MU 100 master set 4 – Flashcards

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this short, thematic motive recurs fifth. short short long. fate knocking at the door
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which of the following statements about the music heard in this audio section are correct
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mozart
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musical selection is a theme from a symphony composed
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left salzburg 25 popular in prague friends with hadyn
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adult career mozart
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when the music begins new tempo, broken octaves. intro to first ends main theme begins tempo changes suddenly from slow to very fast
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which of the following statements describe what is heard in the music passage in this recording
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independent or the final movement such as a symphony or sonata, abacaba
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rondo form
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symphony no. 40 in g minor
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this musical selection is from mozart's
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a lyric theme in the woodwinds becomes a loud theme in the brass instruments, short short long clarinets trumpets,
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heard in this selection from the SECOND movement of beethoven's fifth symphony
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contains modulations through several keys. uses motives with new emotion meanings. combines motives to create polyphony.
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the development section of a movement in sonata form
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lallardo
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who is the composer of this audio recording and what is the title of the composition
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selection is part of the coda, descending violin melody introduces a new rising theme
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what is heard in this selection from the FIRST movement of beethovens fifth symphony
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minuet followed by the beginning of a trio
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which of the following best describes what is heard in the audio recording
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rondo gypsy, rondo lively easy to remember
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which of the following statements accurately describes this musical selection
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first movement
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this musical selection is from which movement of mozart's symphony no. 40 in G minor
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a hushed mysterious theme is followed by the famous short-short-long rhythm introduced in the first movement
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which of the following statements best describes what is heard in this selection from the THIRD movement of Beethoven's fifth symphony
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bass line new key. entry of the lyric second theme in the exposition following the end of the bridge. the conclusion of the bridge in the exposition of a movement in sonata form.
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which of the following accurately describe what is heard in this selection from mozart's symphony no. 40 in g minor
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trio section of the third movement comes to an end and the minuet returns
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which of the following statements accurately describes this selection form mozart's symphony no. 40 in G minor
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a bridge following the third movement connects with the fourth movement, the trumpets proclaim the main theme of the final movement. woodwinds and strings short short long
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heard in beethoven's fifth symphony (overall)
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the transition from the baroque style to the full flowering of the classical
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Pre-classical period
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Carl Philipp Emanuel and Johann Christian
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Two important pioneers were Bach's sons
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was applied to this light, graceful music, in music style gallant is comparable to the rococo style in art.
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Style Galant
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Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven
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3 Artists who flourished from 1770-1820 and the world's greatest composers
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A classical composition will fluctuate in mood. Dramatic, turbulent music might lead into a care free dance tune.
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Contrast of mood
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A classical composition has a wealth of rhythmic patterns, whereas a baroque piece contains a few patterns that are reiterated throughout. Classical includes unexpected pauses, syncopation, and frequent changes from long notes to shorter notes.
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Rhythm
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Classical music is basically homophonic. Pieces shift smoothly or suddenly from one texture to another.
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Texture
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Composers usually borrowed popular tunes. Classical melodies tend to sound balanced and symmetrical because they are frequently made up of two phrases of the same length.
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Melody
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Classical composers interest in expressing shades of emotion led to the widespread use of gradual dynamic change-crescendo and decrescendo. Composers did not restrict themselves to the terraced dynamics characteristic of baroque music. Crescendos and decrescendos were an electrifying novelty; audiences sometimes rose excitedly from their seats. During the classical period, the desire for gradual dynamic change led to the replacement of the harpsichord by the piano. The late 18th century piano called a fortepiano-weighed much less than the modern piano and had thinner strings held by a frame made of wood rather than metal.
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Dynamics and the piano
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The basso continuo was gradually abandoned during the classical period. One reason was because it became obsolete was that more and more music was written for amateurs, who couldn't master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass. Second reason is classical composers wanted more control, they preferred to specify an accompaniment rather than trust the judgement of improvisers.
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End of the basso continuo
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It was a standard group of four sections: strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion. ex: Strings-1st violins, 2nd violins, violas, cellos, double basses Woodwinds-2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons Brass-2 french horns, 2 trumpets Percussion-2 timpani The number if musicians was greater in a classical orchestra than in a baroque group.
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Classical orchestra
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The strings were the most important section, with the first violins taking the melody most of the time and the lower strings providing an accompaniment. The woodwinds added contrasting tone colors and were often given melodic solos. Horns and trumpets brought power to loud passages and filled out the harmony, but they did not usually play the main melody. Timpani were used for a rhythmic bite and emphasis.
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Roles in classical orchestra
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1. fast movement 2. Slow movement 3. Dance-related movement 4. Fast movement Classical symphonies and string quartets usually follow this four-movement pattern, whereas classical sonatas may consist of two, three, or four movements.
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Classical forms
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is written for orchestra
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Symphony
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is for two violins, viola, and cello
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String quartet
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for one or two instruments
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Sonata
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was the first, and was content to spend most of his life serving a wealthy aristocratic family.
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Joseph Hayden
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born 24 yrs later, couldn't bear being treated as a servant. He broke from his court position and went to Vienna to try his luck as a freelance musician. He was very popular for several yrs, then his fame declined and he died in debt.
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
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was able to work as an independent musician in Vienna. His success was gained through a wider middle-class market for music and a commanding personality that promoted the nobility to give him gifts and treat him as an equal.
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Ludwig van Beethoven
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was one of the music centers of Europe during the classical period, and Hayden, Mozart, and Beethoven were all active there. 4th largest city in Europe
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Vienna
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Haydn and Mozart wrote many outdoor entertainment pieces.
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Divertimentos or Serenades
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refers to the form of a single movement. It should not be confused with the term sonata, which is used for a whole composition made up of several movements.
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Sonata form or sonata-allegro form
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consists of 3 main sections: the Exposition, where the themes are presented. The Development, where themes are treated in new ways. And the Recapitulation, where the themes return. The three main sections are often followed by a concluding section, the coda (Italian for tail)
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Sonata-form movement
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sets up a strong conflict between the tonic key and the new key, and between the first theme and the second theme. It begins with the first theme in the tonic key, or home key. Then comes bridge or transition, leading to the second theme, which is in a new key.
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Exposition
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is often the most dramatic section of the movement. Themes are developed, or treated in new ways. They are broken into fragments, or motives, which are short musical ideas developed within a composition.
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Development
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the beginning of it brings resolution, as we again hear the first theme in the tonic key. In the recapitulation the first theme, bridge, second theme, and concluding section are presented more or less as they were in the exposition, with one difference all the principal material is now in the tonic key.
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Recapitulation
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rounds off a movement by repeating themes or developing them further. IT ALWAYS ENDS IN THE TONIC KEY.
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Coda
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was widely used in the classical period, it is a basic musical idea-the theme-is repeated over and over and is changed in time.
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Theme and variations
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in variations 1 and 3 the original melody is accompanied by a new one.
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Countermelody
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is often used as the third movement of classical symphonies, string quartets, and other works. It originated as a dance, it was a stately, dignified dance in which the dancing couple exchanged curtsies and bows. Is written for listening not dancing, it is in triple meter and usually in a moderate tempo, it is in A B A form. the second dance was known as a trio because it was played by 3 instruments.
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Minuet and trio or minuet
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from the beginning
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Da capo
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is usually A B A form and triple meter, but it moves quickly, generating energy, rhythmic drive and rough humor.
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Scherzo Italian for joke
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a work that is usually light in mood, meant for evening entertainment. it is written for a small string orchestra or for a string quartet plus a double bass.
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Serenade
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features a tuneful main theme (A) that returns several times in alternation with other themes. common rondo patterns are A B A C A and A B A C A B A.
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Rondo
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contains a development section like that in sonata form and is outlined A B A- development section- A B A.
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Sonata-rondo
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is an extended, ambitious composition typically lasting between 20 - 45 min. exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the classical orchestra.
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Symphony *
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is a 3 movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra. It combines the soloist's virtuosity and interpretive abilities with the orchestra's wide range of tone color and dynamics. has 3 movements: fast, slow, and fast. it also has no minuet or scherzo.
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Concerto
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in the first movement and sometimes in the last movement, there is a special unaccompanied showpiece for the soloist. indicated in the score by a fermata, a sign meaning pause, which is placed over the chord.
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Cadenza Italian for cadence
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is designed for the intimate setting of a room in a home, rather than a public concert hall. it is performed by a small group of 2 or 9 musicians, with 1 player to a part. Doesn't need a conductor, so it is like a small jazz group.
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Chamber music
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is the most important form in classical chamber music, written for 2 violins, a viola, and a cello. usually has 4 movements: fast, slow, minuet or scherzo, and fast.
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String quartet*
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born in Austria, then played for rich families, died in 1809 at the age of 77.
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Joseph Haydn
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born in Salzburg, Austria, at the age of 8 he wrote a symphony, between the ages of 6 and 15 he was on tour. At the age of 25 he went to Vienna to be a freelance musician.
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart *
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is a blend of comic and serious opera making fun of the Spanish lover Don Juan.
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*Don Giovanni
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born in Germany. at age 29 he felt the first symptoms of deafness.
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Ludwig van Beethoven
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high violins, dun dun dun dundunit, repeated, then slow and that tone is repeated.
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Mozart, Symphony no. 40
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sharp picked violins, 1st part repeated 3 times, then gets softer then a loud bang.
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Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G Major
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two sharp fast strokes of violin then a drawn out tone, repeated, then gets quiet and returns to normal tone.
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Mozart, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
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fast pitched strings of the violin, then dun dun dunnn and repeated, changes tones when a solo violin leads.
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Beethoven, String Quartet in C minor
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pit orchestra of string instruments, starts then stops twice then softly plays, then a male opera signer comes in.
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Mozart, Don Giovanni
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soft violins, then a low viola, then a high pitched flute joins, then a fast past piano keys in the middle of the song.
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Mozart, Piano Concerto no. 23
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(clapping) loud dun dun dun dunn repeated, then soft playing and gradually gets louder.
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Beethoven, Symphony no. 5
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1750-1820, Haydn and Mozart, and early Beethoven.
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"Classical" music
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"The Age of Reason", thinkers gave free rein to the pursuit of truth and the discovery of natural laws, formulated largely by Isaac Newton (1642-1727). French encyclopedists Voltaire (1694-1778) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) espoused the principles of social justice, equality, religious tolerance, and freedom of speech. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Age of Reason gave way to the Age of Revolution.
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Enlightenment
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(founded in 1725), the most successful Parisian concert series. at which the West's first non-court orchestra played a regular schedule of performances. advertised its performances by means of flyers distributed in the streets. To make its offerings accessible to several strata of society, it instituted a two-tiered pricing scale for a subscription series (4 livres for boxes and 2 livres for the pit, roughly $200 and $100 in today's money). Children under fifteen were admitted for half price. The "for profit" concert as we know it today dates from this time.
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Concert spirituel
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exemplified social change and championed middle-class values. Made use of everyday characters and situations; it typically employed spoken dialogue and simple songs in place of recitatives and lengthy arias; and it was liberally spiced with sight gags, bawdy humor, and social satire.
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comic opera "opera buffa"
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the villain is a leading nobleman of the town
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Don Giovanni (1787) - written my Mozart
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a barber outsmarts a count and exposes him to public ridicule. (So seriously did the king of France and the Holy Roman Emperor take the threat of such theatrical satire that they banned the play on which The Marriage of Figaro was based.)
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Le nozze di Figaro (1786) -The Marriage of Figaro Written my Mozart
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soft-loud
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pianoforte
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are units that operate together: one opens, the other closes (again, "away"-"home" if you wish).
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antecedent and consequent phrases
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Many major artists of the eighteenth century journeyed to Rome to absorb the ancient classical style, and what they created in painting and architecture.
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Neoclassicism
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Englishwoman, in the Character of Design Listening to the Inspiration of Poetry (1782) shows classical balance (two women and two columns). Not coincidentally, the complementary figures in this painting function as do antecedent-consequent phrases in Classical music: they are somewhat different, but they balance each other.
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Angelica Kauffmann (1741 - 1807)
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To avoid a feeling of inactivity when the harmony is static, Classical composers invented new "filler" patterns for accompaniment. Sometimes they simply repeat the accompanying chord in a uniform
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triplet rhythm (groups of three)
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named after the minor Italian keyboard composer Domenico Alberti (1710-1740), who popularized this figure. Instead of playing the pitches of a chord all together, the performer spreads them out to provide a continual stream of sound. Mozart used an Alberti bass at the beginning of his famous C major piano sonata (1788). The Alberti bass serves essentially the same function as both the modern "boogie-woogie" bass and the process of "tapping" on a guitar (made famous by Eddie Van Halen). It provides an illusion of harmonic activity for those moments when, in fact, the harmony is not changing.
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Alberti bass
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The careers of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and the young Franz Schubert all unfolded in Vienna, and from Vienna radiated their powerful musical influence. For that reason, we often refer to them collectively as the Viennese School and say that their music epitomizes the "Viennese Classical style."
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Viennese School
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Was then the capital of the old Holy Roman Empire, a huge expanse covering much of Western and Central Europe. Vienna had a population of 215,000, which made it the fourth-largest city in Europe, after London, Paris, and Naples. Ruled by aristocratic gentry. Served as a cultural mecca.
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Vienna
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was the first of the great Classical composers to move to Vienna, and his life offers something of a "rags-to-riches" story. Haydn was born in 1732 in a farmhouse in Rohrau, Austria, about twenty-five miles east of Vienna. His father, a wheelwright, played the harp but could not read music. When the choir director of Saint Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna happened to be scouting for talent in the provinces, he heard the boy soprano Haydn sing and brought him back to the capital. Here Haydn remained as a choirboy, studying the rudiments of composition and learning to play the violin and keyboard. After nearly ten years of service, his voice broke and he was abruptly dismissed. For most of the 1750s, Haydn eked out a "wretched existence," as he called it, much like a freelance musician or aspiring actress might in New York City today. But in 1761, Haydn's years of struggle ended when he was engaged as director of music for the court of Prince Nikolaus EsterhĂĄzy (1714-1790). For a period of nearly thirty years, Haydn served Nikolaus EsterhĂĄzy at his remote court on what is today the border of Austria and Hungary. Here he composed symphonies, operas, and string trios in which the prince himself participated. 106 symphonies, about 70 string quartets, nearly a dozen operas, 52 piano sonatas, 14 Masses, and 2 oratorios. He began composing before the death of Bach (1750) and did not put down his pen until about the time Beethoven set to work on his Symphony No. 5 (1808). Thus, Haydn not only witnessed but, more than any other composer, helped to create the mature Classical style.
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Franz Joseph Hayden (1732 - 1809)
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Were wealthy aristocrats who wintered in Vienna and summered on their extensive landholdings to the southeast. Prince Nikolaus ruled much like a benevolent dictator. But the prince was an autocrat with a fondness for music, maintaining an orchestra, a chapel for singing religious works, and a theater for opera. As was typical of the period, the musician Haydn was considered a servant of his prince and even wore the garb of the domestic help, as can be seen in his portrait. As a condition of his appointment in 1761, Haydn signed a contract stipulating that all the music he composed belonged not to him, but to his aristocratic master.
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Esterhazy
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Hayden's last 12 symphonies. In a series of concerts at the Hanover Square Rooms, a new public concert hall that catered to the growing middle-class demand for classical music.
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London Symphonies
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was born in 1756 in the mountain town of Salzburg, Austria, then a city of about 20,000 residents. His father, Leopold Mozart, was a violinist in the orchestra of the ruling archbishop of Salzburg and the author of a best-selling introduction to playing the violin. Leopold was quick to recognize the musical gifts of his son, who by the age of six was playing the piano, violin, and organ, as well as composing. In 1762, the Mozart family coached off to Vienna, where Wolfgang and his older sister Nannerl displayed their musical wares before Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780). They then embarked on a three-year tour of Northern Europe that included extended stops in Munich, Brussels, Paris, London, Amsterdam, and Geneva. In London, Wolfgang sat on the knee of Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782) and improvised a fugue. And here, at the age of eight, he wrote his first two symphonies. Eventually, the Mozarts made their way back to Salzburg. But in 1768, they were off again to Vienna, where the now twelve-year-old Wolfgang staged a production of his first opera, Bastien und Bastienne, in the home of the famous Dr. Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), the inventor of the theory of animal magnetism, or hypnotism (hence, "to mesmerize"). The next year father and son visited the major cities of Italy, including Rome, where, on July 8, 1770, the pope dubbed Wolfgang a Knight of the Order of the Golden Spur. "The most universal composer in the history of Western music."
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791)
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an Enlightenment fraternity, which espoused tolerance and universal brotherhood. Many view Mozart's last opera, Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute, 1791) as a hymn in praise of Masonic ideals.
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Freemasons
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short, balanced phrases create tuneful melodies; more vocal than instrumental in character
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How did composers treat melody during the Classical period?
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the harmonic rhythm varies dramatically, creating a dynamic flux and flow; simple chordal harmonies made more active by "Alberti" bass
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Identify the statement that correctly describes the harmonic style of the era.
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it becomes more stop-and-go; greater rhythmic variety within a single movement
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Which answer correctly describes the rhythm of Classical period music?
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homophonic with a thin bass and middle range, hence it is light and transparent.
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The texture of Classical period music is generally
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antecedent, consequent
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Phrases that are dependent upon each other to produce a complete musical idea are called ________ and ________ .
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instead of having the pitches of a chord sound all together, the notes are played in succession to provide a continual stream of sound
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Which definition is correct for "Alberti bass"?
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a genre of opera originating in the eighteenth century that portrayed everyday characters and situations, and used spoken dialogue and simple songs
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What is a "comic opera"?
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the original name of the piano.
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The "pianoforte" is
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opera buffa
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The new comic opera, called ________ in Italy, was the opera of the middle class.
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True
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During the Enlightenment, also referred to as the Age of Reason, thinkers gave free rein to the pursuit of truth and the discovery of natural laws.
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the importance of communicating passion no matter what sort of imbalance, contradiction, or formal inconsistency might result
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Which idea did NOT emerge during the Enlightenment?
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True
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Spurred on by economic self-interest and the principles of Enlightenment philosophers, the middle class of France and America rebelled against the monarchy.
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False
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Due to the physical power required to play the pianoforte, the most common players of the new instrument were professional male musicians.
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- the use of crescendos and diminuendos - alternating the mood between themes - quickly changing the texture from light and airy to dense and more contrapuntal - rapid changes in rhythmic patterns
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Which aspect contributed to the dynamic mood of Classical music?
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It was the largest city in Europe.
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Identify the statement that does NOT apply to Vienna during the late eighteenth century.
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Because he displayed great musical talent as a child, his father forced the boy to practice at all hours with the intent of exploiting him as a child prodigy.
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Which statement does NOT apply to Haydn's early years?
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False
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While Haydn toured Europe to acquire fame and fortune, what actually happened was that his compositions increased in breadth and substance because of his exposure to a wealth of musical styles.
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Salzburg
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Mozart was born in the town of ________ .
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Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, and Schubert
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Which composers are representative of the Classical period?
