MTLE Pedagogy II

what types of learning are associated with the left and right brain?
left – aural
right – visual

how often must IEPs be renewed?
every year

what are five components of active listening?
encouraging
re-stating
reflecting
summarizing
asking questions

where and when was the first kindergarten established?
in Germany in 1837

what is Section 504? what is it part of, and what does it do?
from the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, prevents discrimination against disabled individuals

what is reflective practice? what are two ways to go about it?
treating oneself as an ongoing learner. two good ways to do this are colleague observations and a reflective portfolio

what is the best way to measure student behavior?
document the duration of each behavior

what determines planning the scope for the year?
the TOPICS to be studied. the sequence is already determined, and will be broken into units after topics are chosen.

what are the pieces of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – in order?
PHYSIOLOGICAL
SAFETY
LOVE/BELONGING
ESTEEM
SELF-ACTUALIZATION

what are some of the goals of assessing prior knowledge?
(1) identify student misconceptions
(2) determine the level of student understanding
(3) find what students found interesting / important in the past

Erikson: what stage is associated with trust/mistrust?
infancy

Erikson: what stage is early toddlerhood?
autonomy/shame

Erikson: what stage is initiative/guilt?
late toddlerhood

Erikson: what stage is industry/inferiority?
age 5-12

Erikson: what stage is ego identity/ role confusion?
12-18

what is syntax?
the use of grammatically correct language

what is direct instruction? what is another name for it? who came up with it?
explicit teaching using lectures or demos (as opposed to inquiry)

also called the “teaching approach”

developed by Madeline Hunter

what is the best way to write checklist objectives?
satisfactory/unsatisfactory

what is the first stage of Kohlberg’s moral development? what age and what characteristics?
PRE CONVENTIONAL

infancy: obedience & punishment

pre school: self interest

what is the second stage of Kohlberg’s moral development? what age and what characteristics?
CONVENTIONAL

school age: conformity & interpersonal accord

school age: authority & social order

what is the third stage of Kohlberg’s moral development? what age and what characteristics?
POST CONVENTIONAL

teens: social contract

adulthood: universal principles

Merrikan vs Cressan
established family rights to privacy

what are the stages of Webb’s Depth of Knowledge?
recall & reproduction

skills & concepts

strategic thinking

extended thinking

to which students does IDEA pertain?
those with disabilities that require special education services

what learning activity would not require teacher guidance?
independent practice

what groups are compared via stanines?
students in the same grade

what five domains are indicated by SPICE?
social
physical
intellectual
creative
emotional

reliability vs validity
reliable = consistent

valid = measures what it was intended to

how did NCLB affect how funding is dispersed?
reduced red tape at FEDERAL, STATE, and LOCAL levels to allow flexibility in spending federal funds

what is the standard deviation in a t-score?
10

homogenous grouping, and why is it useful?
organized by skill level – can aid students with special needs as well as gifted students

the Morrill Act of 1862
education in home ec, mechanical arts, agriculture, other “practical professions”

formative tests
ongoing learning

Thorndike’s law
law of effect between stimuli and behavior

what is NASET and what do they publish?
Nat Assoc for Special Ed Teachers. they publish “the Practical Teacher” once a month

the Little Albert Experiment
showed that conditioning could get a child to fear a rat

Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education (seven pieces)
health
fundamental processes: reading, writing, speaking, math
home membership
vocation
civics
worthy use of leisure
ethical behavior

what behavior is exhibited by neglected children?
they tend to be withdrawn

at what age do students begin to reproduce shapes, letters, & numbers?
age 5

cognitive structuring
helping organize information – this is a form of scaffolding

what is one way to aid students with motor skill developmental delays?
oversized pencils

intellectual freedom is comprised of what two elements?
freedom of thought

freedom of expression of thought

when is due process suspended for students?
if they pose a threat

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
COMPONENTIAL (analytical)

EXPERIENTIAL (creative)

PRACTICAL (contextual)

what state was the first to mandate compulsory attendance for children 8-14?
Massachusetts

what is constructivism? who thought of it?
Piaget

people learn based partly on their own prior experience, and partly on their own ideas

how should one evaluate during self-reference?
relying upon one’s own past work

what is self regulation?
the ability to control one’s own learning process, based on how feedback is interpreted

what is curriculum compacting? whom does it benefit?
reduces the number of activities/examples/lessons for advanced students if the teacher sees that they are capable of moving on

what is curriculum chunking? whom does it benefit?
breaking a unit of study into smaller pieces to provide support for students who need extra support

what is a cloze procedure? what would indicate independent reading?
this procedure determines reading skill level – the reader has to fill in blanks in the sentence

