Music appreciation midterm

The loudness or softness of a pitch is called its __________ level
Dynamic
A faster rate of vibration causes a higher pitch, and a slower rate of vibration causes a lower pitch.
True
The term piano means a soft level of volume.
True
Intervals have number names.
True
The rate of vibration of sound waves is called
Frequency
A musical staff has
5 lines and 4 spaces
The musical term referring to the distance between two tones is
Interval
The highness or lowness of a sound is called its
Pitch
Rhythm refers to the arrangement of
Long and short sounds
Duple meter has __________ beats per measure.
Two
Quadruple meter has __________ beats per measure.
Four
The __________ is an instrument that helps composers indicate the tempo of a composition.
Metronome
Rests indicate
Measured silence
Meter refers to the organization of rhythm into
metrical patterns of strong and weak beats.
Triple meter has __________ beats per measure.
Three
The rate of speed of a musical composition is its
Tempo
melody is sometimes referred to as a
Tune
A five-tone scale within the range of an octave is called the
Pentatonic
The stopping points that “punctuate” melodic phrases are called
Cadences
The chromatic scale divides the octave into
Half steps
Melodies based on the major or minor scales always lead to and conclude on the
Tonic
The first and last note of either the major or minor scale is called the
Tonic
A recurring melody in a movement, a section of a movement, or an entire composition is called a
Theme
melody with a song-like character is
Lyrical
In music, the opposite of dissonance is
Consonance
The fifth step of a diatonic scale is called the
Dominant
A single, unaccompanied melodic line has a type of texture called
Monophony
The fourth step of a diatonic scale is called the
Subdominant
The system of harmony that has been prevalent in the West for nearly three hundred years is called the __________ system.
Tonal
A texture that involves melody used in two or more lines simultaneously is called
Polyphony
The woodwind family includes the piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, __________, and bassoon.
Clarinet
Percussion instruments that produce definitepitches include the timpani, the chimes, andmallet instruments such as the
xylophone
The four families of instruments within an orchestra are the
strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
The adjusting levers, buttons, or handles on an organ are called
Stops
The quality of sound that is characteristic of a particular voice, instrument, or ensemble is called its
Timbre
An electronic instrument that can produce an unlimited variety of sounds as well as modify sounds produced by other sources is the
Synthesizer
Included in the brass family are the trumpet, ____________, trombone, and tuba
French horn
The instruments in the string family may be played in any of the following ways except
by blowing gently into the sound-hole.
The term __________ means the science of sound.
Acoustics
Much Greek music was __________, or invented and performed simultaneously, and thus never written in musical notation.
Improvised
The Greek doctrine of ____________ concerns the moral and ethical aspects of music.
Ethos
The Greek scales were called
Modes
The cradle of Western civilization was ancient ___________; many aspects of our culture were born and nurtured there.
Greece
The rhythm in Gregorian chant is usually
Free and flexible
In the sixth century CE, __________________ collected, organized, and codified the chants for use by the Christian churches in the Western world?
Pope Gregory
The twelfth- or thirteenth-century English piece “Sumer is icumen in” is an example of a
Canon
The ___________ is the main worship service of the Catholic church.
Mass
The Medieval Era is referred to as the Dark Ages because
it was a chaotic period of social and political unrest.
After the fall of Rome in the fifth century CE, the _________ became the only effective unifying force in the Western world.
Christian church
The most common subject matter for Medieval art is
Religious subjects
Gregorian chant was usually sung in _________, so that all of the voices sang the same melody at the same time unaccompanied by instruments.
Unison
The first complete setting of the entire Ordinary of the Mass by one composer is thought to be the Missa Notre Dame, by ____________, a fourteenth-century poet and musician.
Guillaume de Machaut
The Protestant Reformation erupted in Germany in 1517 when _____________ brought to public attention ninety-five articles of complaint against the church.
Martin luther
Music in the Protestant services established by John Calvin consisted only of _____________ tunes.
Psalm
The invention of movable-type printing by ___________ in 1440 made possible the wide dissemination of new concepts.
Johannes Gutenberg
The Renaissance reflected renewed interest among Europeans in the arts of ancient Greece and Rome.
True
Martin Luther believed that church music should include songs in the vernacular language as well as in Latin, so he introduced a new kind of hymn called a
Chorale
The Catholic group that advocated reforms within the Catholic church and thus launched the Counter Reformation was the
Council of trent
The Renaissance period is known as the Golden Age of
Polyphony
Chorales were __________ in form.
Strophic
___________, known as the “Prince of Music,” was a late Renaissance composer whose conservative church music reflected the values of the Council of Trent.