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His father served as court composer to Joseph II of Austria, and later gave composition lessons to Beethoven
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All of the following statements regarding the early years of Mozart are accurate EXCEPT this:
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Vienna
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From 1781 until his death in 1791, Mozart lived almost exclusively in which city?
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as a result of his touring he acquired fame and fortune, and was court composer to Emperor Joseph II from 1780 until his untimely death in 1791
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Which statement about Mozart's compositions and his childhood experiences touring Europe is WRONG?
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Spanish flamenco
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Which musical tradition was NOT influential in the development of Mozart's musical style?
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True
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Mozart found the system of aristocratic patronage irritating, and after several unpleasant scenes with his patron, he cut himself free and moved to Vienna, determined to make a living as a freelance musician.
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He was responsible for an orchestra that was never larger than twenty-five musicians and saw to it that all musicians appeared in uniform and followed instructions.
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Identify the INCORRECT statement regarding Mozart's life in Vienna during the 1780s.
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refer to that artifact's external shape or to the way it is positioned in physical space. (same number of beats per bar and same number of bars per phrase)
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form
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standard repertoire
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canon
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the idea of statement-contrast-repetition is obvious (like twinkle, twinkle, little star)
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ternary form (ABA)
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a stately dance in triple meter, When the minuet appeared as a movement of a symphony or quartet, it came in pairs
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minuet
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Because the second minuet of the pair had originally been played by only three instruments, it was called the trio (also performed in ternary form)
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trio
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a light, multimovement piece for strings alone or small orchestra, one intended for an evening's entertainment and often performed outdoors. (Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik - A Little Night Music - 1787)
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serenade
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Sonata-allegro form is the most complex of all musical stories, and it tends to result in the longest pieces. A sonata is a genre of music usually involving a solo instrument; sonata-allegro, however, is a form giving structure to a single movement within any one of several genres: a sonata, string quartet, serenade, symphony, even a one-movement overture. from the fact that most sonatas employ this form in the first movement, and the first movement almost always goes fast, or "allegro." four distinctive musical styles found in sonata-allegro form: thematic, transitional, developmental, and cadential (ending).
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sonata-allegro form
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the composer presents the main themes (or musical personalities) of the movement. It begins with the first theme or theme group, which is always in the tonic key. usually concludes with a closing theme
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exposition (thematic) - thematic passage has a clearly recognizable melody, often a singable tune
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which carries the music from the tonic to a new key, usually the dominant, and prepares for the arrival of the second theme. The second theme typically contrasts in character with the first; if the first is rapid and assertive, the second may be more languid and lyrical.
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transition, or bridge (transition) - is full of motion, with melodic sequences and rapid chord changes.
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As the name indicates, a further working out, or "developing," of the thematic material occurs here. The themes can be extended and varied, or wholly transformed; a character we thought we knew can turn out to have a completely different personality.
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development - perhaps confusing; the harmonies shift quickly, and the themes, while recognizable, often pile one on top of another in a dense contrapuntal texture.
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is tonal order restored, often by means of a stabilizing pedal point on the dominant note. When the dominant chord (V) finally gives way to the tonic (I), the recapitulation begins.
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retransition
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is not an exact, note-for-note repetition of the exposition, it nonetheless presents the same musical events in the same order. The only change that regularly occurs in this restatement is the rewriting of the transition, or bridge. Because the movement must end in the tonic, the bridge does not modulate to a different key as before, but stays at home in the tonic. Thus, the recapitulation imparts to the listener not only a feeling of return to familiar surroundings but also an increased sense of harmonic stability.
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recapitulation
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are, without exception, slow and stately, and usually filled with ominous or puzzling chords designed to get the listener wondering what sort of musical excursion he or she is about to take.
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introductions
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indicates, this is a section added to the end of the movement to wrap things up. Like tails, codas can be long or short. no matter how long the coda, most will end with a final cadence in which the harmonic motion slows down to just two chords, dominant and tonic, played over and over, as if to say "the end, the end, the end, THE END." The more these repeat, the greater the feeling of conclusion.
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coda (cadential passage) - coming at the end of a section or the end of the piece, sounds repetitive because the same chords are heard again and again in a harmony that seems to have stopped moving forward
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The compulsion to endlessly reimagine a song, an object, or a grammatical phrase
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transformational imperative
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occurs when a melody is altered, decorated, or adorned in some way by changing pitch, rhythm, harmony, or even mode (major or minor). The object is still recognizable but somehow doesn't seem to sound the same.
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theme and variations
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a simple AB arrangement
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binary form
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must have at least three statements of the refrain (A) and at least two contrasting sections (at lease B and C). is typically light, quick, and jovial in nature.
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rondo
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end
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finale
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a passage of brilliant technical display by the soloist alone
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cadenaz
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It utilized the same theme as the minuet, but with lighter scoring.
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Which statement about the trio is INACCURATE?
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ritornello form
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Which musical form was NOT important during the Classical period?
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A few standard forms regulate much of the music.
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The most accurate statement about musical form during the Classical period is:
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The second theme is played in the dominant or relative major key.
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Identify the INACCURATE statement regarding the recapitulation in sonata-allegro form.
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sonata-allegro
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Identify the form that began during the Classical period.
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contrast
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Which term best characterizes the B section in ternary form?
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the end of the development section where the tonality often becomes stabilized on the dominant in preparation for the return of the tonic and the beginning of the recapitulation.
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The "retransition" is
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the principal section in which all thematic material is presented
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Identify the correct definition for "exposition," as used in sonata-allegro form.
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- perhaps the most popular form of the Classical era. - a form that was invented during the Classical period. - a form that has the potential for dramatic presentation, conflict, and resolution. - a dramatic musical form that involves an exposition, development, and recapitulation.
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"Sonata-allegro form" is
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the final and concluding section of a musical composition
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What is the "coda"?
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the centermost portion of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is developed and extended, transformed, or reduced to its essence
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Identify the correct definition for "development."
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a stately dance in triple meter, first developed in the Baroque period
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Which definition for "minuet" is correct?
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introduction
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Which section of sonata-allegro form is slow, stately, and filled with ominous or puzzling chords?
question
Mozart composed it for the outdoor wedding reception of a friend.
answer
Which statement does NOT apply to Eine kleine Nachtmusik?
question
FALSE
answer
As a general rule, Classical composers restricted sonata-allegro form to the first movement of multi-movement compositions.
question
TRUE
answer
About half the mature symphonies of Haydn and Mozart have brief introductions before the exposition begins.
question
ABA
answer
Which response is NOT an example of rondo form?
question
The style conveys an introspective mood of tragedy and despair.
answer
Which statement does NOT apply to Symphony No. 94, the "Surprise"?
question
second
answer
Which movement of a sonata, quartet, or symphony was typically in a slow tempo?
question
French folksong.
answer
Mozart's Variations on "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" are based on a(n)
question
- lively in tempo. - a minuet and trio. - in ternary form. - light and elegant, and sometimes spirited in mood.
answer
In a Classical string quartet or symphony, the third movement is usually
question
FALSE
answer
One of the ways Classical composers created variation within theme and variations form was by altering the length of the melody.
question
FALSE
answer
Rondo and sonata-allegro were the only two forms invented during the Classical period.
question
a sudden fortissimo chord
answer
What is the unexpected occurrence in Haydn's Symphony No. 94 that gave it the name "Surprise"?
question
refrains
answer
In rondo form, the A sections are called
question
TRUE
answer
In Classical compositions, the rondo is typically light, quick, and jovial in nature.
question
valves
answer
What were the trumpet and French horn lacking in Haydn's day that is now "standard equipment" on modern instruments?
question
second
answer
Which movement in a sonata, quartet, or symphony tended to be in a lyrical and tender mood?
question
first and fourth
answer
Sonata-allegro form was most often used in which movements of a string quartet or symphony in the Classical period.
question
fourth
answer
Which movement of a string quartet or symphony was typically a bright, light-hearted, and sometimes humorous movement set in sonata-allegro, theme and variations, or rondo form?
question
third
answer
Which movement(s) in a Classical period symphony is (are) nearly always in minuet and trio form?
question
simply means the type or class of music to which we listen (ex: string quartet, opera aria, country music ballad)
answer
genre
question
the instrumental genres of symphony, string quartet, sonata, and concerto, and the vocal genre of opera.
answer
In the age of Haydn and Mozart, there were five main genres of art music
question
is a multimovement composition for orchestra lasting about twenty-five minutes in the Classical period to nearly an hour in the Romantic era. By mid-century the symphony had assumed its now-familiar four-movement format: fast-slow-minuet-fast
answer
symphony
question
The origins of the symphony go back to the late-seventeenth-century Italian opera house, where an opera began with an instrumental sinfonia (literally, "a harmonious sounding together"). Was a one-movement instrumental work in three sections: fast-slow-fast.
answer
sinfonia
question
To help us keep track of this enormous amount of music, a nineteenth-century musicologist, Ludwig von Köchel, published a list of Mozart's works in approximately chronological order, assigning each a Köchel (K) number.
answer
Köchel (K) number
question
After the feverish excitement of the opening movement, the slow, lyrical Andante comes as a welcome change of pace.
answer
andante (second movement)
question
We expect the aristocratic minuet to provide elegant, graceful dance music (see Figure 8.2). But much to our surprise, Mozart returns to the intense, somber mood of the opening movement. This he does, in part, by choosing to write in the tonic minor key—a rare minuet in minor. This again demonstrates how the minuet had changed from "dance music" to "listening music."
answer
menuetto: allegretto (third movement)
question
The finale (last movement) starts with an ascending "rocket" that explodes in a rapid, forte flourish—and only carefully rehearsed string playing can pull off this orchestral special effect. The contrasting second theme of this sonata-allegro form movement is typically Mozartean in its grace and charm, a proper foil to the explosive opening melody. Midway through the development, musical compression takes hold: There is no retransition, only a pregnant pause before the recapitulation; the return dispenses with the repeats built into the first theme; and a coda is omitted. This musical foreshortening at the end produces the same psychological effect experienced at the very beginning of the symphony—a feeling of urgency and acceleration.
answer
Allegro Assai (fourth movement)
question
typifies chamber music—music for the small concert hall, for the private chamber, or just for the enjoyment of the performers themselves. the string quartet normally has four movements, all unified by a common key. the string quartet features only one player per part: first violinist, second violinist, violist, and cellist.
answer
string quartet
question
(Italian for "something to be sounded") is a genre of chamber music played on a solo instrument or a solo instrument accompanied by piano. The usual format was three movements (fast-slow-fast), and each movement might be in any one of the preferred Classical forms: sonata-allegro, ternary, rondo, or theme and variations.
answer
sonata
question
Classical concerto, like the symphony, was a large-scale, multi movement work for instrumental soloist and orchestra intended for a public audience.
answer
concerto
question
usually for piano but sometimes for violin, cello, French horn, trumpet, or woodwind. In the new concerto, a single soloist commanded all the audience's attention.
answer
solo concerto
question
(groups of three) that continue unabated from beginning to end
answer
triplets
question
Which allows the plot to unfold more quickly. Instead of waiting for each character to sing in turn, three or more characters can express their own particular emotions simultaneously, singing together.
answer
vocal ensemble
question
Style of German comic opera, is made up of spoken dialogue (instead of recitative) and songs.
answer
Singspiel
question
a tension-filled chord comprised entirely of minor thirds.
answer
diminished chord
question
a one-movement orchestral work in three sections (fast-slow-fast) that originated as an overture in seventeenth-century Italian opera
answer
Which definition accurately describes the term "sinfonia"?
question
a composition in which an orchestra and a single performer in turn present and develop the musical material in the spirit of harmonious competition
answer
The best definition for "solo concerto" is:
question
a work, usually in three movements, for keyboard or other solo instrument
answer
Which response accurately describes the term "sonata"?
question
it was written to honor the Emperor and came to serve as the Austrian national anthem
answer
Identify the response that most accurately applies to "The Emperor's Hymn."
question
- a genre of chamber music - the genre of music, usually in four movements, composed for four string instruments - an instrumental ensemble consisting of a first and second violin, a viola, and a cello - a genre that was developed or "fathered" by Haydn
answer
Which response best describes the term "string quartet"?
question
The sadness in the symphony reflects the composer's difficult personal circumstances—the death of his father and children—during the period immediately preceding the composition of the work.
answer
Which statement about Mozart's Symphony No. 40 in G minor is ERRONEOUS?
question
Haydn disliked composing patriotic music and was embarrassed by the popularity it achieved.
answer
Which statement does NOT apply to Haydn's String Quartet Opus 76, No. 3, The "Emperor"?
question
- It is a means of identifying Mozart's compositions. - Köchel numbers arrange Mozart's works in approximate chronological order. - It is a handy way of identifying multiple works of the same genre that are in the same key. - Ludwig Köchel, a nineteenth-century musicologist, first published the list.
answer
Which statement regarding Köchel (K) numbers is most accurate?
question
a chord made up entirely of minor thirds that produces a tense, unstable sound.
answer
A "diminished chord" is
question
Mozart's principal librettist during the 1780s
answer
Who was Lorenzo da Ponte?
question
a German musical comedy with spoken dialogue, tuneful songs, and topical humor
answer
What is the correct definition for "Singspiel"?
question
Recitatives are gradually replaced by arias.
answer
Identify the INACCURATE statement regarding Classical operas.
question
TRUE
answer
Don Giovanni is implicitly critical of the aristocracy, and Mozart and da Ponte danced quickly to stay one step ahead of the imperial censor before production.
question
TRUE
answer
Don Giovanni is not the kind of guy you would want your daughter to date.
question
Die Zauberflöte
answer
Which Mozart opera is a German Singspiel?
question
a faithful, though reluctant, servant.
answer
In Don Giovanni, the character of Leporello is
question
- an element derived from comic opera, it was especially favored at the ends of acts to help spark a rousing conclusion - another manifestation of the democratic spirit, and better dramatic sense, of the late eighteenth century - consists of three or more characters who simultaneously sing about their individual responses to the dramatic action - allows the plot to unfold more quickly on stage
answer
Identify the answer that most appropriately describes the operatic "vocal ensemble."
question
diminished chord
answer
What type of chord accompanies the stabbing of the Commandant in Don Giovanni?
question
A Classical sonata, as we have seen (Chapter 9, "The Sonata"), is a multimovement work for solo instrument or solo instrument with keyboard accompaniment. This particular sonata, for solo piano, is identified as Beethoven's Opus 13, denoting that it is the thirteenth of 135 works that Beethoven published. —"PathĂ©tique" ("Plaintive")—underscoring the passion and pathos he felt within it. Its great drama derives in large part from the juxtaposition of extremes. There are extremes of dynamics (from fortissimo to pianissimo), tempo (grave to presto), and range (from very high to very low).
answer
"Pathétique" Sonata.
question
latin for work
answer
opus
question
long and lyrical
answer
legato
question
light and detached
answer
staccato
question
songful
answer
cantabile
question
In this confessional document for posterity, like a last will and testament, named after the Viennese suburb in which Beethoven penned.
answer
Heiligenstadt Testament
question
(1803-1813; also simply termed his "middle period"). His works became longer, more assertive, and full of grand gestures. Simple, often triadic, themes predominate, and these are repeated, sometimes incessantly, as the music swells to majestic proportions. When these themes are played forte and given over to the brass instruments, a heroic, triumphant sound results.
answer
"heroic" period
question
epitomizes the grandiose, heroic style. More than any other single orchestral work, it changed the historical direction of the symphony. It assaults the ear with startling rhythmic effects and chord changes that were shocking to early-nineteenth-century listeners. It makes mountains of sound out of the simplest triads by repeating them with ever-increasing volume. Most novel, the work has biographical content, for the hero of the "Eroica" Symphony, at least originally, was Napoleon Bonaparte
answer
"Eroica" ("Heroic") Symphony
question
stripping away all extraneous material to get to the core of a musical idea.
answer
thematic penetration
question
meaning joke. And while there is nothing particularly humorous about the mysterious and sometimes threatening sound of the scherzo of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, it is very far removed from the elegant world of the courtly minuet. In ghost-like pizzicatos the conclusion disappears, rather than ends.
answer
scherzo
question
The title "Pathétique" was intended to suggest French manners and moods.
answer
All of these statements about the "Pathétique" Sonata are correct EXCEPT for:
question
piano sonatas
answer
With Beethoven's ________ , the genre moved from one played by amateur performers in their homes to become standard repertoire for professional musicians.
question
- Its name derives from the village where Beethoven wrote the document. - It was written in despair over his impending deafness. - It is part last will and testament, part artistic manifesto. - In the document he admits that he considered suicide, but that his dedication to art (music) held him back from such a step.
answer
Which statement about Beethoven's Heiligenstadt Testament is most correct?
question
The Austrian emperor asked Beethoven to change the title from "Bonaparte" to "Eroica"; Beethoven complied, but demanded an extra fee.
answer
Identify the phrase that does NOT apply to the "Eroica" symphony.
question
composed six of his nine symphonies
answer
The "heroic" period is when Beethoven
question
It is the first symphony to use theme and variations form as one of its movements.
answer
Which statement does NOT apply to Beethoven's Symphony No. 5?
question
He toured northern Europe for three years and heard his first two symphonies performed in London when he was only eight years old.
answer
Identify the response that does NOT apply to Beethoven's early biography.
question
TRUE
answer
Beethoven initially made his living in Vienna as a concert pianist, and in order to be acceptable to polite society he bought new clothes, found a wigmaker, and took dancing lessons
question
His career as a virtuoso was cut short due to an injury to his right hand, but he thereafter focused his attention on writing sonatas for left-handed pianists.
answer
Which statement does NOT apply to Beethoven's style of playing the piano?
question
He served as court composer to Joseph II of Austria.
answer
Which response does NOT describe Beethoven's relationship with the Viennese aristocracy?
question
He made two visits to London where he was treated as a celebrity and awarded an honorary degree from Oxford.
answer
Which statement about Beethoven's later years is WRONG?
question
It is based on a text written by Voltaire, the Enlightenment philosopher.
answer
Identify the INCORRECT statement about Ode to Joy.
question
His music is inherently theatrical and perfectly suited to the genre of opera.
answer
All of the following statements are true about Beethoven's legacy EXCEPT:
question
Beethoven embraced the use of Classical forms and genres in his music, but the spirit of his music is one that foreshadows the musical style of the Romantic era.
answer
Which of the following statements is true about Beethoven's music?
question
false
answer
The evolution from the Renaissance style to the Baroque style occurred in music before the visual arts, and in northern Europe before southern Europe.
question
the eventual settlement of the catholics in northern Europe and protestants in italy
answer
The Protestant Reformation led to a long period of religious conflict marked by all of the following except
question
true
answer
The high emotions of the late Renaissance religious conflict coincided with the rise of a more emotional style in the arts.
question
affection
answer
The vivid, passionate expression of the _________-human emotions or "states of the soul"-led to the Baroque period.
question
false
answer
The transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque can be described as a change from a romantic emphasis on drama and personal expression to a more classical style that stressed balance, order, and repose.
