped bradyzoites in body fluid, inactive cyst in muscle
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crytosopridum parvum
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attatches to intestinal mucosa and invades host, small; confused with yeast or RBC, fluorescent staining, think milwaukee
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cyclospora cayetanensis
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important to differentiate from c.parvum, acquired from imported fruits and veggies, immature oocysts found in feces
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dematiaceous hyphae
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darkly pigmented due to presence of melanin in the cell wall
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hyaline hyphae
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non-pigmented or light
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diamorphic fungi
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either yeast or mold from depending on growth environment, mold room temp and yeast at 37 degrees C with CO2
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class zygomycetes
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mucor and rhizopus, aseptate, produce asexual sporangiospores or sexual zygospores
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class ascomycetes
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produce sexual ascopores, or asexual condida, includes; microsporum, trichophyton, and pseudoallescheria
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class basidioycetes
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mushrooms, puff balls; usually non-pathogenic; include crytpcoccus neoformans
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class duteromycetes
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imperfect; no sexual form, common human pathogen causing cutaneous, subcutaneous, and systematic disease
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KOH prep
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10% KOH on glass slide add heat, skin, nail, hair. breaks down keratin so fungi can be seen. add (dimethyl sulfoxide) no heat reaquired
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calcofluor white stain
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chitin, cellulose in cell walls of funi bind to calcoflur white stain; fluoresces blue-white to apple green under UV light
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lacto-phenol cotton blue prep
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lactic acid preserves fungal structures, phenol kills fungus, and gotton blue stains fungus
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india ink prep
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provides black background for encapsulated organisms, equal volume of stain and CSF, used on cyptococcus neoformans
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sabourauds dextrose agar
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w or w/out anibiotics, all purpose, high sugar and pH (5.7); cycloheximide addes to inhibit growth of environmental fungi, gentamicin/chloramphenicol inhibit bacteria
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brain heart infusion agar with blood
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used for fastidious fungi, room temp
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potato dextrose agar
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potato infusion with destrose, special media used for pigment production
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cornmeal agar w/tween 80
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chlamydospore formation by c. ablicans, use coverslip
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chromogenic agar
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C. albicans=green C. tropicalis=metallic blue C. krusei=rose
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trichophyton agars 1-7
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T1 agar- no thiamine T4 agar- rich in thiamine T. tonsurans requres thiamine to grow so no growth on T1 agar
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media used to identify dermatophytes
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potato dextrose agar
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4 types diamorphic fungi
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blastomyces dermatidis, paracoccidiodomysis brasilersis, histoplasma capsulatum and coccidiomycosis immitis

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