Palestrina
The use of musical devices to dramatize descriptive words or phrases is called word
Painting
The Netherlands composer, _____________, was considered by his contemporaries to be the greatest composer who had ever lived.
Josquin des Prez
The Renaissance motet had all of the following features except
the parts were usually played on instruments as well as sung.
The Calvinists created the __________ for their worship music.
Psalm tune
In his ninety-five theses presented to the Catholic church, Martin Luther suggested all of the following except
Latin should be eliminated from the service entirely.
The Book of __________ is a collection of 150 songs or poems of praise in the Old Testament of the Bible.
Psalm
John Calvin proposed all of the following reforms of church music except
singing Lutheran chorales.
Each of the following were characteristic of Palestrina’s compositional style except
words that were not clearly understood.
The congregational song or hymn introduced into the worship service by Martin Luther was called the Lutheran
Chorale
The form of a Renaissance motet is
Through-composed
The __________ was a quiet keyboard instrument capable of subtle changes of volume and even a slight vibrato.
Clavichord
The madrigal was like the motet in all of the following ways except
Both had religious texts
The madrigal originated in Italy but soon became very popular in France
False
All of the following instruments required no change in facial expression, could be played in “graceful” positions, and were considered suitable for women to play, except the
Recorder
The most widely used instrument during the sixteenth century was a plucked string instrument called the
Lute
Instrumental ensembles consisting of members of the same instrument family (organized much like vocal choirs, with soprano, alto, tenor, and bass ranges) were called
Consorts
The following are all significant differences between the motet and the madrigal except
The madrigal was written in Latin
One of the greatest performers and composers of Renaissance lute music was
John Dowland
Sixteenth-century Italy introduced a new type of song to the secular repertoire, the
Madrigal
During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the most popular string instrument that was bowed rather than plucked was the
Viol
The term homophony refers to a melody in one voice supported by harmony in the others.
True
The term baroque means distorted or irregular.
True
Eighteenth-century artists described seventeenth-century art as “baroque” because they found it to be
odd, rough, or irregular.
Musicians date the Baroque period from about _____ to about ____.
1600, 1750
Handel’s career as an opera composer made him more dependent on
The support of the public
During the Baroque period, composers developed the ___________ system, in which every note of the major or minor scale bears a specific relationship to every other note.
Tonal
,In the Baroque system of tonality, all of the pitches of a major or minor scale were specifically related to the first note of the scale, or the
Tonic
The date of __________ death (1750) is generally accepted as the end of the Baroque period
Johann Sebastian Bach’s
The text of an opera is called a(n)
Libretto
The composer who suggested that the old and new styles represented the “first” and “second” practices of music was
Claudio Monteverdi.
Although the oratorio shares many characteristics with the opera, its most important difference is its
Religious subject matter
The world’s best-known and best-loved oratorio is Handel’s
Messiah
The epitome of the Baroque composer, __________, was born in Germany, spent considerable time in Italy, and eventually became a British citizen.
George friderick handel
An aria differs from a recitative in
All of the above
The term __________ is Italian for “beautiful singing.”
Bel canto
The term cantata originally meant a piece to be
Sung
What types of instruments were made by the Stradivari and Guarneri families?
Violins
The toccata was frequently followed in performance by a(n)
Fugue
The __________ is an imitative polyphonic composition with two to six melodic lines or “voices.”
Fugue
The short sets of stylized dance pieces for lute or keyboard popular during the Renaissance were expanded in the Baroque to multimovement works called
Suites
A __________ is a relatively short keyboard piece which may be an independent composition or an introduction to another piece or set of pieces.
Prelude
Keyboard players improvised the harmonies using a system of musical shorthand called
Figured bass
A __________ is a showy keyboard piece that exploits the technical brilliance or virtuosity of the performer.
Toccato
A religious keyboard composition based upon the melody of a Lutheran chorale is a chorale
Prelude
__________ was ordained a priest, but spent most of his life as a professional musician.
Vivaldi
Baroque instrumental music
All of the above
The ritornello was most often played by the
Orchestra
In 1912, Schoenberg wrote a __________ calledPierrot Lunaire (The Moonstruck Pierrot).
Song cycle
Post-Romanticism refers to the last stage and aftermath of __________ Romanticism, which was dominant throughout the late nineteenth century.
German
__________, best known for his powerful symphonies, used a huge orchestra and extensive range of orchestral colors.
Gustav mahler
Music in which there is no dominance of or momentum toward a tonic pitch, like that written by Schoenberg, is called
Atonal
__________, a leader of Post-Romantic composers, was strongly influenced by both Romanticism of Wagner and the Classicism of Mozart
Richard Strauss
Schoenberg’s music reflected the influence of the famous Viennese psychologist
Sigmund Freud
__________, an Impressionistic composer, was primarily a classicist who used clearly defined melodic phrases, strong rhythms, and functional harmonies based on traditional key relationships
Maurice Ravel
The first and greatest Impressionistic composer was
Claude Debussy
A late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century musical style that resulted from explorations of the subconscious mind was called
Expressionism
In America, __________ became known as the American Impressionist.