question
true
answer
Two famous artists whose work reflected the increased emotionalism prevalent during the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque were Michelangelo and El Greco.
question
carlo gesualdo
answer
One of the many composers whose music exhibited both the Renaissance and Baroque styles was
question
chromaticism
answer
The practice of using all the notes-both in and out of the mode-to create complex and dissonant effects is called
question
increase tempo
answer
Gesualdo employed chromaticism in his madrigals to
question
polychoral
answer
The church of St. Mark in Venice, Italy, designed in the plan of a cross, became the center for the performance of __________ music, festive music performed by several choirs of voices and/or instruments.
question
contrasting sonorities of various voices and instruments did not appeal to the baroque imagination
answer
All of these were particularly significant characteristics of the Venetian polychoral style except
question
concertato
answer
An underlying concept of the Baroque style, the contrasting sonorities of various voices and instruments, was known as the _______________ principle.
question
giovanni gabrieli
answer
___________ was a famous Italian organist, teacher, and composer who wrote many compositions for St. Mark's in Venice.
question
sonata
answer
A piece to be played or sounded upon instruments rather than sung was called a
question
true
answer
Contrasting dynamic levels became an important characteristic of Baroque music.
question
none of the above
answer
The Florentine Camerata was centered in __________, Italy.
question
a group of intellectuals who discussed and promoted changes in artistic style
answer
The Florentine Camerata was
question
monody
answer
One of the most significant contributions of the Florentine Camerata was a new type of solo singing called
question
the combination of melodic lines in the polyphonic madrigal made it too easy to understand the words
answer
The Florentine Camerata found the existing vocal forms unsuitable for the clear and dramatic expression of a text for all of the following reasons except
question
true
answer
Aware of the ideals of the ancient Greeks, the members of the Florentine Camerata envisioned a style of melody that would approximate the dramatic declamation of a text
question
homophony
answer
Both monody and the Venetian polychoral style implied a new texture of music eventually known as
question
1750
answer
Musicians date the Baroque period from about _____ to about ____.
question
true
answer
The term baroque means distorted or irregular
question
strange and impassioned
answer
eighteenth century artists described seventeenth century art as "baroque" because they found it to be
question
lack of interest in religion
answer
all of the following ideas are characteristic of the Baroque period except
question
the support of the public
answer
Handles career as an opera composer made him more dependent on
question
true
answer
The quality and quantity of Bach's secular concertos, suites, toccatas, and fugues reflect the increasing importance of secular music in the Baroque period.
question
true
answer
During the seventeenth century, there were great strides made in scientific research, yet superstition was rampant and the belief in witchcraft, alchemy, and astrology firm.
question
false
answer
The long and terrible religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries left central Europe largely Protestant and the northern countries largely Roman Catholic.
question
true
answer
In England, the Anglican church harassed the Puritans, who fled to Holland and then sailed to the New World in 1620 to become America's Pilgrims.
question
bay psalm book
answer
the first book printed in america in 1640 was a psalter, the...
question
Galileo
answer
The great artist Michelangelo died in 1564 on the same day that the scientific man of reason, ______________, was born.
question
true
answer
galileos father was an influencial member of the florentine camerata
question
all of the above
answer
galileos discoveries about the solar system
question
isaac newton
answer
on the day in 1642 when galileo died, who was born
question
the invention of the metronome in 1816
answer
newton was fascinated like galileo except for
question
peace
answer
the art of the baroque is filled with each of the following except
question
buildings project a sense of repose and stability
answer
all of the following are characteristics of the Baroque art except
question
light
answer
Seventeenth-century painters shared with contemporary scientists a fascination with the properties and effects of
question
hals
answer
the following are all famous baroque artists except
question
true
answer
Although the Church, the courts, and the city-state governments remained their primary employers, Baroque composers resisted submission to the taste and will of their patrons
question
homophonic texture becoming more important than polyphony
answer
baroque musical style was affected by each of the following except
question
the fugue
answer
all of the following were baroque-era multimovement works exceot
question
true
answer
According to the doctrine of affections, only one mood was to be expressed within one composition or within one movement of a multimovement work.
question
true
answer
During the Baroque period, the Renaissance style of four or more melodic lines was replaced by the preference for a melody in the highest voice or voices, supported by a strong bass line, with the disposition of the inner voices left largely to improvisation.
question
tonal
answer
During the Baroque period, composers developed the ___________ system, in which every note of the major or minor scale bears a specific relationship to every other note
question
tonic
answer
In the Baroque system of tonality, all of the pitches of a major or minor scale were specifically related to the first note of the scale, or the
question
true
answer
The increasing use of the triad, built upon all the degrees of the scale, gave a sense of stability and harmonic direction to tonal music not inherent in modality.
question
false
answer
At the beginning of the seventeenth century, composers found Palestrina's polyphonic style more suitable for secular songs rather than church music.
question
true
answer
During the Baroque, the old style of writing (Palestrina's polyphony) and the new style (monody) were used for different purposes.
question
claudio monteverdi
answer
The composer who suggested that the old and new styles represented the "first" and "second" practices of music was
question
giovanni gabrieli
answer
For thirty years, Monteverdi was choirmaster at St. Mark's in Venice, where __________ had composed and performed great works in the Venetian polychoral style
question
carlos gesualdos
answer
Monteverdi shared __________ taste for dramatic and emotional settings of madrigal texts, using dissonance for expressive purposes
question
true
answer
During the Renaissance period, dissonances could only be approached and resolved according to strict rules.
question
text
answer
Monteverdi allowed the __________ of his songs, rather than the prevailing rules of music theory, to determine his use of dissonance.
question
all of the voices are nearly equal in importance
answer
The "first practice" of music, as identified by Monteverdi, is described by all of the following except that
question
the texture is usually homophonic
answer
The "second practice" of music, as identified by Monteverdi, is described by all of the following except that
question
true
answer
In the first practice, the established rules of music theory were observed; in the second practice, the rules might be broken for the purpose of better expressing the words.
question
he used the old stile antico for madrigals recognizing certain tonal principles
answer
All of the following are characteristics of Monteverdi's madrigal compositions except
question
intermedii
answer
In the sixteenth century, short but spectacular music dramas called __________ were often performed between acts of a play.
question
Madrigals
answer
__________ sometimes constituted "mini" music dramas, with different voices or combinations of voices answering each other in dialogue form.
question
true
answer
It was the Florentine monodists who introduced a new type of vocal writing eminently suited for dramatic recitation; thus, the earliest operas consisted almost entirely of monody.
question
libretto
answer
The text of an opera is called a(n)
question
all of the above
answer
Early opera librettos were
question
true
answer
Composers recognized two distinct types of solo singing, each implied but not achieved by monody: the recitative and aria.
question
a solo singer could combine beautiful music with dramatic text expression
answer
The invention of monody was important to Western music because it demonstrated that
question
the melody of a recitative unnatural inflections
answer
All of the following are characteristics of a recitative except
question
an aria has unmetered rhythm
answer
All of the following are characteristics of an aria except
question
true
answer
In 1607, Claudio Monteverdi composed the opera Orfeo.
question
claudio monteverdi
answer
__________ was the first composer to realize the successful music drama requires a skillful blending of the literary, visual, and lively arts.
question
recitative
answer
Monteverdi's "Tu se' morta" is an example of a(n) __________ from the opera Orfeo.
question
venice
answer
The first public opera house opened in __________, Italy, in 1637.
question
bel canto
answer
The term __________ is Italian for "beautiful singing."
question
close attention to the recitatives and the dramatic integrity of the story
answer
All of the following are characteristics of late Baroque, bel canto opera except
question
true
answer
Although castrati were admired for the extreme range and power of their voices, a taste for women's voices developed during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
question
prima donna
answer
Another name for a virtuoso female singer is a
question
true
answer
By the end of the Baroque era, professional opportunities for women to direct court or church ensembles were still largely denied.
question
ballad
answer
By the 1720s, audiences were tiring of the highly stylized Baroque opera, so a new dramatic form, the __________ opera, became popular in England.
question
robert gray
answer
In 1728, English poet and playwright __________ wrote the Beggar's Opera, ridiculing some of the more obvious limitations of Baroque opera.
question
George Frideric Handel
answer
The epitome of the Baroque composer, __________, was born in Germany, spent considerable time in Italy, and eventually became a British citizen.
question
religious subject matter
answer
Although the oratorio shares many characteristics with the opera, its most important difference is its
question
true
answer
Like an aria, an oratorio chorus has formal design, metered rhythm, and an orchestral accompaniment; it may be either homophonic or polyphonic and often includes sections of both textures.
question
messiah
answer
The world's best-known and best-loved oratorio is Handel's
question
Johann Sebastian Bachs
answer
The date of __________ death (1750) is generally accepted as the end of the Baroque period.
question
passions
answer
Johann Sebastian Bach wrote two large choral works called __________, oratorios based upon the events leading to the crucifixion of Christ.
question
false
answer
Since Bach was Catholic, he wrote the Mass in B Minor to attract the favorable attention of an influential Catholic Elector.
question
cantatas
answer
Bach wrote nearly 200 dramatic religious vocal works called __________, which are short oratorios.
question
sung
answer
The term cantata originally meant a piece to be
question
false
answer
Baroque composers of instrumental music were set back by changes in instrumental styles and techniques during the Renaissance.
question
true
answer
The Baroque period was the first time that instrumental music became virtually equal, both in quantity and quality, with vocal music.
question
the lute continued to increase in popularity and importance
answer
All of the following were characteristic of Baroque music except
question
harpischord
answer
During the Baroque era, the __________ replaced the lute in popularity, and many lute pieces were played on this instrument instead.
question
organ
answer
The __________ had the ability to produce a variety of timbres, dynamic levels, and pitches, making it suitable for the Baroque taste for drama and contrast.
question
terraced
answer
A distinctive feature of Baroque music was the abrupt change of dynamic levels called __________ dynamics.
question
covering the pipes with dampers
answer
The organist was able to achieve terraced dynamics and various sonorities by using any of the following methods except
question
true
answer
Although more pedals and different stops have been added, the organ has not been "improved" upon since the early eighteenth century.
question
fugue
answer
The __________ is an imitative polyphonic composition with three to five melodic lines or "voices."
question
false
answer
Since the fugue was originally developed on keyboard instruments, it was never successfully adapted for other instrumental or vocal combinations.
question
answer
answer
The fugue entrances alternate between the tonic and dominant keys, with those in the dominant called the
question
exposition
answer
The opening section of a fugue, in which the subject entrances are stated, is called the
question
prelude
answer
A __________ is a relatively short keyboard piece which may be an independent composition or an introduction to another piece or set of pieces.
question
false
answer
Preludes were often paired with more structured works such as the toccata during the late Baroque period.
question
well-tempered clavier
answer
One of Bach's greatest legacies was a set of two volumes of twenty-four preludes and fugues called the __________, which included one prelude and fugue in each major and minor key.
question
true
answer
In music, the term well-tempered refers to a method of tuning keyboard instruments.
question
keyboard
answer
The German word clavier is a general term for
question
prelude
answer
A religious keyboard composition based upon the melody of a Lutheran chorale is a chorale
question
toccata
answer
A __________, or "touch piece," is a showy keyboard piece that exploits the technical brilliance or virtuosity of the performer.
question
fugue
answer
The toccata was frequently followed in performance by a(n)
question
ostinato
answer
A favorite melodic device of the Baroque period was the use of __________, the repetition of a melodic phrase at different levels of pitch.
question
suites
answer
The short sets of stylized dance pieces for lute or keyboard popular during the Renaissance were expanded in the Baroque to multimovement works consisting of several dance pieces, called
question
drone bass
answer
The strong bass voice that sounded continuously throughout Baroque ensemble compositions was called the
question
continuo
answer
Nearly all Baroque music, except for solo lute and keyboard pieces, was accompanied by two or more instruments that performed the bass line and that were called the
question
figured bass
answer
Keyboard players improvised the inner parts according to the rules of tonality, completing the triad built upon each bass note unless the composer indicated otherwise by using a system of musical shorthand called
question
realizing
answer
When keyboard players improvised the completed harmonies above the figured bass, they were __________ the figured bass.
question
violins
answer
What types of instruments were made by the Stradivari and Guarneri families?
question
true
answer
Baroque violins differed in several respects from the viols of the Renaissance; new methods of construction and new bowing techniques produced a louder sound, pleasing to the romantic taste of the Baroque music lover.
question
four
answer
The trio sonata was written on three lines of music, but it required at least __________ performers, because of the basso continuo.
question
corelli
answer
__________ was famous in his own time as a virtuoso violinist and as an outstanding composer of trio sonatas.
question
false
answer
A concerto grosso is a composition in three movements (slow-fast-slow) for a small group of solo instruments.
question
fast-slow-fast
answer
The three movements of a concerto grosso are arranged
question
false
answer
The group of solo instruments in a concerto grosso is called the tutti; the larger orchestral group is called the concertino.
question
concertato
answer
The ________ principle of contrasting sonorities formed the basis of the Baroque concerto
question
Vivaldi
answer
The most prolific composer of Baroque concertos, including solo concertos as well as concerto grossi, was
question
Vivaldi
answer
__________ was ordained a priest, but spent most of his life as a professional musician.
question
the expressive style
answer
The transitional style which combined Baroque and Classical characteristics in early eighteenth-century France was known as all of the following except
question
ornamentation became even more ornate
answer
All of the following are characteristics of Rococo visual arts except
question
true
answer
The music of the Rococo was generally light and entertaining rather than serious and dramatic.
question
paris
answer
The French aristocracy moved away from the formal and austere court at Versailles to the intimate __________ salons and comfortable country lodges.
question
France was a secular, materialistic, society marked by loose morals and the pursuit of pleasure.
answer
Which of the following best describes the social life of the French aristocracy during the reign of the Duke of Orleans
question
furniture was beautifully made but uncomfortable and of little use.
answer
All of the following are characteristics of Rococo art except
question
false
answer
One of the finest composers of the Rococo period was Antoine Watteau.
question
true
answer
In Rococo music, more than one melody was frequently introduced within a piece or movement, in contrast to the Baroque inclination to present one melodic idea, one mood or "affection," at a time.
question
homophonic
answer
The texture of Rococo music was generally
question
francis couperin
answer
In France, the most important composer of the Rococo period was
question
domenico scarlatti
answer
In Italy, the most important composer of the Rococo period was
question
keyboard works
answer
Both Domenico Scarlatti and Francois Couperin were well known as composers of
question
expressive
answer
Germany introduced a style similar to the French Rococo-the __________ style.
question
middle class
answer
Unlike the French Rococo, the German expressive style represented __________ taste.
question
carl philipp emanuel bach
answer
The most famous composer in the German expressive style was
question
1750-1825
answer
From about __________, democratic, republican, and revolutionary causes affected every phase of European life and art.
question
true
answer
Although the late eighteenth century was marked by democratic revolution and profound social change, it was also a period of classical restraint in the arts.
question
Hayden and Mozart
answer
The two outstanding Classical composers of the late eighteenth century were
question
Vienna
answer
The musical center of the Classical style, and the city where Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven all lived and worked was
question
referring to a work of art that is new, innovative, and sure to become popular.
answer
The term classical is an ambiguous word that has acquired all of the following meanings except
question
all of the above
answer
Which of the following characteristics of the late eighteenth century's artistic style renders the term Classical particularly applicable to the period?
question
to encourage mystic, supernatural, and religious beliefs.
answer
The goals of the Enlightenment included all of the following except
question
enlightenment
answer
It was the French who articulated and defended the ideas that led to the Age of Reason, but they freely acknowledged their debt to the English for pointing the way toward the intellectual movement called the
question
false
answer
The members of the Enlightenment were concerned with mistreatment of the upper classes, and they initiated significant humanitarian reforms to correct these injustices.
question
true
answer
Proponents of the Enlightenment believed that knowledge is universal, truth absolute, and reason the pathway to Enlightenment.
question
false
answer
The frivolous, aristocratic art of the Rococo was well suited to expressing the enlightened, democratic, and revolutionary views of the late eighteenth century.
question
J.B.S. Chardin
answer
The greatest painter of mid-eighteenth-century France was
question
neoclassic
answer
Jacques-Louis David was a __________ artist whose revolutionary sympathies imbued his later works with romantic characteristics.
question
William Hogarth
answer
The English artist __________ was a moralist, but he tempered his visual sermons with satire and caustic wit.
question
Sir Joshua Reynolds
answer
One of England's greatest painters during this period, __________, preferred to paint the rich and the elegant, stressing line over color in the classical manner.
question
Houdon
answer
Who made the likenesses of Franklin, Jefferson, and Washington on United States coins?
question
true
answer
Although Houdon made his living from portraiture, he made every effort to produce accurate rather than flattering portrayals.
question
prose
answer
In literature, the eighteenth century was an age of __________ more than poetry.
question
english
answer
During the eighteenth century, the __________ theater was of unprecedented importance.
question
true
answer
During the eighteenth century, concerts became more common and the public's appreciation for music increased.
question
true
answer
During the late eighteenth century, a significant number of women became professional musicians, braving criticisms of impropriety and often winning recognition for their accomplishments.
question
Hayden
answer
Which Classical composer accepted the social and artistic restrictions of court employment?
question
composers embraced Baroquw intensity of religious feeling
answer
All of the following were characteristics of Classical music except
question
homophony
answer
During the Classical period, the predominant texture was
question
Paris
answer
During the Classical period, although Italy continued to dominate the world of opera, the main centers of musical activity moved north to the following cities except
question
true
answer
Instrumental music finally surpassed vocal music in both quantity and quality during the Classical period.
question
form
answer
the overall design of a work is called its
question
Mozart, Hayden and Beethoven
answer
The three outstanding composers of the Classical period were
question
true
answer
The concept of form in music was of serious concern to all of the composers of the Classical period.
question
symphony
answer
Among instrumental forms, the __________ experienced the greatest development and offered composers the widest field for creativity during the mid-1700s.
question
narrowing the Baroque conception of the orchestra
answer
Classical composers changed the orchestra in all of the following ways except
question
mannheim
answer
In the middle of the eighteenth century, the German city of __________ developed an outstanding orchestra which attracted attention throughout western Europe.
question
terraced dynamics
answer
The Mannheim orchestra achieved all of the following except
question
Franz Joseph Hayden
answer
__________, an early master of the symphonic form, was employed as a court composer by the same noble family for nearly thirty years.
question
false
answer
Haydn was a vain man who called himself the "master of all" composers.
question
standardizing the number of movements for certain types of works.
answer
The Classical composers expanded the Baroque concept of multimovement compositions by
question
symphony
answer
A __________ is a multimovement work played by an orchestra and originally based on the Italian overture consisting of three movements (fast-slow-fast).
question
true
answer
Classical composers expanded the sections and added a fourth movement to the symphony, organizing each "movement" according to the principles of a chosen instrumental form.
question
true
answer
After the Baroque period, the concerto grosso declined in importance and was replaced by the Classical concerto for orchestra and one soloist.
question
three
answer
A Classical concerto usually has __________ movements.
question
cadenza
answer
A Classical concerto usually had at least one passage, called a __________, which was improvised by the soloist alone.
question
toward the end of a movement
answer
Where does the cadenza usually occur in a concerto?
question
false
answer
The orchestra prepares for a cadenza by playing a long decrescendo that ends quietly on the tonic chord.
question
trill
answer
The end of the improvised solo passage in a concerto is often indicated by a __________, which summons the orchestra to join in bringing the movement to a close.
question
true
answer
Since the nineteenth century, composers have written cadenzas for their concertos and have even published cadenzas for earlier concertos, including those written by Haydn, Mozart, and their contemporaries.
question
chamber
answer
Music performed by a relatively small number of people in a small room is called _________ music.
question
true
answer
In a chamber music performance, each player must be an accomplished performer since each is responsible for one line of music.
question
true
answer
The Classical period's appreciation for clarity of thought, purity of sound, and emotional restraint made chamber music one of the favorite means of expression.
question
the same family
answer
Most Classical chamber ensembles consisted of several instruments belonging to
question
string quartet
answer
The most popular Classical small ensemble was the
question
two violins, viola, and cello.
answer
The Classical string quartet consisted of
question
first violin
answer
In a Classical string quartet, the person playing __________ serves as the leader of the group.
question
four
answer
A Classical string quartet usually consists of __________ movements.
question
sonata
answer
Another Classical multimovement composition to be "sounded" by one or two instruments is called a
question
true
answer
In a sonata for two instruments, such as a violin and a piano, each of the instruments is of equal importance.
question
toccata-allegro form.
answer
All of the following were common forms in the Classical period
question
true
answer
The Classical sonata-allegro form was generally conceived as a three-part structure.
question
exposition, development, and recapitulation.
answer
The three main sections of the Classical sonata-allegro form are the
question
the exposition changes key but the recapitulation does not.
answer
The most significant difference between the exposition and the recapitulation in sonata-allegro form is that
question
coda
answer
An extended closing section in the Classical sonata-allegro form is called the
question
true
answer
Unlike Baroque composers, who typically confined one section of a work to one mood or "affection," Classical composers often considered the two tonal areas of the sonata-allegro exposition an opportunity to present two melodies of a contrasting nature.
question
false
answer
Classical sonata-allegro form has been nicknamed the "fourth movement form" because it has been used as the fourth movement for so many symphonies, concertos, sonatas, and string quartets.
question
minuet and trio
answer
The third movement of many Classical symphonies, sonatas, and string quartets is a
question
true
answer
The minuet was a stately dance introduced at the seventeenth-century court of Louis XIV.
question
true
answer
The Classical rondo form was used for any multimovement work, but often seemed particularly appropriate for the last movement.
question
ABACA
answer
One form of a Classical rondo is
question
false
answer
Although the Classical period produced much more vocal than instrumental music, very few operas and very little vocal religious music was composed during this time.
question
Christoph Willibald Gluck
answer
Born in a German state and educated in Prague and Vienna, __________ spent four years studying and composing operas in Italy and was responsible for the reform opera.
question
reform
answer
Gluck proposed to __________ serious opera by imposing classical restraint upon it.
question
ballet
answer
Gluck was impressed by a famous French Baroque composer, Jean-Philippe Rameau, who attempted with some success to integrate __________ into the drama of his works.
question
Orgeo and Euridice
answer
Gluck wrote the first reform opera, which was
question
including many da capo arias because of their intense dramatic quality.
answer
In his reform operas, Gluck did all of the following except
question
overture
answer
The introductory orchestra piece of an opera is called the
question
Jean Jacques Rousseau
answer
Gluck responded to a statement made by __________ that the French language was entirely unsuited to singing by effectively setting a French libretto to music.
question
false
answer
Due in large part to Gluck's efforts, French replaced Italian as the language of serious opera all over Europe in the eighteenth century.
question
comic
answer
Light in mood and concerned with everyday characters and events, __________ operas developed in several countries during the eighteenth century.
question
true
answer
Audiences appreciated the fact that comic operas were written in their own, local language and that all comic operas (except the Italian form) used spoken dialogue instead of recitative.
question
true
answer
In Italy during the early eighteenth century, short comic episodes interspersed between acts of a serious opera became so popular that composers used them as the basis for a new style of opera.
question
La Serva Padrona
answer
The first comic opera was __________, written by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi.
question
finale
answer
The opera buffa introduced the ensemble __________ to bring an act or an opera to a musically and dramatically exciting close.
question
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
answer
One of history's most tragic figures, __________, began his performing career as a child prodigy.
question
Although Mozart had a short life that was marked by financial difficulties
answer
Although Mozart had a short life that was marked by financial difficulties
question
classical restraint and proportion are often abandoned.
answer
All of the following are TRUE about Mozart's operas except
question
true
answer
Mozart's opera buffa, The Marriage of Figaro, was based upon a politically volatile play by the French writer, Pierre Beaumarchais.
question
true
answer
In The Marriage of Figaro one of the main characters is a nobleman who is outwitted and humiliated by his own servants.
question
false
answer
Although the Classical period was primarily a secular age, the Church remained a strong influence in some areas of Europe; however, very few composers contributed to the repertoire of religious music.
question
expressive passages in homophonic texture were used.
answer
The following were all TRUE of Classical religious music except
question
true
answer
After Bach and Handel, Protestant music declined because the music was supposed to be a functional part of the service rather than "art for art's sake."
question
true
answer
When Haydn was criticized for writing religious music that was too "happy," he replied that he did not believe the Lord minded cheerful music.
question
requiem
answer
Just before he died, Mozart composed a __________, the Mass performed for funeral or memorial services.
question
1789
answer
the french revolution began in
question
a powerful monarch to rule the country by divine right.
answer
Initially, the goals of the French Revolution included all of the following except
question
false
answer
Napoleon Bonaparte was the political and military leader who eventually achieved the goals and reforms of the Enlightenment.
question
1815
answer
Napoleon was defeated in
question
Jean Jacques Rousseau
answer
The French intellectual, called the "father of Romanticism," who turned from a rational to an emotional approach to life and art was
question
true
answer
Around the turn of the nineteenth century, painters turned from classical subjects and styles to a subjective and highly emotional artistic expression.
question
truw
answer
The artist who was called the Great Romantic but considered himself a classicist was Eugene Delacroix.
question
even as music performance moved from the private chamber to the public concert hall, the quality and quantity of music remained unchanged.
answer
All of the following were TRUE regarding the Romantic period around the turn of the nineteenth century
question
180
answer
The orchestra used in the first performance of Haydn's Creation in 1798 had _____ pieces.
question
false
answer
Because Beethoven's piano music was lighter and more refined than that of Mozart, the Viennese piano was redesigned to be quieter in the early nineteenth century.
question
true
answer
Between 1800 and 1830, metal braces were added to the piano to increase the amount of tension the strings could bear, and a cast-iron frame was added, making the piano essentially like our modern instrument.
question
action
answer
During the early nineteenth century, the harp was improved, acquiring "double __________," that allowed it to play flat as well as sharp notes.
question
false
answer
In the transition from the Classical to the Romantic periods, the role and number of wind instruments was greatly reduced to make room for the expanding brass section.
question
valves and pistons
answer
The effort to increase the capacity of the various brass instruments to produce rapid changes in pitch led to the addition of __________, which greatly enhanced their melodic capabilities.
question
metronome
answer
The __________ was invented in 1816, enabling composers to indicate exactly the tempo they desired for any composition.
question
Franz Schubert
answer
__________ was one of the first major composers to use metronome markings.
question
less precise notation than was used previously.
answer
Beethoven and his younger contemporary, Schubert, inherited all of the following musical traditions except
question
false
answer
Like Mozart before him, Beethoven was a talented prodigy who received a careful and thorough musical education.
question
false
answer
Beethoven developed a close relationship with Haydn because their personalities were so closely matched.
question
Ludwig van Beethoven
answer
__________, who had the reputation of being the best pianist in Vienna, was afflicted in his late twenties with an ear disease that eventually led to total deafness.
question
all of these
answer
Although Beethoven mastered the forms of the Classical style, he also altered them by
question
scherzo and trio
answer
For the third movement of his symphonies, Beethoven often replaced the traditional minuet and trio with the lighter, faster __________, altering the tempo and mood of the movement while preserving the three-part design.
question
false
answer
Beethoven made frequent use of the sonata-allegro design, and he always kept its traditional proportions.
question
sonata rondo
answer
Beethoven liked to combine forms: the __________ retains the key relationship of the sonata-allegro but alternates themes in the fashion of a rondo.
question
his music shows a lack of sudden mood changes, to the point of being static.
answer
All of the following are TRUE of Beethoven's music except
question
three
answer
It is customary to divide Beethoven's work into _____ periods.
question
true
answer
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony has a choral fourth movement based upon Schiller's "Ode to Joy," that continues to thrill audiences today.
question
Franz Schubert
answer
__________, a transitional figure who composed in both the Classical and Romantic styles, was the only "Viennese" composer who was actually from Vienna.
question
form
answer
Schubert absorbed the Classical appreciation of __________, and his chamber pieces are beautifully organized according to Classical principles.
question
ture
answer
When Schubert died in 1828, he was just 31 years old and not widely known as a composer.
question
lieder
answer
The term universally applied to German art songs is
question
cycles
answer
Some of Schubert's most effective songs are included in song sets or song __________, which had texts by the same poet.
question
chorus and orchestra
answer
An outstanding trait of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony is the use of the
question
the galloping horse
answer
In the "Erlkönig" Schubert uses the piano to suggest
question
organized sound
answer
Many contemporary musicians define music as
question
true
answer
The characteristic tone quality of a sound is determined by the voice or instrument which produces it.
question
pitch
answer
The highness or lowness of a sound is called its
question
dynamic
answer
The loudness or softness of a pitch is called its __________ level.
question
both of these
answer
Composers use changes in pitch and dynamic levels in their music to
question
true
answer
Changing the size of a vibrating medium causes it to produce a different pitch.
question
true
answer
A faster rate of vibration causes a higher pitch, and a slower rate of vibration causes a lower pitch.
question
frequency
answer
The rate of vibration of sound waves is called
question
higher
answer
Moving from the left side to the right side of a piano produces tones relatively __________ in pitch.
question
false
answer
Inside a grand piano, the strings that are shorter and thinner produce lower tones than the strings that are longer and thicker.
question
A through G
answer
We refer to specific pitches or tones with letter names, using the letters __________ of the alphabet.
question
true
answer
Each key of the keyboard represents one tone, and each of the seven different white keys bears one of seven letter names.
question
higher
answer
A C-sharp note is __________ in pitch than a C note.
question
lower
answer
A B-flat note is __________ in pitch than a B note.
question
notated
answer
Written music is said to be
question
five lines and four spaces
answer
A musical staff has
question
clef
answer
The sign placed at the beginning of the staff to fix the position of all of the pitches on the staff is the
question
G
answer
The treble clef is also called the ______ clef.
question
F
answer
The bass clef is also called the _______ clef.
question
interval
answer
The musical term referring to the distance between two tones is
question
true
answer
Intervals have number names.
question
second
answer
The interval from C to D is a(n)
question
third
answer
The interval from C to E is a(n)
question
octave
answer
The interval from one C note to the C note eight tones above or below is called an eighth, or a(n)
question
all of the above
answer
The two notes of an octave
question
false
answer
The higher tone of an octave is produced at three times the rate of vibration of the lower tone.
question
loud
answer
forte
question
very soft
answer
pianissimo
question
very loud
answer
fortissimo
question
moderately soft
answer
mezzopiano
question
true
answer
the term piano means a soft level of volume
question
false
answer
mezzoforte is a very loud volume
question
becoming softer
answer
diminuendo
question
becoming louder
answer
crescendo
question
a number of instruments or voices may be added or taken away.
answer
A change in dynamic level during the performance of a composition may be achieved in two ways: the instruments or voices may simply play or sing louder or softer; and/or
question
true
answer
music always has rhythm
question
long and short sounds
answer
rhythm refers to the arrangement of
question
measured silence
answer
rests indicate
question
rate of speed
answer
Rhythm notation indicates all of the following except
question
tempo
answer
The rate of speed of a musical composition is its
question
metronome
answer
The __________ is an instrument that helps composers indicate the tempo of a composition.
question
all the above
answer
Verbal tempo indications are
question
metrical patterns called measures
answer
Meter refers to the organization of rhythm into
question
time
answer
Music is never static, but continually moves in
question
true
answer
Musical sounds vary in intensity as well as in duration.
question
march
answer
One example of unmetered music is a
question
literary prose
answer
The rhythms in unmetered music may be compared with
question
poetry
answer
The rhythms in metered music may be compared with
question
measures
answer
Metered music is notated in units called
question
true
answer
In metered music, tones may occur on, before, or after the beats.
question
two
answer
Duple meter has __________ beats per measure.
question
three
answer
Triple meter has __________ beats per measure.
question
four
answer
Quadruple meter has __________ beats per measure.
question
fasle
answer
In metered Western music, it is customary to accent the first and fourth beats of each measure.
question
false
answer
When there are more than three beats per measure, a secondary accent cannot occur.
question
supposition
answer
Accents may be achieved each of the following ways except
question
syncopation
answer
Accented notes occurring in unexpected places create the rhythmic effect called
question
false
answer
One way to achieve rhythmic variety in metered music is to avoid syncopation.
question
ragtime
answer
Syncopation is used in jazz and in __________, a precursor of jazz.
question
strains
answer
The melodic sections in ragtime are called
question
half note
answer
The note that usually equals two beats:
question
quarter note
answer
The note that usually equals one beat:
question
whole note
answer
The note that usually equals four beats:
question
eight note
answer
The note that usually equals one-half beat:
question
false
answer
There is usually no reference to tempo on a printed program.
question
false
answer
The conductor bears little responsibility and has only limited control over a performance.
question
false
answer
The conductor brings his arm up on the first beat of the measure, which is normally the strongest.
question
upbeat
answer
The last beat of a measure, which is usually the weakest, is called the
question
true
answer
Conducting patterns should coincide with the
question
true
answer
A melody is a succession of tones logically conceived so as to make musical sense.
question
phrases
answer
A melody consists of one or more parts that are called
question
cadences
answer
The stopping points that "punctuate" melodic phrases are called
question
a b
answer
The melodic form of "Row, Row, Row Your Boat" is:
question
abab modified
answer
The melodic form of the "Jingle Bells" refrain is:
question
aaba modified
answer
The melodic form of "Deck the Halls" is:
question
contour
answer
A written melody forms a linear pattern on the staff called the
question
stepwise
answer
When the pitches of a melody lie close to one another on the staff, the melodic line is smooth or
question
disjunct
answer
When the pitches of a melody occur in wide intervals, the melodic line is angular or
question
false
answer
A sequence is the repetition of a melodic phrase at the same pitch level.
question
false
answer
All cadences convey the same degree of arrival or finality.
question
ostinato
answer
A melodic and/or rhythmic pattern that is repeated many times is a(n)
question
three blind mice
answer
An example of a melodic sequence occurs in the beginning of
question
jingle bells
answer
An example of motivic repetition occurs near the beginning of
question
true
answer
Rhythmic patterns, phrase structure, and contour are some of the qualities that distinguish one melody from another.
question
tune
answer
A melody is sometimes referred to as a
question
motive
answer
A short melodic idea that sounds fragmentary is a
question
lyrical
answer
A melody with a songlike character is
question
theme
answer
A recurring melody in a movement, a section of a movement, or an entire composition is called a
question
half step
answer
The distance from any note on a keyboard to its nearest neighbor in either direction is a(n)
question
true
answer
Two half steps comprise one whole step.
question
half step
answer
The smallest interval traditionally used in Western music is the
question
true
answer
A scale is an ascending or descending pattern of half and whole steps with the range of one octave.
question
false
answer
The most commonly used scales in Eastern music are major and minor.
question
five whole steps and two half steps
answer
Major and minor scales each contain
question
diatonic
answer
The scales in Western music are referred to as
question
WWHWWWH
answer
The ascending major scale pattern is
question
WHWWHWW
answer
The ascending minor scale pattern is
question
tonic
answer
The first and last note of either the major or minor scale is called the
question
key
answer
The tonic note of the scale upon which a composition is based is also the name of the __________ in which the piece is written.
question
false
answer
The whole-tone scale divides the octave into eight whole steps.
question
half steps
answer
The chromatic scale divides the octave into
question
tonic
answer
Melodies based on the major or minor scales always lead to and conclude on the
question
true
answer
The whole-tone scale has no leading tone.
question
pentatonic
answer
A five-tone scale within the range of an octave is called the
question
merrily we roll along
answer
One melody that can be played on the black keys of the piano is
question
true
answer
There are an unlimited number of possible scale patterns.
question
strophic
answer
When a song consists of two or more verses that are set to the same music, it is said to be in _______ form.
question
refrain
answer
A recurring section of text and melody that follows each verse of a song is called a
question
true
answer
In music, two or more different tones sounded together produce harmony.
question
false
answer
In music, harmony signifies a pleasant or desirable condition.
question
false
answer
In music, dissonance implies a negative or undesirable situation.
question
consonance
answer
In music, the opposite of dissonance is
question
dissonant
answer
When two or more simultaneous pitches create a sense of tension and drive, they are said to be
question
false
answer
Consonance and dissonance are relative rather than absolute terms, meaningful only when compared to each other.
question
octave
answer
The most consonant interval is a
question
false
answer
The standard by which sounds are labeled "consonant" and "dissonant" remains constant through time but differs from culture to culture.
question
chord
answer
Three or more pitches sounding simultaneously to form a whole comprise a
question
dissonance resolves the tension created by consonance.
answer
The relationship between dissonance and consonance in tonal music may be summarized as:
question
all of the above
answer
Chords may be constructed upon the following intervals:
question
thirds
answer
The most common interval used in chord construction in traditional Western music is
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tonal
answer
When two or more simultaneous pitches create a sense of stability or rest, they are said to be
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true
answer
Although melody is consecutive and "linear" while harmony is simultaneous and "vertical," the two concepts are in fact interrelated, and work closely together.
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tonal
answer
The system of harmony that has been prevalent in the West for nearly three hundred years is called the __________ system.
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false
answer
Tonality refers to the dominance of the dominant note over other pitches in the major or minor scale.
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dominant
answer
The fifth step of a diatonic scale is called the
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true
answer
The dominant triad seems to lead toward the tonic.
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subdominant
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The fourth step of a diatonic scale is called the
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true
answer
The subdominant triad provides a somewhat weaker sense of drive toward the tonic chord than the dominant triad.
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none of the above
answer
The strongest harmonic relationship or "pull" in the tonal system is
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texture
answer
Melodic lines, used singly, combined with one another, or accompanied by harmony, form
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monophony
answer
A single, unaccompanied melodic line has a type of texture called
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polyphony
answer
A texture that involves melody used in two or more lines simultaneously is called
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homophony
answer
When a primary melody is accompanied by other, subordinate voices that produce harmony, the texture is called
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polyphonic
answer
A round is an example of __________ texture.