Charles Griffes
The musical masterpiece of Primitivism, Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring), was written by Russian composer
Igor Stravinsky
Charles Ives wrote provocative essays about important literary figures, including Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, and he portrayed some of them musically in his piano composition, the __________ Sonata
Concord
John Cage wrote random music to be “played” by several radios. The title of this composition is
Imaginary Landscape no 1
In The Tides of Mananaun, Henry Cowell introduced ________, groups of randomly selected notes played with the flat of the hand or the arm.
Tone clusters
In the 1940s, John Cage devised an economical means of expanding the range of a piano’s sound by inventing the __________ piano.
Prepared
__________, born in California and reared in an atmosphere that precluded allegiance to musical orthodoxy, loved Chinese music and modal church music, country fiddle tunes, early American hymns, and Irish folk tunes.
Henry Cowell
In the twelve-tone method of composition, all twelve notes within an octave are
arranged into a series, or row that forms the basis of the work.
__________ conducted far-reaching experiments that extended the range of timbres that may be produced by a grand piano
Henry Cowell
,The revolutionaries who have radically altered not only the traditional methods of composing and presenting music, but also the very concept of what constitutes music as opposed to noise are called
Experimentalist
__________ studied composition with three important revolutionaries: Schoenberg, Varèse, and Cowell
John Cage
An inventive nature, plus an unconventional upbringing, destined __________ to become an Experimentalist who made his living selling insurance.
Charles Ives
In addition to his talents as a composer and scholar, Bartók was also an accomplished
Pianist
The first African American composer of Western art music to achieve significant success was
William Grant Still
Bartók’s serious and scientific study of __________ music led him to become one of the first and finest ethnomusicologists.
Folk
The field of __________ is the scientific study of music.
Musicology
The study of music of specific cultures is the science of
Ethnomusicology
Bartók’s __________ are considered the finest since Beethoven’s and are often compared with those of the late Viennese master for their strength and complexity.
String quartets
Philip Glass has evolved a style of music that is sometimes referred to as
In 1912, Schoenberg wrote a __________ calledPierrot Lunaire (The Moonstruck Pierrot).
Song cycle
Post-Romanticism refers to the last stage and aftermath of __________ Romanticism, which was dominant throughout the late nineteenth century.
German
__________, best known for his powerful symphonies, used a huge orchestra and extensive range of orchestral colors.
Gustav mahler
Music in which there is no dominance of or momentum toward a tonic pitch, like that written by Schoenberg, is called
Atonal
__________, a leader of Post-Romantic composers, was strongly influenced by both Romanticism of Wagner and the Classicism of Mozart
Richard Strauss
Schoenberg’s music reflected the influence of the famous Viennese psychologist
Sigmund Freud
__________, an Impressionistic composer, was primarily a classicist who used clearly defined melodic phrases, strong rhythms, and functional harmonies based on traditional key relationships
Maurice Ravel
The first and greatest Impressionistic composer was
Claude Debussy
A late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century musical style that resulted from explorations of the subconscious mind was called
Expressionism
In America, __________ became known as the American Impressionist.
Charles Griffes
The musical masterpiece of Primitivism, Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring), was written by Russian composer
Igor Stravinsky
Charles Ives wrote provocative essays about important literary figures, including Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, and he portrayed some of them musically in his piano composition, the __________ Sonata
Concord
John Cage wrote random music to be “played” by several radios. The title of this composition is
Imaginary Landscape no 1
In The Tides of Mananaun, Henry Cowell introduced ________, groups of randomly selected notes played with the flat of the hand or the arm.
Tone clusters
In the 1940s, John Cage devised an economical means of expanding the range of a piano’s sound by inventing the __________ piano.
Prepared
__________, born in California and reared in an atmosphere that precluded allegiance to musical orthodoxy, loved Chinese music and modal church music, country fiddle tunes, early American hymns, and Irish folk tunes.
Henry Cowell
In the twelve-tone method of composition, all twelve notes within an octave are
arranged into a series, or row that forms the basis of the work.
__________ conducted far-reaching experiments that extended the range of timbres that may be produced by a grand piano
Henry Cowell
,The revolutionaries who have radically altered not only the traditional methods of composing and presenting music, but also the very concept of what constitutes music as opposed to noise are called
Experimentalist
__________ studied composition with three important revolutionaries: Schoenberg, Varèse, and Cowell
John Cage
An inventive nature, plus an unconventional upbringing, destined __________ to become an Experimentalist who made his living selling insurance.