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homophonic
answer
A hymn sung with accompaniment is an example of ___________ texture.
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false
answer
Because polyphony consists of simultaneous, independent melodies, it can not produce harmony.
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1600's
answer
The modern concept of tonal harmony based on major and minor scales was accepted in the
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false
answer
Harmony is an essential element of non-Western music.
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timbre
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The quality of sound that is characteristic of a particular voice, instrument, or ensemble is called its
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true
answer
Timbre in music is often compared to color in art, and different instrumental or vocal sounds may be described as having different "colors."
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true
answer
Timbre is largely determined by the shape of the sound waves produced by a voice or instrument.
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all of the above
answer
Timbre can be affected by
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false
answer
The range of "colors" or timbres in music is not nearly as great as the range of colors in the visual arts.
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true
answer
Modern composers have expanded the range of acceptable, "musical" timbres to include both mechanical and natural sounds.
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false
answer
A contralto's voice is often lighter and thinner than a soprano's.
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true
answer
A high baritone may sing in the tenor range, but the timbre of the baritone's voice is richer or "darker" than a tenor's.
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French horns, violins, drums, and pianos.
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The four families of instruments within an orchestra are the
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by blowing gently into the soundhole.
answer
The instruments in the string family may be played in any of the following ways except
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harp
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The stringed instrument in the orchestra that is always plucked is the
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all of the above
answer
The stringed instruments that are normally not included in the orchestra include the
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clarinet
answer
The woodwind family includes the piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, __________, and bassoon.
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french horn
answer
Included in the brass family are the trumpet, ____________, trombone, and tuba.
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true
answer
The brass instruments have cupped mouthpieces and flared "bells."
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xylophone
answer
Percussion instruments that produce definite pitches include the timpani, the chimes, and mallet instruments such as the
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cymbals
answer
Percussion instruments that produce indefinite pitches include the tambourine, triangle, __________, and drums.
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false
answer
All keyboard instruments produce their sound through vibrating strings that are either plucked or struck when the player presses down on a key.
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plectrum
answer
When the key of a harpsichord is depressed, a small piece called the ___________ plucks one of the strings.
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false
answer
The tones of a harpsichord last longer than those of a piano.
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sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries.
answer
The harpsichord was of great importance during the
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sustain tones after the keys have been lifted.
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The damper pedal of the piano allows the pianist to
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with a wider range of dynamic levels.
answer
Compared to the harpsichord, the piano allows the performer to play
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true
answer
The organ is a keyboard instrument whose tones are produced by wind going through sets of pipes of various lengths and materials.
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pipe organ
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The "king of instruments" is the
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stops
answer
The adjusting levers, buttons, or handles on an organ are called
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synsthesizer
answer
An electronic instrument that can produce an unlimited variety of sounds as well as modify sounds produced by other sources is the
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true
answer
The advent of electronic composition has allowed some composers to completely bypass the uncertainties of live performance.
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true
answer
MIDI is a recently developed system that allows musicians and composers to control synthesizers, sound modules, and drum machines from a computer.
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hearing a live performance
answer
The best and most satisfying way to experience music is
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all of the above
answer
Some of the elements that can differ in every performance are
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true
answer
Both performing and listening to music are highly subjective experiences.
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false
answer
Listening repeatedly to the same recording helps the listener discern the difference between the quality of the performance and that of the composition.
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Listening to different recordings of the same work
answer
Listening to different recordings of the same work
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concertmaster
answer
Shortly before an orchestral performance is to begin, the first violinist, known as the ____________, enters the stage.
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oboist
answer
The assistant to the conductor calls the orchestra to attention and then gestures to the _________ to play a tuning pitch.
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A
answer
The pitch to which the orchestra and band tunes is
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true
answer
If a keyboard instrument is included in the ensemble, the other instruments must tune to it, since the tuning of a piano or organ cannot be quickly adjusted.
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conductor
answer
The last person to enter the stage, just before the concert begins, is the
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true
answer
The size of the orchestra can vary according to the style of music being performed.
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true
answer
During the nineteenth century, several new instruments were added to the orchestra, making the orchestras bigger than eighteenth-century orchestras.
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smaller
answer
A twentieth-century trend toward restraint and control of resources has led many composers to write for ___________ ensembles.
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repetition and contrast
answer
Formal design in music is based on the principles of
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In order to understand and appreciate the form of a musical work, a listener must
answer
In order to understand and appreciate the form of a musical work, a listener must
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symphony
answer
A multimovement orchestral work is called a
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true
answer
Because a symphony is conceived as a whole, it is seldom appropriate to applaud between the movements of a symphony.
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concerto
answer
A multimovement work that exploits the contrasts between a soloist and the orchestra is called a
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program
answer
Music based upon a literary or extramusical subject is called _____________ music.
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tempo
answer
A printed program provides the title and composer of each composition, as well as the __________, mood, or title of each movement of a multimovement work.
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brass
answer
A band consists of instruments from the woodwind, ___________, and percussion families.
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true
answer
Composers now write music specifically for symphonic band.
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-Philosophers ; writers considered it the "Age of Enlightenment." -Ideals of human equality and freedom grew -American and French Revolution took place.
answer
Classical Period stuff
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Polyphonic; Homophonic
answer
Late Baroque Music is characterized by ______ texture and classical music is ______ texture
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More and more music was written for amateurs who couldn't master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass.
answer
Basso Continuo became obsolute during the classical era b/c...
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-EARLY composers wrote pieces that were easy for amateurs to play. -Composers wrote more COMIC operas, some w/ plots that ridiculed the aristocracy. -Composers used FOLK SONGS as theres an instrumental music and composed melodies w/ a rustic (country) flavor.
answer
Influence of muddle class taste on classical music
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A phrase w/ an INCONCLUSIVE followed by a phrase w/ a CONCLUSIVE ending.
answer
Balance & symmetry in melody of classical era having the for AA'
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Polyphony
answer
Imitation is a characteristic of _______
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-Change in rhythm within MOVEMENT -Change from one rhythmic pattern to another might be SUDDEN or GRADUAL -Has unexpected PAUSES ; SYNCOPATION
answer
Rhythm in classical era..
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-FRENCH HORNS ; CLARINET began to be used. -Used STRINGS, WIND, BRASS, AND PERCUSSION instruments.
answer
Orchestra
question
Fast/slow/dance-related/fast
answer
ORCHESTRA or STRING QUARTET, the tempos of the 4 movements typically followed the pattern...?
question
Mozart Haydn Beethoven
answer
3 masters of this era
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-Emphasizing BALANCE through unity ; logic w/ a wide emotional range -Firmly controlled changed of mood in music, however abrupt or extreme the change may be.
answer
Composers shaped the expression of mood in music by...
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-Left position as court musician in early life -Worked as a freelance musician -Fell into debt after his popularity w. musical public declined:(
answer
Career of Mozart
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-Bought tickets to see orchestras and shows -Paid for family to take musical lessons -Bought instruments ; printed music for use in home
answer
Middle Class enjoyed music by...
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Strings Woodwinds Brass
answer
Instruments in the orchestra of Haydn or Mozart
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Rhythm
answer
Flexibility of was a characteristic of classical style
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-Folk or popular style -Easy to remember -Tuneful
answer
MELODY in the classical era
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-From DRAMATIC to CAREFREE moods -Multiple themes -Contrasts within themes
answer
MOOD in classical era compared to baroque
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-Can shift flexibly from one texture to another -More HOMOPHONIC than POLYPHONIC
answer
TEXTURE in classical era compared to baroque
question
-Have CONTRASTING SECTIONS with different themes and tonalities -Balance ; release of tension would be achieved by the end of the movement
answer
MOVEMENT of music in classical era
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TRUE
answer
Composers did NOT employ one type of instrument in place of another (t/f)
question
Beethoven Mozart Haydn
answer
Who worked in Vienna during the classical period
question
-Use 2 or more THEMES in ONE MOVEMENT -Have music pause to signal the entrance of new theme -Contrast themes vividly
answer
Composer characteristics of this era
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-FRENCH HORNS ; TRUMPETS strengthened loud passages but could play more quietly to fill out the harmony -1st VIOLINS usually played the MELODY, and LOWER STRINGS played the ACCOMPANIMENT. -The WOODWINDS provided tone colors that contrasted w/ that of the violins ; even played the melody.
answer
Functions of instrumental sections in the orchestra
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Monumental baroque-->Graceful rococo-->neoclassical
answer
Change in artistic styles in 18th C
question
-Spent most of his life working for an aristocratic family. -Composed music ordered by his employer -Status was a skilled servant
answer
Haydn
question
1. Polyphony -->Tuneful melody & simple harmony-->contrasts of mood & theme-->balance & clarity 2. Baroque -->preclassical-->style galant(rococo)-->classical
answer
2 sequences best represent musical developments in Europe in period 1750-1820
question
-Many nobility treated him as their equal -Enjoyed success thanks to a growing middle class audience
answer
Beethoven
question
-Aristocrats sometimes accompanied musicians, including Empress Maria Therera ; Empire Joseph II. -Street musicians could perform profitably there ; be hired to play for outdoor garden parties -Aristocrats from all over the Holy Roman Empire spent the winter there, bringing their private orchestras with them.
answer
Vienna Importances
question
Composers emphasized balance thru unity and logic in music with a wide emotional range. Composers firmly controlled changes of mood in their music, however abrupt or extreme the change might be.
answer
Which two of the following statements best illustrate how classical composers shaped expression mood in their music?
question
Pathetique
answer
Beethoven gave his Piano Sonata in C Minor OP. 13 the title Pathetique because of its passionate character.
question
More and more music was written for amateurs who could not master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass.
answer
One reason that basso CONTINUO became obsolete during the classical era?
question
Clarinet began to be used. Its used string, wind, brass and percussion instruments.
answer
True statements about orchestra of the classical period
question
A phrase with an inconclusive ending followed by a phrase with a conclusive ending
answer
Balance and symmetry in a typical melody of the classical era having the form AA
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Each variation is usually about the same length as the theme
answer
In the theme and variations form of the classical period
question
Dynamics
answer
The element of music that sounds loud or soft (quiet) is
question
Philosophers and writers considered it an "age of enlightenment." The ideals of human equality and freedom grew in prominence. American and French Revolution took place.
answer
Occurred during the classical period
question
Minuet-trio-minuet
answer
Minuet and trio form
question
Beethoven, Mozart, and Haydn
answer
Master composers of the classical era?
question
FALSE. Flexibility and rhythm adds variety ot classical music
answer
Flexibility of rhythm was NOT a characteristic of the classical style
question
Robust, direct and with a sense of optimism and humor, it was influenced by folk music and his love of nature.
answer
Haydn's musical style
question
monumental baroque - graceful rococo - neoclassical
answer
Changes in artistic styles in the eighteenth century
question
Fast/slow/dance-related/fast
answer
In a classical era work for orchestra or string quartet the tempos of the four movements typically followed which of the following patterns?
question
A rondo can be an independent movement or the final movement of a multi-movement work such as a symphony or sonata. Rondo pattern A B A C A B A the C theme may be replaced by a development section to create a sonata-rondo.
answer
Rondo form?
question
Using the classical forms and techniques of Morzart and Haydn, Beethoven added innovations that bridged the classic and romantic areas. Beethoven's music has strong tension and dissonances, wide ranges of pitch and dynamics, and titanic climaxes. Composed long movements yet used various means of unity to give his works cohesion.
answer
Beethoven's musical style
question
Polyphonic, homophonic
answer
Late baroque music was characterized by Polyphonic texture whereas classical music is basically in Homophonic texture.
question
Composed music ordered by his employer. Spent most of his life working for one aristocratic family. Haydn's status was that of a skilled servant.
answer
Franz Joseph Haydn Career
question
Sometimes the minuet and trio is the second movement and the slow movement is the third
answer
A work for string quartet in the classical era had the same pattern of movements as a symphony except that?
question
Is in a key other than the tonic key of the other movements. Slow tempo and song-like theme. May be in sonata (sonata-allegro) form or theme and variations form.
answer
Characteristics of the second movement of a classical symphony
question
They purchased instruments and printed music for use in the home. They bought tickets to public concerts of symphonies and concertos. The paid for music lessons for family members.
answer
Middle class public of classical era enjoyed music
question
Finale movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony calls for four vocal soloists and choir. Beethoven completed nine symphonies. They are entirely instrumental except the Ninth symphony. Beethoven's odd numbered symphonies are powerful and assertive his even numbered symphonies are calm and lyrical.
answer
Beethoven's symphonies
question
A tuneful main theme returns in alternation with other themes (as in the form ABACA)
answer
Rondo form
question
The point in the movement when the cadenza is to be played is indicated by a fermata. The orchestra momentarily stops playing while the soloist plays dazzling scale passages and broken chords. Cadenzas were originally improvised but later were written out by the composer.
answer
Cadenza in most classical concertos
question
Early classical composers wrote pieces that were easy for amateurs to play. Classical composers used folk songs as themes in instrumental music and composed melodies with rustic (country) flavor. Classical composers wrote more comic operas some with plots that ridiculed the aristocracy.
answer
Influence of the middle class tastes on classical music
question
The finale is a triumphant climax to the work. Finished in 1808
answer
Beethoven's Symphony No 5
question
Exposition-development-recapitulation-coda
answer
Typical sequence of events in a movement in sonata-allergro (sonata) form
question
Beethoven's fourth movement tended to be more triumphant in character.
answer
Beethoven's fourth movement differs from those of Haydn and Mozart
question
It may have a slow introduction, it is usually in sonata form, it has fast tempo and dramatic mood
answer
Characteristics of the first movement of a classical symphony
question
Ability to bring characters to life through music by drawing on his inexhaustible gift for melody. Keen sense of theater with humorous and serious characters in his comic opera plots. Coordination of music and stage action.
answer
Mozart's operas techniquess
question
TRUE
answer
Unlike earlier composers classical composers did NOT readily employ one type of instrument in place of another such as an oboe for a violin
question
Violin, cello and piano. Two violins, viola and cello. violin and piano
answer
Typical ensembles that played chamber music in the classical era
question
Cadenza
answer
Musical passage that the piano begins in this audio selecion
question
Innovative harmonies contrasting with song like lyricism. Balance, restraint, and proportion. Ease, grace and spontaneity.
answer
Adjectives summarize or typify the music of Mozart
question
The selection is an operatic ensemble in which several led characters are heard singing different words simultaneously. The selection is form Act 1 Mozart's opera Don Giovanni
answer
Which of the following statement about this audio selection are true
question
The failure of the opera Don Giovanni in Vienna led to a decline in Mozart's popularity
answer
Mozart's final years and premature death
question
Piano sonata in C Minor Op 13 movement I by Beethoven
answer
What is the work in this audio recording and who composed it
question
Beethoven's 32 piano sonatas benefited from the expanded capabilities resulting from advances in the manufacture of the piano. Experimented and tested new ideas in his piano sonatas some of which were then used in his string quartets and symphonies.
answer
Beethoven's piano sonatas
question
Polyphony-tuneful melody and simple harmony-contrasts of mood and theme- balance and clarity. Baroque-preclassical-style galant (rococo) - classical
answer
Musical development in Europe in the period 1750 - 1820
question
String quartets, piano concertos, and symphonies
answer
Mozart excelled
question
The character leporello is a comical servant who dreams of being in his master Don Giovanni's place. Cemetery statue of military officer whom Don Giovanni murdered miraculously come to life. The libretto combines elements of comic opera (slapstick humor) with serious opera (violence and immorality)
answer
Mozart and Don Giovanni
question
First movement is in sonata allegro form with two expositions. Begins with only the orchestra playing. There is no modulation to a new key until near the end of the second exposition.
answer
First movement of a classical concerto
question
Mozart, Don Giovanni, Act I Aria by Leoporello
answer
Identifies the composer, work and character
question
Scherzo
answer
As an alternative to the minuet and trio form for his third movement, Beethoven often used the
question
Skilled servant, Entered the service of the Esterhazy family for whom he worked for almost thirty years. Haydn composed a vast amount of music in many forms.
answer
Haydn's Early Career
question
used ear trumpets and in conversations people had to write their questions comments in notebooks. After 1818 out of total deafness Beethoven composed magnificent piano sonatas, string, quartets and the Ninth Symphony. After age 44 he was so deaf he could not perform piano in public and his conducting was ineffective.
answer
Beethoven's final years
question
His music became popular all over Europe. He composed twelve symphonies for performance in London in the 1790s. Choruses and orchestras were formed solely to perform his oratories, the Creation and The Seasons.
answer
Haydn in his later career
question
Aristocrats in Vienna were sometimes accomplished musicians including the Empress Maria Theresa and the Emperor Joseph II. Aristocrats from all over the holy roman empire spent the winter there bringing their private orchestras with them. Street musicians could perform profitably in Vienna and be hired to play for outdoor garden parties.
answer
Vienna in the era of classical music
question
The 2nd movement of Haydn's Symphony No 94 in G Major
answer
Example of music theme and variations forms
question
Haydn, Beethoven, and Mozart
answer
Composers worked in Vienna during the classical period
question
Haydn, Trumpet Concerto in E flat Major Third Movement
answer
Audio Recording title
question
This is a rondo theme in the style of a Gypsy violinist playing a folk dance. Like many rondo themes this one is lively and easy to remember
answer
String Quartet in C Minor Op 18 No 4 Fourth movement Rondo (Allegro)
question
Woodwinds and strings play the short-short-short-long rhythmic idea that unifies the symphony. A Bridge following the third movement connects the fourth movement. The trumpets proclaim the main theme of the final movement.
answer
Beethoven's fifth symphony
question
A lyric theme in the woodwinds becomes a loud theme in the brass instruments.
answer
2nd movement of Beethoven's fifth symphony
question
Entry of the lyric 2nd theme in the exposition of a movement in sonata from following the end of the bridge. Conclusion of the bridge in the exposition of a movement in sonata form. A bass line that emphasizes the arrival at a new key.
answer
Mozart's Symphony No 40 in G Minor
question
Ease, grace, and spontaneity. Innovative harmonies contrasting with song like lyricism. balance, restraint and proportion.
answer
Mozart's Music
question
Polyphony-tuneful melody and simple harmony-contrasts of mood and theme-balance and clarity. Baroque-preclassical-style galant (rococo)-classica
answer
Europe in the period 1750-1820 best represent musical development
question
A change from one rhythmic pattern to another might be sudden or gradual. Had changes in rhythmic within a movement. Unexpected pauses and syncopation.
answer
Characteristics of rhythm in music of the classical era
question
Written Oct 1785 to May 1786. The lyrical and elegant mood of this concerto and its key of A major is shared by a love duet in Don Giovanni and the clarinet concerto in A major. Mozart wrote that this concerto was one of "the compositions I keep for myself."
answer
Mozart's piano concerto in A major K. 488
question
Pathetique
answer
Beethoven gave his Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13, the title ______ because of its passionate character.
question
- innovative harmonies contrasting with song-like lyricism - balance, restraint, and proportion - ease, grace, and spontaneity
answer
Which of the following adjectives summarize or typify the music of Mozart?
question
continuo
answer
One reason that basso _______ became obsolete during the classical era was that more and more music was written for amateurs who could not master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass.
question
sometimes the minuet and trio is the second movement, and the slow movement is the third.
answer
A work for string quartet in the classical era had the same pattern of movements as a symphony, except that
question
- he fell int debt after his popularity with the musical public declined - he left his position as a court musician in early life - he worked as a freelance musician
answer
Which of the following are true statements about the career of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart?
question
- a slow introduction may precede a fast tempo for the rest of the movement. - it is usually in sonata (sonata-allegro) form. - it has fast tempo and dramatic mood
answer
Which of the following are common characteristics of the first movement of a classical symphony?
question
dynamics.
answer
The element of music that sounds loud or soft (quiet) is
question
- ability to bring characters to life through music by drawing on his inexhaustible gift for melody - coordination of music and stage action - keen sense of theater, with humorous and serious characters in his comic opera plots.
answer
Which of the following techniques summarize Mozart's operas?
question
polyphonic; homophonic
answer
Late baroque music was characterized by a ______ texture, whereas classical music is basically ______ in texture.
question
- polyphony ; tuneful melody and simple harmony ; contrasts of mood and theme ; balance and clarity - baroque ; preclassical ; style galant (rococo) ; classical
answer
Which two sequences best represent musical developments in Europe in the period 1750-1820?
question
each variation is usually about the same length as the theme.
answer
In the theme-and-variations form of the classical period,
question
Fast/slow/dance-related/fast
answer
In a classical-era work for orchestra or string quarter, the tempos of the four movements typically followed which of the following patterns?
question
- Cadenzas were originally improvised but later were written out by the composer. - The orchestra momentarily stops playing while the soloist plays dazzling scale passages and broken chords. - The point in the movement when the cadenza is to be played is indicated by a fermata.
answer
Which of the following are true statements about the cadenza in most classical concertos?
question
- woodwinds - strings - brass
answer
Which of the following were sections (groups) of instruments in the typical orchestra of Haydn or Mozart?
question
minuet ; trio ; minuet
answer
Which of the following sequences accurately represent minuet and trio form?
question
- Beethoven - Haydn - Mozart
answer
Who were the tree master composers of the classical era?
question
A phrase with an inconclusive ending followed by a phrase with a conclusive ending
answer
Which of the following best describes the balance and symmetry in atypical melody of the classical era having the form A A'?
question
- There are many ways of combining the soloist and orchestra, such as the soloist accompanying the orchestra when it has the theme. - The classical concerto combines the wide range of dynamics and tone colors of the orchestra with the curiosity of the soloist. - the classical concerto is a three-movement work for instrumental soloist and orchestra.
answer
Which of the following are true statements about the classical concertos?
question
A tuneful main theme returns in alteration with other themes (as in the form ABACA).
answer
Which of the following best describes the rondo form?
question
False
answer
True or false: Flexibility of rhythm was not a characteristic of the classical style.
question
monumental baroque > graceful rococo > neoclassical
answer
Which of the following lists best describes changes in artistic styles in the eighteenth century?
question
- Beethoven's first style period (up to 1802) showed Beethoven's unique style emerging from the influence of Haydn and Mozart. - During his third style period (1814-1827), Beethoven wrote fugues and surprisingly "modern" music that was difficult the play.
answer
Which of the following statements about the three style periods into which Beethoven's works are usually divided?
question
- The first movement begins with only the orchestra playing. - The first movement is in sonata (sonata-allegro) form with two expositions. - There is no modulation to a new key until near the end of the second exposition.
answer
Which of the following are true statements about the first movement of a classical concerto?
question
- A classical era movement had contrasts within themes. - Classical music fluctuated from dramatic to carefree moods. - A classical-era movement had multiple themes.
answer
Which of the following accurately describe mood in classical-era music, particularly in contrast to baroque music?
question
- It was influenced by folk music and his love of nature. - It often had a sense of humor. - It was robust, direct, and with a sense of optimism.
answer
Which of the following are accurate assessments of Haydn's musical style?
question
- Classical composers wrote more comic operas, some with plots that ridiculed the aristocracy. - Early classical composers wrote pieces that were easy for amateurs to play. - Classical composers used folk songs as themes in instrumental music and composed melodies with a rustic (country) flavor.
answer
Which of the following statements accurately interpret the influence of middle-class tastes on classical music?
question
- Beethoven composed long movements, yet used various means of unity to give his works cohesion. - Using the classical forms and techniques of Mozart and Haydn, Beethoven added innovations that bridged the classic and romantic eras. - Beethoven's music has strong tension and dissonances, wide ranges of pitch and dynamics, and titanic climaxes.
answer
Which of the following statements about Beethoven's musical style are correct?
question
first theme > bridge > second theme > closing section > repeat from the beginning
answer
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the typical sequence of events in the exposition of a classical-era sonata form?
question
- Variety was created from many changes in texture, key, rhythm, dynamics, and orchestration. - Haydn was prone to modifying rules of composition and experimenting with the new methods or forms. - Haydn's themes are often humorous, achieved by unexpected pauses and sudden shifts in tempo, dynamics, or pitch.
answer
Which of the following are accurate characterizations of Haydn's technique of composing?
question
- They bought tickets to public concerts of symphonies and concertos. - They paid for music lessons for family members. - They purchased instruments and printed music for use in the home.
answer
Which of the following statements describe how the middle-class public of the classical era enjoyed music?
question
- Beethoven's 32 piano sonatas benefited from the expanded capabilities resulting from advances in the manufacture of the piano. - Beethoven experimented and tested new ideas in his piano sonatas, some of which were then used in his string quartets. - Beethoven experimented and tested new ideas in his piano sonatas, some of which were then used in his symphonies.
answer
Which of the following are true statements about Beethoven's piano sonatas?
question
- In classical music, a change from one rhythmic pattern to another might be sudden or gradual. - Classical music has unexpected pauses and syncopations. - Classical music had changes in rhythm within a movement.
answer
Which of the following are characteristics of rhythm in music of the classical era?
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- Beethoven completed nine symphonies. They are entirely instrumental, except the Ninth Symphony. - The Finale movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony calls for four vocal soloists and a choir. - Beethoven's odd-numbered symphonies are powerful and assertive; his even-numbered symphonies are clam and lyrical.
answer
Which of the following are accurate statements about Beethoven's symphonies?
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scherzo.
answer
As an alternative to the minuet-and-trio form for his third movements, Beethoven often used the
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- In the rondo pattern A B A C A B A, the C theme may be replaced by a development section to create a sonata-rondo. - A rondo can be an independent movement or the final movement of a multimovement work such as a symphony or sonata.
answer
Which of the following are true statements about rondo form?
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- Voltaire and other philosophers believed in progress. - Political and economic power shifted from the aristocracy to the middle class. - Human conduct was increasingly guided by reason rather than custom or tradition.
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Which of the following changes in European culture took place between the baroque era and the classical era?
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- This concerto was written in a period (October 1785 to May 1786) when Mozart composed a number of important concertos, operas, and other music. - The lyrical and elegant mood of this concerto and its key of A major is shared by a love duet in Don Giovanni and the Clarinet Concerto in A Major. - Mozart wrote that this concerto was one of "the compositions I keep for myself..."
answer
Which of the following statements indicate significant aspects of Mozart's Piano Concerto in A Major, K. 488?
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The failure of the opera Don Giovanni in Vienna led to a decline in Mozart's popularity.
answer
Which of the following statements about Mozart's final years and premature death are accurate?
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True
answer
True or false: Unlike earlier composers, classical composers did not readily employ one type of instrument in place of another, such as an oboe for a violin.
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- After 1818, out of total deafness, Beethoven composed magnificent piano sonatas, string quartets, and the Ninth Symphony. - Beethoven used ear trumpets, and in conversations, people had to write their questions and comments in notebooks for him to read. - After age 44, Beethoven was so deaf he could not perform piano in public, and his conducting was ineffective.
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Which of the following are true statements about Beethoven's final years?
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- Soon after arriving in Vienna, Beethoven became popular with the public and nobility alike. - Beethoven began to go deaf in his late twenties but found new determination to be a composer in his Heiligenstadt Testament (1802).
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Which of the following are true statements about Beethoven's adult career?
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- Beethoven - Mozart - Haydn
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Which of the following composers worked in Vienna during the classical period?
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- He composed twelve symphonies for performance in London in the 1790s. - His music became popular all over Europe. - Choruses and orchestras were formed solely to perform his oratorios The Creation and The Seasons.
answer
Which of the following are true statements about Haydn in his later career?
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exposition > development > recapitulation > coda
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Which of the following correctly represent the typical sequence of events in a movement in sonata-allegro (sonata) form?
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With Beethoven, the fourth movements tended to be more triumphant in character.
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In the classical symphony, how did Beethoven's fourth movements differ from those of Haydn and Mozart?
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- As an adolescent, Beethoven impressed Mozart with his performance skills. - Before he was a teenager he had several piano pieces published. - He was born in Bonn, Germany, into a musical family.
answer
Which of the following are true statements about Beethoven's childhood and youth?
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- He learned the characteristic music of each country and city he visited, such as opera in Italy. - He was a child prodigy who toured throughout Europe, performing before the public and before Louis XV of France and other royalty. - He could improvise fugues at age 6, compose symphonies by age 8, and wrote an opera at age 12.
answer
Which of the following are true statements about Mozart's child and youth?
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- Haydn entered the service of the Esterhazy family, for whom he worked for almost thirty years. - Haydn composed a vast amount of music in many forms. - Haydn was given the rank of skilled servant.
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Which of the following are true statements about Haydn's early career?
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the bridge between the first and second themes does not modulate, and the second theme is in the tonic key.
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The crucial aspect of the recapitulation in a sonata movement is that
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The second movement of Haydn's Symphony No. 94 in g Major
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Which of the following is an example of music in theme-and-variations form?
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- Haydn was born in an Austrian village. - For a time, Haydn was a poor street musician. - Haydn served as a choirboy in Vienna.
answer
Which of the following are true statements about Haydn's childhood and youth?
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1750-1820
answer
What is the approximate dates which encompasses musical Classical period
question
Preclassical : the transition from Baroque style to the full flowering of the classical, roughly 1730-1770. Classical: Refer to Greek or Roman antiquity; 1750-1820
answer
Define and date the stylistic phases 1. Pre classical 2. Classical
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A style of light, graceful music, comparable to the Rococo style.
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Describe the following stylistic traits of the Classical period: A) Style Galant
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May change gradually or suddenly, expressing conflicting surges of elation and depression
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B) Mood Contrasts
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Adds variety, includes unexpected pauses, syncopation and frequent changes from long notes to shorter notes
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C) Rhythmic Flexibility
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Home phone, treated as flexibly as rhythm, can change from a homophonic to a polyphonic
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D) Varieties of Texture
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Ground balanced and symmetrical because they are frequently made up of 2 phrases of the same length 2nd may begin like the 1st but end more conclusively
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E) Melodic Traits
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Crescendo and decrescendos were an electrifying novelty with gradual change not restricting
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F) Dynamics
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More and more music was written for amateurs and classical composers wanted more control
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G) End of Basso Contimuo
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Because the Piano was not as interesting during the Baroque period the classical period brought it into their music and the way it was presented it took off.
answer
Summarize the evolution of the classical instruments: Piano
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Standard group of four sections: strings, Woodwinds, brass, and percussion
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The Orchestra
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A form of 1st movement; consisting of 3 main sections: 1- Exposition: theme are presented; 2- Development: themes are treated in new ways; 3- Recapitulation: themes return
answer
Describe the following Classical forms: Sonata Form:
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Theme: is repeated overs and over and Is changed each time variation will change ABCD Variation: about the same length as the theme, is unique and may differ in mood from the theme.
answer
Theme and Variation
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Tuneful theme returns several times in alternation with other themes like ABCA & ABACABA; lively, pleasing and simple to remember
answer
Rondo
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Is a combination of elements from sonata form to produce a sonata-rondo ABA - development section -ABA
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Sonata-rondo
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2 slow movement 3 Dance related movement 4 Fast movement
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2,3 and 4 movement patterns
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Minuet- Written for listening, it is a triple meter ((3/4) , usually in a moderate tempo, movement is in ABA form Trio- is usually quieter, requires fewer instruments, contains woodwind solos
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Minuet and trio
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Whole composition make up of several movement
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Sonata
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Is an extended, ambitious typically lasting between 20-45 minutes, exploiting the expanded twanged of tone color and dynamics of the classical orchestra. Has 4 movements which has a wide range of emotions
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Symphony
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Light in mood, meant for evening entertainment. Written for small orchestra or for a string quartet plus a double bass
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Divertimento (serenade)
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Is a 3 movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra
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Concerto
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Italian for Cadence. Near the end of the movement, the orchestra suspends forward motion by briefly sustaining a dissonant chord
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Cadenza
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Is designed for the intimate setting of a room (chamber) in a home or palace, performed by a small group of 2-9 musicians with 1 player to a part
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Chamber music
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Written for 2 violins, a viola, and a cello
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String quartet
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1732-1809; was the pathfinder for the classical style, a pioneer in the development of the symphony and string quartet. Composed The Creation; The Seasons; Symphony 94
answer
Haydn
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1756-1791; was among the most versAtile of all composers: he wrote masterpieces in all the musical forms of his time. He composed; The Marriage of Figaro; Don Giovanni, and Cost Fan Tutte-All women Behave Like This.
answer
Mozart
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1770-1827, opened new realms of musical expression that profoundly influenced composers throughout the 19th century. Composed Piano Sonata, Symphony No 5 , and Symphony No 6
answer
Beethoven
question
the coda
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The final section of a sonata-allegro movement, which rounds it off with a vigorous closing cadence, is:
question
It has a march like character
answer
Which of the following best describes the opening of the first movement of Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik?
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True
answer
The minuet was originally a Baroque court dance.
question
A-B-A
answer
The overall form of a minuet and trio is best described as:
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False
answer
The Trumpet Concerto in E-flat is Haydn's only concerto
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False
answer
Mozart was able to complete so many masterworks due to his ling career
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used more chromatic harmonies
answer
In his third compositional period, Beethoven:
question
quasi una fantasia
answer
Beethoven gave his Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, No. 2 the designation:
question
False
answer
Beethoven was unable to compose music after he became deaf
question
True
answer
Beethoven achieved much acclaim during his lifetime and died a famous and revered composer.
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recapitulation
answer
The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, the development, and the:
question
the most gifted child prodigy in the history of music.
answer
Mozart is remembered today as:
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Requiem
answer
Mozart dies while writing his:
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True
answer
In the first movement of a classical concerto, there is usually a double exposition.
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the orchestra
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The typical first movement of a Classical concerto begins with:
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the poet Rellstab shortly after the composer's death
answer
Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, No. 2 was subtitled Moonlight by:
question
True
answer
The trumpet Concerto in E-flat major, composed in 1796, was Haydn's last orchestral work.
question
is in a modified song form
answer
The first movement of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, No. 2:
question
all of the above
answer
The dreamy first movement of the Moonlight Sonata features:
question
False
answer
Mozart's personal feelings are often evident in the works he composed
question
True
answer
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik is probably the best known of Mozart's serenades.
question
Salzburg
answer
W.A. Mozart was born and lived in the early part of his life in
question
True
answer
Mozart wrote his piano concertos primarily for his own public performances.
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Operas
answer
Mozart's financial circumstances depended largely on the popularity of his
question
All of these choices
answer
Mozart was highly successful in composing
question
is German for "A Little Night Music."
answer
eine kleine Nachtmusik:
question
False
answer
Mozart was consistently supported by Vienna's most important patrons.
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True
answer
Mozart's melodies are simple, elegant, and songful.
question
father
answer
Leopold Mozart was W.A. Mozart's
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True
answer
Mozart was a child prodigy, already composing music by the age of five.
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J.C. Bach
answer
When he was 8 years old, Mozart traveled to London to study with
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Vienna
answer
W.A. Mozart lived and worked most of his adult life in
question
False
answer
All of Mozart's operas were in Italian.
question
a serenade
answer
Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik is an example of:
question
the piano
answer
The instrument which Mozart played and for which he wrote many concertos was:
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He dies at the age of 65
answer
Which statement is NOT true about Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart?
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a Requiem mass
answer
At the time of his death, Mozart was working on this piece which was completed by one of his students.
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four
answer
How many movements does Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 have?
question
No. 3
answer
With which symphony did Beethoven begin to expand the possibilities of the genre?