Charles Ives
In addition to his talents as a composer and scholar, Bartók was also an accomplished
Pianist
The first African American composer of Western art music to achieve significant success was
William Grant Still
Bartók’s serious and scientific study of __________ music led him to become one of the first and finest ethnomusicologists.
Folk
The field of __________ is the scientific study of music.
Musicology
The study of music of specific cultures is the science of
Ethnomusicology
Bartók’s __________ are considered the finest since Beethoven’s and are often compared with those of the late Viennese master for their strength and complexity.
String quartets
Philip Glass has evolved a style of music that is sometimes referred to as
Minimalism
The German word for Hindemith’s concept of functional or useful music is
Gebrauchsmusik
Stravinsky’s ballet __________ is often cited as the first work in the Neoclassical style.
Pulcinella
__________ was the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for Music, in 1983
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich
Prokofiev’s Symphony no. 1, the Classical, was intended to sound as if ________ had written it in the twentieth century.
Haydn
Glass’s opera Einstein on the Beachincorporates all but which of the following visual themes into its music:
Beach
Which of the following movie soundtracks was the first electronic film score to win an Academy Award?
Midnight express
The term temp refers to
a temporary score consisting of existing music.
Leonard Bernstein’s musical West Side Story is a modern retelling of Shakespeare’s
Romeo and Juliet
_______________ dominated the musical stage on Broadway and in London during the 1980s and 1990s
Andrew Lloyd Webber
The best-known of all American operas is
Porgy and Bess
The American composer of musicals Stephen Sondheim introduced ___________, which intentionally leave audiences wondering about their meaning and resolution.
Concept musicals
___________ was a pianist, conductor, and composer who made significant contributions to the Broadway musical, most notably West Side Story
Leonard Bernstein
John Williams composed the film scores for all but which of the following films:
He composed all of the above
The music for a movie, called the ________, builds a sense of continuity by filling awkward pauses in action or dialogue.
Film score
The first musical born of the prolific collaboration between Oscar Hammerstein and Richard Rodgers was
Oklahoma
Highly improvisatory, __________ has a fast tempo and a danceable beat, a “big band” version of what the early jazz musicians had been playing all along.
Swing
__________ consists of syncopated melody that was related to a favorite dance called the cakewalk
Rag time
In the 1920s, white musicians first imitated the New Orleans style in what became known as __________ jazz.
Dixieland
Charlie “Bird” Parker and the great jazz trumpet player __________ returned to the early ideals of jazz: improvisation, virtuosity, and close musical interaction within the ensemble.
Dixie Gillespie
__________ was an early jazz soloist whose improvisations on trumpet and cornet combined technical brilliance, melodic inventiveness and extraordinary emotional depth
Louis Armstrong
__________ made swing famous in the mid-1930s.
Benny Goodman
__________ evolved in the American South sometime after the Civil War, as newly emancipated blacks, struggling in a hostile environment, lamented their hard lot in a new form of solo song
The blues
__________ was an important figure in the transition from ragtime to the New Orleans style of jazz
Jelly Roll Morton
Blue notes are variable pitches that occur on all of the following notes of the scale except the
Tonic
The term scatting refers to when a singer
fills the breaks in the lyrics by singing neutral or nonsense syllables.
Boogie-woogie has an improvised, syncopated melody over a distinctive, rhythmic __________ repeated in the bass.
Ostinato
Scott Joplin’s first commercial success was __________ which allowed him to concentrate on his composing.
Maple leaf rag
Although it is closely related to its vocal model, the piano blues, also known as __________, is happy in mood and brisk in tempo.
Boogie-woogie
__________ was an outstanding jazz pianist, big band leader, and arranger who also wrote a number of impressive concert works.
Duke Ellington
In the 1950s, __________ jazz offered a more subdued style with lyrical melodies, using instruments not commonly associated with jazz.
Cool
In 1924, __________ jazz was introduced at a Carnegie Hall concert of jazz-influenced compositions, including George Gershwin’sRhapsody in Blue.
Symphonic
Which of the following techniques did Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington use in his concert jazz compositions?
All of the above
,Ornette Coleman and John Coltrane were among the leaders of __________ jazz in the 1960s.
Free
_________ is often referred to as America’s only truly original music, representative of its personality and soul
Jazz
__________ music combines the instrumentation of concert music with the improvisation of jazz in a manner that preserves the style and integrity of each
Third stream
Which of the following American jazz musicians are known for integrating composition and improvisation in their work?
All of the above