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Metastasio
answer
The rigid conventions of opera seria were shaped largely by:
question
opera seria
answer
During the classical era, the prevalent form of the opera, which contained many recitatives and arias designed to display virtuosity, was called:
question
True
answer
Comic opera generally was sung un the language of the audience, or the vernacular
question
comic
answer
The tone of the Catalogue Aria from Mozart's Don Giovanni is:
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his last work, incomplete at his death
answer
Mozart's Requiem was:
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the Bible
answer
Oratorios primarily drew their stories from:
question
True
answer
The Dies irae is a poem in three-line rhymed verses
question
True
answer
The Dies irae from Mozart's Requiem includes solo voices
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Bonn, Germany
answer
Beethoven was born in
question
True
answer
Although Beethoven received support from music-loving aristocrats and other admirers, he functioned primarily as a freelance, composer
question
True
answer
Beethoven's music often features dramatic contrasts
question
Salzburg
answer
W.A. Mozart was born and lived the early part of his life in
question
False
answer
Beethoven was best known during his life as a virtuoso violinist
question
Beethoven's Missa Solemnis
answer
Along with J.S. Bach's Mass in b minor, this piece is considered the most significant Mass setting of the common practice era
question
All of the above
answer
Fidelio deals with the topics of
question
The piano provided women with a socially acceptable performance outlet
answer
Which of the following best describes the role of women in nineteenth-century music?
question
piano
answer
The most importnant keyboard instrument of the Romantic period was the:
question
False
answer
The poem Elfking was written by Heinrich Heine
question
True
answer
A song in which the same melody is repeated with every stanza of the text is in strophic form
question
Clara Schumann
answer
Which of the following was a noted woman composer of the Romantic era?
question
True
answer
Nineteenth-century society saw a few women make careers as professional musicians
question
strophic
answer
A song form in which the same melody is repeated with every stanza of text is called:
question
symphony
answer
Chopin composed works in all of the following genres EXCEPT the:
question
True
answer
Schubert's Lied Elfking is through composed
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love, longing, and nature
answer
The favorite subjects of the Romantic poets were:
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Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
answer
Which of the following composed the piano cycle The Year?
question
popular songs sung in a country's native language
answer
What is vernacular music?
question
Goethe
answer
Schubert's song Elfking is a setting of a ballad written by:
question
False
answer
Chopin's Mazurka in B-flat minor, Op. 24, No. 4 is in duple meter
question
The composers were always well known
answer
Which of the following does NOT describe American popular music of the nineteenth century?
question
Poland
answer
Chopin spent his early years in:
question
all of the above
answer
Nineteenth-century composers of the short, lyrics piano piece included:
question
Paris
answer
Chopin spent most of his productive life in:
question
a song cycle
answer
A group of Lieder unified by a narrative thread or by a descriptive or expressive theme is called:
question
False
answer
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel's cycle The year is her only symphonic poem
question
more than 600
answer
Approximately how many songs did Schubert compose?
question
False
answer
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel is known for her large-scale orchestral compositions
question
True
answer
Schubert composed over 600 Lieder
question
False
answer
Despite her gender, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel was encouraged by her family to pursure a career in music
question
Heinrich heine
answer
___ was NOT an important composer of the nineteenth-century Lieder
question
True
answer
Many Romantic piano works are in short, free forms.
question
piano
answer
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel wrote her cycle The year for:
question
False
answer
Schubert composed Elfking just before he died
question
When Johnny Comes Marching Home
answer
Stephen Foster composed all of the following sings EXCEPT:
question
sister
answer
The pianist/composer Fanny Mendelssohn was Felix Mendelssohn's:
question
Felix Menddelssohn
answer
Founded during the nineteenth century, the Leipzig Conservatory became a model for music schools all over Europe and America. Its founder and director was:
question
all of the above
answer
Nineteenth century composers of the short, lyrics piano piece included"
question
the modern piano style
answer
Chopin is credited with creating:
question
short, lyric piano pieces
answer
titles such as Prelude, Impromptu, and Intermezzo are used for:
question
False
answer
Nineteenth century musicians continued to be viewed by society as glorified servants
question
True
answer
One of the prime traits of Romantic artists was their emphasis on intense emotional expression
question
Robert Schumann
answer
This Romantic composer founded "The New Journal of Music" in the nineteenth century
question
Felix Mendelssohn
answer
This noted Romantic Era musician conducted the premier of Schubert's Great C Major Symphony a decade after the composer's death
question
a chant from the Mass for the Dead
answer
the Dies Irae is:
question
String Quartet in B-flat Major
answer
Which of the following compositions is LEAST likely to be an example of program music?
question
Liszt
answer
Which of the following composers was the first to use the term symphonic poem?
question
incidental music
answer
Music written for plays, generally consisting of an overture and a series of pieces to be performed between acts, is called:
question
Russia
answer
The "Mighty Five" were composers from:
question
all of the above
answer
What scene is depicted in Smetana's symphonic poem the Moldau?
question
four
answer
How many movements does a typical Romantic symphony contain?
question
the aristocratic palace to the public concert hall
answer
By the Romantic era, concerts had moved from:
question
Clara Schumann
answer
Brahms maintained a lifelong, close relationship with:
question
programmatic images
answer
Which of the following does NOT characterize Brahms's Symphony No. 3?
question
Vienna
answer
Brahms eventually settled in what city?
question
False
answer
Brahms was the leading master of German opera in the nineteenth century
question
a program symphony
answer
Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique is an example of:
question
France
answer
Hector Berlioz was born and spent most of his career in:
question
Typical of French music, the emotions are restrained
answer
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the music of Berlioz?
question
True
answer
Berlioz was one of the boldest musical innovators of the nineteenth century
question
a symphonic poem
answer
A one-movement piece of program music for orchestra that, though several contrasting sections, develops a poetic idea or suggests a scene or mood is called:
question
False
answer
Smetana was a leading figure of the "Mighty Five" in Russia
question
True
answer
Nationalism found natural expression in music, among other arts
question
fast-slow-dance-fast
answer
The standard four-movement structure of a Romantic symphony is:
question
Brahms
answer
Which young composer did Robert and Clara Schumann take into their home
question
four
answer
Brahms wrote ___ symphonies
question
True
answer
Brahms's symphonies use a Romantic harmonic idiom but are Classical in form
question
Piave
answer
The librettist for Verdi's Rigoletto was:
question
True
answer
Women achieved prominence during the Romantic era as opera singers
question
separate arias
answer
In his Ring of the Nibelung, which characteristic of traditional opera did Wagner eliminate
question
True
answer
Like Berlioz, Debussy won the coveted Prix de Rome during his compositional studies at the Paris Conservatory
question
part song
answer
Which of the following choral genres was NOT originally intended for performance in church
question
False
answer
Wagner did not wish to change the prevaling form of opera in the nineteenth century
question
False
answer
The Dies irae from Verdi's Requiem is performed a capella
question
True
answer
Choral music offered the public an outlet for its creative energies
question
False
answer
Impressionist composers avoided ninth chords because they were prohibited in the Classical system of harmony
question
symbolism
answer
The French movement in poetry that revolted against traditional modes of expression is called:
question
Gilda, Rogoletto's daughter
answer
Who dies at the end of Rigoletto
question
quartet
answer
The ensemble that follows "La Donna e mobile" in Act III of Rigoletto is a(n)
question
It featured elaborate recitatives and arias
answer
Which of the following does NOT characterize Singspiel
question
False
answer
In Rigoletto, Verdi turns away from tuneful melodies to heighten the dramatic action
question
True
answer
Wagner's operas employ the supernatural as an element of drama and glorify the German land and people
question
False
answer
The focal point of Wagnerian music drama is the voice
question
The Requiem was dedicated to the memory of the poet Manzoni.
answer
Which of the following statements best characterizes Verdi's Requiem?
question
False
answer
Verdi's Requiem was intended for performance in church.
question
False
answer
The Symbolist movement began in England.
question
True
answer
Impressionist artists abandoned the grandiose subjects of Romanticism.
question
True
answer
The goal of impressionistic music is sensuousness.
question
The Manzoni Requiem
answer
Verdi's most popular non-operatic composition is
question
True
answer
Verdi is arguably the most popular opera composer of all time.
question
Die Meistersingers von Nuremburg
answer
Wagner's only comic opera was
question
True
answer
Oratorios and settings of the Mass made their way into the concert hall by the nineteenth century.
question
all of the above
answer
Wagner railed against
question
True
answer
The leading composer in the Impressionist school was Claude Debussy.
question
Felix Mendelssohn
answer
Although born to a Jewish family, this composer produced several remarkable oratorios.
question
The Ring of the Nibelung
answer
Wagner's crowning achievement was a set of 4 operas know collectively as
question
Franz Liszt
answer
Wagner eventually married the daughter of
question
music dramas
answer
Wagner's operas evolved into what he referred to as
question
true
answer
Oratorios and settings of the Mass made their way into the concert hall by the nineteenth century.
question
false
answer
Impressionistic music has no equivalent in the visual arts.
question
enigmatic scale
answer
Verdi's Ave Maria from his "Four Sacred Pieces" is based on the
question
all of the above
answer
Wagner's operas have elements of
question
nabucco
answer
The opera that first brought fame and recognition to Verdi was
question
King Ludwig II of Bavaria
answer
Wagner's most ardent supporter and patron was
question
music dramas
answer
Wagner called the art form that he developed
question
Diaghilev
answer
Which of the following was the Paris-based Russian ballet impresario who commissioned Stravinsky to write several ballets?
question
A-A-B
answer
Which of the following best describes the form of a blues text?
question
True
answer
William Grant Still moved to Los Angeles and composed music for television.
question
true
answer
Stravinsky enlarged the orchestra for The Rite of Spring by increasing the number of wind and percussion instruments.
question
true
answer
The Russian composer Igor Stravinsky lived for many years in France and eventually became a U.S. citizen.
question
Satchmo
answer
Louis Armstrong was also known as:
question
a note whose pitch drops slightly
answer
What is a bent, or "blue," note?
question
trumpet
answer
Which instrument did Louis Armstrong play?
question
false
answer
Stravinsky's ballets all achieved immediate popularity with their audiences.
question
false
answer
Stravinsky's greatest contribution to the art music of the twentieth century is thought to be his development of the twelve-tone method.
question
"Scenes of Pagan Russia"
answer
The Rite of Spring is subtitled
question
true
answer
Stravinsky lived and worked for nearly 20 years in France.
question
Louis M. Gottschalk
answer
A young man of European heritage who spent his early years in New Orleans and later wrote music that reflected his observations of the rhythmic traditional African-American music practiced there was
question
true
answer
The instrumentation of William Grant Still's Afro-American Symphony calls for tenor banjo.
question
new orleans
answer
What American city could be considered the birthplace of jazz?
question
false
answer
Stravinsky eventually settled in Canada and become a Canadian citizen
question
billie holliday
answer
The leading female vocalist of the Swing Era was
question
all of these
answer
Duke Ellington was noted as a
question
all of these
answer
_____________ was an important city in the development of jazz.
question
louis armstrong
answer
The following is regarded as the MOST influential pioneer by today's jazz trumpeters.
question
Duke Ellington
answer
Which American jazz composer was also a pianist and a master of orchestration for big bands?
question
true
answer
William Grant Still was the most important musical voice to emerge from the Harlem Renaissance.
question
false
answer
William Grant Still's Afro-American Symphony uses only traditional harmonic practice.
question
true
answer
Each movement of William Grant Still's Afro-American Symphony has an epigraph, suggesting the emotions expressed in that movement.
question
swing
answer
This form of jazz was the popular music in America during the 1930's & 1940's.
question
swing
answer
What kind of jazz is Duke Ellington known for?
question
true
answer
Stravinsky' early ballet scores, The Firebird, Petrushka, and The Rite of Spring were strongly nationalistic.
question
False
answer
Because most musicals now seem dated, revivals have been largely unsuccessful.
question
False
answer
Summertime is a lively song that suggests the excitement of summer.
question
John Cage
answer
Which of the following composers invented the prepared piano?
question
Porgy and Bess
answer
George Gershwin's folk opera ___________ was far ahead of its time.
question
Alexander's Ragtime Band
answer
Irving Berlin's first hit song was:
question
4'33''
answer
Which of the following works by John Cage has no musical content and can be performed by anyone on any instrument?
question
the Javanese gamelan
answer
John Cage's Sonatas and Interludes evoke the sounds of:
question
incorporate African American blues and jazz styles into his compositions.
answer
George Gershwin is recognized as one of the first American composers to:
question
False
answer
Prior to each performance for John Cage's prepared piano, materials are inserted between the strings entirely at random.
question
complex rhythms, including polyrhythms and ostinatos.
answer
Revueltas's mature compositional style features:
question
True
answer
Aaron Copland studied with Nadia Boulanger in Paris
question
Charleston, South Carolina
answer
Porgy & Bess was set in
question
true
answer
In his piece, Black Angels, Crumb calls for a number of percussion instruments in addition to the string quartet.
question
true
answer
Copland is generally recognized as America's nationalistic composer.
question
C & D
answer
Ira Gershwin was George Gershwin's
question
musique concrete
answer
Recordings of commonplace sounds that are modified electronically and organized into an electronic composition are referred to as
question
true
answer
In his music, George Crumb explores alternative forms of notation.
question
Edgard Varese
answer
An early pioneer in the field of Experimental Music was
question
none of the above
answer
The dates for the post-modernist period are
question
the entry of the United States into WWII.
answer
Copland's "Fanfare for the Common man" was written in response to
question
Peter Sellars
answer
The librettist for Doctor Atomic is:
question
True
answer
Williams' Raiders March is in standard march form.
question
false
answer
Most Hollywood films use music to establish an overall mood, not to reflect the emotional content of a given scene.
question
true
answer
Jennifer Higdon's performance background is as a flutist.
question
the ringing of bells
answer
The term tintinnabulation refers to:
question
true
answer
PĂ€rt's Cantate Domino canticum novum uses a psalm for its text.
question
false
answer
In film, music that can be heard by a character on the screen is called underscoring.
question
false
answer
Bob Dylan has performed his songs with guitar accompaniment throughout his career to pay homage to the tradition of folk music.
question
all of the above
answer
Which of the following characterizes the career of John Williams?
question
her brother
answer
Higdon chose the title blue cathedral as a tribute to:
question
Wagner
answer
Which nineteenth-century composer was the inspiration for unity in film music through the use of leitmotifs ?
question
true
answer
John Adams won a Pulitzer Prize for On the Transmigration of Souls.
question
the red violin
answer
Which of the following compositions by Corigliano received an Academy Award?
question
religious choral music
answer
After Arvo PĂ€rt emigrated to the West, he devoted his compositional output to:
question
source music
answer
Music that is performed on screen and is part of the drama itself is called:
question
John Adams
answer
Who wrote the opera Nixon in China?
question
true
answer
Minimalism has been assimilated by some "nonclassical" musicians.
question
false
answer
Tintinnabulation is associated with the music of John Corigliano.
question
russian orthodox
answer
Arvo PĂ€rt is a member of what religion?
question
all of the above
answer
Which of the following characterizes the career of John Williams?
question
the ringing of bells
answer
The term tintinnabulation refers to:
question
true
answer
Jennifer Higdon currently teaches at her Alma Mater, the Curtis Institute.
question
true
answer
Unlike many contemporary works, melody is an important element in a Jennifer Higdon composition.
question
true
answer
"Fur Alina" was one of Arvo PĂ€rt's earliest compositions in his later minimalist style.
question
minimalism
answer
"Short Ride in a Fast Machine" by Adams is an example of what compositional style?
question
estonia
answer
Arvo PĂ€rt was born in:
question
true
answer
Repetition is an important element of minimalism.
question
round
answer
A simple and more familiar type of canon is called
question
true
answer
Meter is an organizing principle shared by music and poetry
question
monophonic
answer
Traditional music of the Far East is largely
question
True
answer
Most large musical ensembles use a conductor in order to perform together
question
True
answer
A short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern repeated throughout a musical work is called an ostinato
question
consonant
answer
Which of the following terms describes a concordant or agreeable combination of tones
question
motive
answer
The smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is called
question
false
answer
A musical form based on statement, departure, and a restatement of the first idea is called binary form
question
Sound is created when air flows through pipes controlled by the organist, Some organs have more than one keyboard, including one played by the feet The sound of an organ can be imitated by electric keyboards and synthesizers
answer
Describe the organ
question
true
answer
Ternary form is best outlined as A-B-A
question
Imitation
answer
The procedure in which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restated in another is called
question
true
answer
A heterophonic texture frequently occurs in music involving improvisation, such as jazz
question
bass drum
answer
Which of the following would be classified as an unpitched percussion instrument
question
The climax
answer
The striking emotional effect created by the high point in a melodic line is called
question
an upbeat
answer
When a piece of music begins on the last beat of a measure, it is said to begin with
question
adagio
answer
Which marking is appropriate for a slow tempo
question
striking or shaking:
answer
The percussion family is comprised of a variety of instruments that are made to sound by
question
False
answer
The trumpet is the lowest in pitch of the brass family
question
False
answer
The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra by Britten is based on a dance tune by Beethoven
question
True
answer
Meter is the measurement of musical time
question
heterophony
answer
A melody combined with an ornamented version of itself, often heard in jazz, produces a texture known as
question
True
answer
Harmonic movement is generated by motion toward a goal or resolution
question
True
answer
Disjunct motion describes melodies that skip in disjointed intervals
question
pizzicato
answer
The special effect produced on a string instrument by plucking the string with the finger is called
question
False
answer
The guitar is most likely of African origin
question
False
answer
Flutes and whistles are classified as idiophones
question
False
answer
Most compositions use one type of texture exclusively
question
the oboe
answer
Which of the following is a double reed instrument
question
False
answer
Forms are fixed molds into which composers force their material
question
Rock-a-bye Baby
answer
Which of the following songs is in compound meter
question
the writing of the Magna Carta
answer
Which historical event did NOT take place in the Renaissance
question
the cantor
answer
The singing leader in Jewish religious services is called
question
True
answer
A key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitate
question
True
answer
The Renaissance saw the growth of solo instrumental music, especially for lute and keyboard instruments
question
without any instrumental accompaniment
answer
The term a cappella refers to choral music performed_______ .
question
False
answer
The texts for madrigals are generally drawn from the fixed poetic meters
question
True
answer
The raga, or scale pattern Bhimpalasi, varies in its ascending and descending forms
question
the Virgin Mary
answer
Which religious figure is praised in the text of Hildegard's Alleluia, O virga mediatrix
question
Apollo
answer
Who is the Greek god of music?
question
False
answer
Women poet-musicians in southern France were called Minnesingers
question
True
answer
The overall form of the Kyrie to Du Fay's L'homme arme Mass is ternary, or A-B-A
question
True
answer
The upper voice parts of the Pope Marcellus Mass were sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voices
question
True
answer
The dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolved
question
I, IV, and V
answer
The three most important triads used in diatonic harmony are
question
False
answer
The Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead is the Magnificat
question
True
answer
Instruments participated in the performance of madrigals, either by doubling or by substituting for a vocal line
question
True
answer
The raga, or scale pattern Bhimpalasi, varies in its ascending and descending forms
question
Palestrina
answer
Which composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashion
question
False
answer
Renaissance painters preferred symbolism to realism
question
the Mass
answer
The service in the Roman Catholic Church that symbolically reenacts the sacrifice of Christ is
question
a cappella performance
answer
what does NOT describe Gabrieli's O quam suavis:
question
the building of great cathedrals,the founding of universities, and the rise of the bourgeoisie
answer
The High Middle Ages witnessed
question
visions that foretold the future, founding her own convent and writing religious poetry
answer
In addition to composing music, Hildegard of Bingen is known for:
question
True
answer
The value we place on music today is part of our ancient heritage
question
the madrigal
answer
The vivid depiction of the text through music, known as word painting, is a hallmark of
question
True
answer
Although feudal society was male-dominated, the status of women was raised by prevailing attitudes of chivalry and devotion to the cult of the Virgin Mary
question
careful musical pictorialization of specific images
answer
Which of the following characterizes Monteverdi's madrigal Ecco mormorar l'onde
question
devotional services
answer
Which was NOT a function of secular music in medieval court life
question
True
answer
Claudio Monteverdi's career spanned both the Renaissance and Baroque periods
question
True
answer
A key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitate
question
True
answer
The dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolved
question
False
answer
A sharp will lower the tone by a half step
question
Western art music
answer
Which of the following does NOT make frequent use of pentatonic scales
question
True
answer
Mout me fu grief/Robin m'aime/Portare has three voices, each with the same text
question
This was known as: the Counter-Reformation
answer
After the Protestant revolt of the early sixteenth century, the Roman Catholic Church responded with a movement to recapture the loyalty of its people
question
ronde
answer
Which of the following was a lively circle or line dance, often performed outdoors
question
twelve
answer
In Western music, the octave is divided into how many equal intervals
question
St: Mark's of Venice
answer
During the late sixteenth century, the principal center for polychoral singing was
question
False
answer
Secular music in the Renaissance was performed only by professional musicians
question
It has a lowered third degree
answer
What characterizes the minor scale
question
False
answer
A setting of plainchant with many notes per syllable is called syllabic
question
thinking centered on human issues and individuality, inspiration from the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, and independence from traditional and religion
answer
What characterizes humanism
question
True
answer
Instruments participated in the performance of madrigals, either by doubling or by substituting for a vocal line
question
Greek mythology
answer
The earliest operas took their plots from
question
True
answer
The overall form of the Kyrie to Du Fay's L'homme arme Mass is ternary, or A-B-A
question
Frederick the Great:
answer
Bach wrote his Musical Offering for
question
True
answer
Dido's lament from Purcell's Dido and Aeneus is a da capo aria
question
False
answer
The three main keyboard instruments of the Baroque were the harpsichord, organ, and piano
question
True
answer
The libretoo for Handel's oratorio Messiah is a compilation of verses from the Bible
question
False
answer
Bach completed just over one hundred cantatas in his lifetime
question
True
answer
The French rondeau led directly to the rondo of the eighteenth century
question
True
answer
The Renaissance saw the growth of solo instrumental music, especially for lute and keyboard instruments
question
sonata da camera
answer
What Baroque genre was the direct ancestor of the symphony
question
St: Mark's of Venice
answer
During the late sixteenth century, the principal center for polychoral singing was
question
Gluck
answer
Which of the following is noted as a reformer of eighteenth-century opera
question
1600-1750
answer
The approximate dates of the Baroque period are
question
elaborate scenery
answer
Which does NOT characterize an oratorio
question
True
answer
The expansion and reworking of a theme within a composition is called thematic development
question
the sarabande
answer
All of the following are fast, lively dance types EXCEPT
question
True
answer
Religion remained a driving force behind power struggles in the Baroque era
question
False
answer
Johann Sebastian Bach lived a short, unhappy life and had no children
question
a fuging tune
answer
An early American polyphonic setting of a psalm or hymn in an imitative style is called
question
True
answer
The upper voice parts of the Pope Marcellus Mass were sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voices
question
True
answer
In earlier times, a composer's choice of key for a piece depended largely on the capabilities of the instruments for which it was intended
question
Venice
answer
Vivaldi lived and worked in
question
True
answer
Bach's passions are musical setting of the account of the Crucifixion by one of the four Evangelists
question
True
answer
As a reaction to the grandiose gesture of the Baroque, the Rococo style was a miniature and ornate art aimed at enchantment of the senses
question
it usually has two keyboards, rather than one, its strings are plucked rather than struck, it is not capable of a wide dynamic range
answer
The harpsichord is different from the piano because
question
True
answer
During the Baroque era, some boy singers were castrated to preserve the high register of their voices, allowing them to sing high-pitched operatic roles
question
True
answer
The term trio sonata refers to the number of parts, or musical lines, rather than the number of players
question
False
answer
Jean-Joseph Mouret died a celebrated, wealthy artistic hero
question
motives
answer
A theme may be fragmented by dividing it into smaller units called_____
question
the oratorio
answer
Late in life, Handel turned his efforts from opera to
question
Florentine Camerata
answer
It was through the musical innovations of the __________ that opera was born
question
Palestrina
answer
Which composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashion
question
The Florentine Camerata
answer
The group of early Baroque writers, artists, and musicians whose aim was to resurrect the musical drama of ancient Greece was known as
question
False
answer
Secular music in the Renaissance was performed only by professional musicians
question
True
answer
Claudio Monteverdi's career spanned both the Renaissance and Baroque periods
question
True
answer
In the Baroque era, music centered on frequent changes of mood
question
as servants to royalty or nobility, as members of the church, and as employees of a free city
answer
Which best describes how Baroque musicians made a living
question
cello and harpsichord
answer
Which two instruments would most likely have played the basso continuo in the Baroque era
question
False
answer
A fugue is a form exclusively for solo keyboard performance
question
Messiah
answer
What is NOT a major choral work by Bach
question
False
answer
The Baroque era was an age of political freedom and democracy
question
True
answer
A sinfonia is a short instrumental passage that facilitates scene changes
question
True
answer
In London, Handel composed operas in Italian
question
False
answer
In opera, the lyric melodies that release emotional tension are called recitatives
question
a ground bass
answer
A short phrase repeated over and over in the bass is called
question
one-movement binary form
answer
What is the typical form of a Scarlatti sonata
question
a fugal chorale
answer
The opening movement of Bach's cantata A Mighty Fortress Is Our God is best described as
question
2: False
answer
The orchestra plays a prominent role in the second movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No
question
A-B-B-A, with ground bass
answer
Which best describes the form of the final love duet in The Coronation of Poppea
question
False
answer
The French overture is composed in three sections
question
binary
answer
What is the form of the individual movements in a suite
question
True
answer
Barbara Strozzi was probably trained as a courtesan, in singing, lute playing, and writing poetry
question
They avoid ritornello form
answer
What does NOT characterize Vivaldi's concertos The Four Seasons
question
True
answer
While playing the basso continuo, musicians in the Baroque era improvised on the figured bass
question
True
answer
The chaconne is a variation form based on a repeated succession of harmonies
question
True
answer
The role of the chorus was especially important in the oratorio
question
False
answer
The Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead is the Magnificat
question
a girls' school production in Chelsy:
answer
Purcell's opera, Dido and Aeneus, was composed for
question
True
answer
Corelli's trio sonatas served as models for the establishment of the church and chamber sonata
question
episodes
answer
In a fugue, the areas of relaxation where the subject is not heard are called
question
False
answer
The only basic rule of theme and variations form is that the theme must always be easily heard
question
the piano:
answer
The instrument which Mozart played and for which he wrote many concertos was
question
True
answer
The American Declaration of Independence reflects the intellectual climate of the Classical era
question
the most gifted child prodigy in the history of music
answer
Mozart is remembered today as________
question
sonata-allegro
answer
Which best describes the form of the first movement of Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik
question
True
answer
In the nineteenth-century symphony, the minuet was often replaced by the scherzo
question
True
answer
The classical attitude toward art is considerably more objective than the Romantic
question
helps with solving math problems
answer
Modern scientists have shown that listening to Mozart
question
a motive
answer
The famous four-note figure at the beginning of Beethoven's Symphony No 5 is best described as
question
False
answer
Ancient people (the Greeks and Romans, especially) believed that music had no effect on the body
question
2 violins, viola, and cello
answer
A string quartet consists of
question
recapitulation
answer
The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, development, and
question
True
answer
The Classical string quartet literature follows the same basic formal design as the symphony and sonata
question
a march-like character
answer
What best describes the opening of the first movement of Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik
question
True
answer
Romantic elements can be found in the late works of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven
question
the development
answer
In sonata-allegro form, the section that features the most tension and drama through modulation and motivic interplay is called
question
False
answer
Mozart was consistently supported by Vienna's most important patrons
question
False
answer
The harmony of the Classical-era composers was largely chromatic
question
True
answer
The term multimovement cycle is applied not only to sonatas and chamber music but also to concertos and symphonies
question
True
answer
The percussion section of a modern orchestra includes a number of instruments of Turkish origin
question
a double exposition
answer
The first movement of a Classical concerto features sonata-allegro form with
question
True
answer
In the first movement of a Classical concerto, there is usually a double exposition
question
False
answer
Beethoven, like Mozart, wrote music very quickly and with great ease
question
True
answer
Mozart's Symphony No 40 in G minor can be viewed as Romantic in spirit
question
False
answer
Beethoven opposed democracy in favor of the rule of a strong leader
question
minuet and trio form
answer
The third movement of a Classical symphony is most frequently in
question
three
answer
How many movements were typical of pre-Classical symphonies
question
True
answer
In Haydn's time, the trumpet had not yet advanced beyond the natural form of the instrument with no valves
question
True
answer
In Haydn's The Creation, the soloists include three archangels Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael
question
the poet Rellstab shortly after the composer's death
answer
Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op27, No: 2, was subtitled "Moonlight" by______
question
It is the basis of a theme and variations movement
answer
How is the melody of Schubert's Lied The Trout used in the quintet of the same name
question
trombone
answer
The __________ accompanies the baritone voice in the Tuba mirum section of Mozart's Requiem
question
False
answer
A trouser role is sung by a man in eighteenth-century opera
question
True
answer
The Trumpet Concerto in E-flat major, composed in 1796, was Haydn's last orchestral work
question
9
answer
Turkish percussion instruments can be heard in Beethoven's Symphony No_____
question
True
answer
Mozart's Requiem was sung in a worldwide memorial for the victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States
question
Cherubino
answer
Which character in Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro is best described as a young, innocent man who is in love with love
question
Prince Esterhazy
answer
Who was Haydn's principal patron
question
Handel
answer
The music of which composer inspired Haydn to write an oratorio
question
False
answer
In the Classical era, the sonata was intended for professional musicians only
question
False
answer
Haydn's orchestras in London were smaller than his earlier ensembles
question
True
answer
The career of Joseph Haydn spanned the years from the formation of the Classical style to the beginning of Romanticism
question
a Turkish military ensemble
answer
The Janissary band was
question
True
answer
Mozart wrote his piano concertos primarily for his own public performances
question
Schiller
answer
The text of the Ode to Joy, set as the finale of Beethoven's Symphony No 9, is by
question
Turkey
answer
The last movement of Mozart's Sonata in A major, K 331, is inspired by music from which country
question
False
answer
The first movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto in G major, K 453, is monothematic
question
woman virtuoso pianist, student of Mozart, blind since birth
answer
Of the following, which characterizes Maria Theresa Paradis
question
True
answer
Unlike Mozart, Beethoven used sketchbooks to work out musical ideas
question
Lorenzo da Ponte
answer
Mozart's librettist for The Marriage of Figaro was
question
composes a dramatic C-minor overture
answer
In depicting "Chaos" at the beginning of The Creation, Haydn
question
the French Revolution
answer
Beethoven belonged to a generation of artists who were influenced by the full impact of:
question
three
answer
Beethoven's famous Moonlight Sonata has _______ movements
question
These are known as: rocket themes
answer
The early Classical symphony was characterized by quickly ascending themes with a strong rhythmic drive
question
False
answer
In the nineteenth century, the Mass was performed only in church
question
sonata-allegro form
answer
The first movement of a symphony is usually in
question
opera seria
answer
During the Classical era, the prevalent form of opera that occupied itself mainly with the affairs of nobility and Greek legends was
question
the cadenza
answer
A typical feature of a concerto is a free solo passage without orchestral accompaniment called
question
True
answer
Comic opera was generally in the language of the audience or in the vernacular
question
True
answer
Beethoven and Mozart wrote duo sonatas that treated the two instruments as nearly equal partners
question
sonata
answer
What is the form of the last movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto in G major, K 453
question
True
answer
The fourth movement of a Classical symphony is usually quicker and lighter than the first movement
question
Wellington's victory over Napoleon:
answer
Beethoven's Battle Symphony pays tribute to
question
There is no break between the third and fourth movements
answer
What is unusual about Beethoven's Symphony No 5
question
True
answer
The text for the Dies irae is a poem in 3-line rhymed verses
question
recitative
answer
Rapid-fire, talky singing whose primary function is to advance the plot in an opera is called
question
False
answer
The terzetta, or trio, from Act I of The Marriage of Figaro is in rondo form
question
False
answer
Opera buffa was typically serious in tone, with plots dealing with historical or legendary figures
question
False
answer
In the Classical concerto, the marking of andante or adagio would most likely apply to the third movement
question
cyclical form
answer
Using material from an earlier movement in a symphony is called
question
False
answer
Schubert set his Trout Quintet in the standard four-movement structure
question
is a modified song form
answer
The form of the first movement of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op 27, No 2
question
True
answer
In the latter part of the eighteenth century, new opera types were devised that featured naturalness and simplicity
question
True
answer
Beethoven achieved much acclaim during his lifetime and died a famous and revered composer
question
False
answer
The establishment of a four-movement cycle for the symphony is generally credited to the London school of composers
question
False
answer
The sonata is an instrumental work in one movement for one or two solo instruments
question
False
answer
Beethoven was unable to compose music after he became deaf
question
Guillaume Du Fay
answer
Who wrote Kyrie," from the L'homme Armé Mass
question
1397
answer
What year was Guillaume Du Fay born
question
1474
answer
What year did Du Fay die
question
This movement, which is the opening movement of the mass, is divided into three sections based on the text. Each section begins with 3 of the 4 voice parts; the tenor joins later and has the slower moving fixed tune (cantus firmus)
answer
What is the significance of Kyrie
question
"fixed melody", usually of very long notes, often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularly in the Renaissance
answer
cantus firmus
question
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
answer
Who wrote "Gloria," from Pope Marcellus Mass
question
1525
answer
What year was Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina born
question
1594
answer
What year did Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina die
question
Monophonic chant opening, Changes of density and texture set in various registers, A cappella performance, Clearly audible text set syllabically, Alternation of homorhythmic and polyphonic textures, Full, consonant harmony
answer
What is the significance of Gloria
question
all parts sing different notes or rhythms at the same time
answer
polyphonic
question
single melodic line without supporting harmonies
answer
monophonic
question
where all the voices move in the same rythm
answer
homorythmic
question
John Farmer
answer
Who wrote Fair Phyllis
question
fl 1591
answer
What year was John Farmer born
question
1601
answer
What year did John Farmer die
question
Johann Sebastian Bach
answer
Who wrote A Mighty Fortress is our God or Ein Feste Burg ist Unser Gott
question
1685
answer
What year was Bach born
question
1750
answer
What year did Bach die
question
imitative treatment of the familiar tune in all voice parts and in the trumpets. Dense polyphonic texture created between chorus and orchestra for each line of text, Canon on chorale tune heard in the instruments , played in augmentation
answer
What is significance of Ein Feste Burg ist Unser Gott
question
Same sequence as someone else but one beat after.
answer
Cannon
question
the statement of a theme in notes of greater duration (usually twice the length of the original)
answer
Augmentation
question
Antonio Vivaldi
answer
Who wrote "Spring" from the Four Seasons
question
1678
answer
What year was Antonio Vivaldi born
question
1741
answer
What year did Antonio Vivaldi die
question
Musical pictorialization of images of spring, based on the poem, Virtuosity of solo violin part, with fast-running scales and trills. Recurring theme
answer
What is the significance of Spring from the four seassons
question
short recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
answer
ritornello
question
a note that alternates rapidly with another note a semitone above it
answer
trill
question
George Frideric Handel
answer
Who wrote Water Music in D Major
question
1685
answer
What year was Handel born
question
1759
answer
What year did Handel die
question
tenary form, section with dotted rhythms, followed by a return of the opening material, Fanfare-like opening with quick exchanges between brass and strings. Percussion (timpani) added to orchestra.
answer
What is significant about Spring from The Four Seasons
question
3 part form. The piece divides into 3 parts of which the 3rd is an exact repeat, or almost so, of the first part
answer
ternary form:
question
a musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each other
answer
binary form
question
a short lively tune played on brass instruments
answer
fanfare
question
Joseph Haydn
answer
Who wrote String Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 Quinten), Fourth Movement
question
1732
answer
What year was Joseph Haydn born
question
1809
answer
What year did Hayden die
question
Folklike character, with strongly syncopated dance rhythms, Opening theme introduced by first violin, stated in 2 parts, each repeated (A-A-B-B), First violin dominates the melody throughout, Shift from opening minor key (D minor) to brighter, major key (D major)
answer
What is the significance of String Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 Quinten), Fourth Movement
question
a piece of music based in the minor scale, with a sad or haunting sound
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minor key
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a piece of music based in the major scale, Scale built on thee formula of two whole steps, one half step, three whole steps, one half step.
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major key
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temporary irregularity in musical rhythm
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syncopation
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
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Who wrote Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music
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1756
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What year was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born
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1791
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What year did Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart die
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Sonata-Allegro form, Intimate string chamber music style. Quick-paced movement with 3 themes, sonata-allegro form Overall homophonic texture. First theme is disjunt, marchlike, and ascends quickly (rocket theme); second theme, graceful and conjunct.
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What is the significance of Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music)
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Classical period, dramatic musical form involving exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda
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Sonata Allegro
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quickly ascending rhythmic melody used in Classical-era instrumental music; the technique is credited to the composers in Mannheim, Germany
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Rocket theme
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musical texture which focuses on a single melody with accompaning harmonies (mainly chordal)
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Homophonic
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progressing melodically by intervals larger than a major second
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Disjunct
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melody that moves in stepwise motion without major skips and leaps between the intervals, Smooth, connected melody that moves principally in stepwise motion,
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Conjunct
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the highness or lowness of a particular sound
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pitch
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number of vibrations per second.
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Frequency
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volume or loudness of sound
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Amplitude
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the tune in music, a sequence of moving pitches that create thought
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Melody
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span of pitches
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Range
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general shape of a melody.
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Contours
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distances between any two pitches of a melody.
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Intervals
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a unit that makes up a melody
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Phrase
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a melody accompanied by a second melody
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Counter melody
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the point where the musician takes a deep breath, the punctuation for music.
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Cadence
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the movement of music in time.
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Rhythm
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the basic unit of rhythm.
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Beat
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first beat of any patter
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downbeat
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the last beat of a measure
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upbeat
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a weak beat
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offbeat
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the organized pattern of rhythmic pulses
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meter
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a simple marching meter (left-right-left-right)
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Duple meter
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a simple meter that has three beats to a measure and is often used for waltzes
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Triple meter
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a simple that has four beats to a measure with the primary accent on first beat and second strongest on the third
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Quadruple Meter
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a meter where the beat is divided into three
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Compound meters
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what marks of meter, contains a fixed number of beats
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Measure
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a term used to describe simultaneous events in music, also the movement of one chord to the next
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Harmony
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three or more notes all sound together at once.
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Chord
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interval of eight notes
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Octave
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group of eight pitches arranged in ascending and descending order
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Scale
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a combination of three notes or tones
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Triad
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the first note of a scale or key, also called a keynote
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tonic note
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a combination of tones that are dcordant
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Dsonance
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a combination of tones that need to be resolved
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Dcordant
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The resolving of dsonance, notes are pleasing to the ears
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Consonance
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the sustained sounding of one or more tones for harmonic support, common in Asian and folk music
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Drone
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the combination of two or more simultaneous melodic lines
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Counterpoint
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melody repeated with each stanza
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strophic form
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solemn or very, very slow.
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Grave
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broad or very slow
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Largo
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quite slow.
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Adagio
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a walking pace.
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Andante
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of course moderate.
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Moderato
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a fast or cheerful pace.
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Allegro
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a lively pace.
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Vivace
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very fast.
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Presto
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very.
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Molto
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less.
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Meno
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a little.
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Poco
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not too much
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Non troppo
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very soft.
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Piansimo (pp
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very soft
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Piano (p)
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moderately soft
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Mezzo piano(mp)
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loud
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Forte(ff)
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moderately loud.
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Mezzo forte(mf)
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a very loud piece of music.
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Fortsimo(ff)
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to accent a single note or cord
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Sforzando
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instruments that produce sound by using air., horns, bagpipes, whistles and accordions.
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Aerophones:
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produce sound from vibrating sting that is stretched between two separate points, Violins, sitars, guitars, harps and Chinese yangquins
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Chordophones:
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instrument that produces sound by vibration of materials they are made of
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Idiophone
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instrument that makes sound when its stretched membrane is struck or rubbed
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Membranophone
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