58-100% indicates independent reading

what is semantics?
the correct use of words

NMSA
National Middle School Association

crystallized intelligence
being able to USE information and facts

this means accessing long-term memory

what are two ways to aid crystallized intelligence?
mentorship

vocabulary development

what can help if you’re making a parent contact log?
anecdotal records

how can one help non-linguistic learners?
visual representations such as a cause-&-effect map

name three ways that experiential learning is reinforced in the student
learning is based on experience & active engagement from the student – results are personal

SYNTHESIS, CRITICAL ANALYSIS, and REFLECTION

when should rote memorization be assessed?
after a few minutes

what is the role of the superintendent?
to free teachers from administrative duties & provide leadership

the Yale Report of 1828 – three elements
church/state higher education

college/university education

classical curriculum/electives

diagnostic assessment
occurs BEFORE learning, to help teachers understand the current levels of knowledge

formative assessment
happens DURING the learning process, for ongoing evaluation of reaching learning goals. little or no point value.

summative assessment
happens at THE END of learning and evaluates how much students have learned. high stakes compared to the other assessments

Carol Gilligan
addressed gender bias in Kohlberg’s moral theory

difference between alternative & traditional assessments
alternative assessments provide a view of process and product, not just product

multiple-choice outcome?
if each alternative is chosen by at least one student, then the question will be answered correctly by no more than 90% of students

what are some elements of scaffolding that the teacher must provide?
direction, purpose, sources, rubrics, tasks

due process
gives students rights, including notice of meetings & impartial hearings

mastery learning – what are four characteristics?
teacher-centered

can be group-based

focused on mastering SKILLS

does not need to be 100%

DUPE problem solving
Define the problem
Understand the facets
Plan a solution
Evaluate outcomes

in suspected child abuse, who should be contacted first?
the school psychologist

four things taken into account for LRE
the benefit of a regular class vs benefit of SE

benefits of interacting with nondisabled students

the cost

the impact of the disabled student on the teacher & other students

Public Law 94-142
ensures free & appropriate education for handicapped students aged 3-21

fair use doctrine
copyrighted material can be used in the classroom, but must only be for students, without more copies than there are students in the class

privacy vs confidentiality
privacy: an individual’s ability to decide when, how, & whether personal info should be revealed

confidentiality: an ethical decision to reveal something learned in a professional relationship

the Committee of Ten
1892

recommended (1) english, classical, latin-scientific, & modern language

(2) 8 years elem ed, 4 years secondary

how should one respond to an ELL making a pronunciation error?
allow the mistake so as to be supportive

what is the goal of a formative assessment?
to improve STUDENT performance!

what teacher’s union is associated with the AFL-CIO?
the AFT – American Federation of Teachers

what is the range & mean of T scores?
range from 20-80

mean 50

what is the best way to ensure validity?
content

what is the biggest part of interactive learning?
participation in active conversations

what do gifted students require directed education for? why?
research & study skills, in order to enable more independent work

cognitive constructivism
constructing understanding based on SOCIAL interaction

self esteem
a student’s beliefs about himself

self efficacy
a student’s confidence in his ability to cope with challenges

self respect
believing that one can be happy, loved, & successful

self-knowledge
understanding one’s own strengths & weaknesses realistically

probing, and who does it help most?
rephrasing the question & restating ideas

best for low-achieving students

Diana vs State Board of Ed
assessments must be administered in a student’s native language

chunking
grouping information into smaller units – helps info stay in short term memory

perception
applying sensory info to motor activity

procedure vs routine
procedure: tasks always being done the same way (i.e. raising hands)

routine: always doing tasks at the same time

New Taxonomy Level 1
Retrieval

recall, remember

New Taxonomy Level 2
Comprehension

articulate, represent

New Taxonomy Level 3
Analysis

infer, reason, compare

New Taxonomy Level 4
Knowledge Utilization

use in a real-world task

children who are being abused may act…
angry, unruly, or belligerent

how many domains of childhood development are there? what are they?
Four:

Physical
Cognitive
Language
Social

when is it OK to redirect a question to another student after a wrong answer?
high-achieving students are more comfortable answering incorrectly

what is the best way to help teach & establish classroom routines?
rewards

four examples of direct instruction?
drill & practice
lecture
compare & contrast
didactic questions

positive & negative instances
positive instances are examples of a concept

negative examples are non-examples of a concept

John B. Watson emphasized the importance of ??? in the learning process
frequent stimuli

practice

who determines the extent of students’ free speech, and whether it is disruptive or OK?
the school board

substantive due process (what 2 amendments?)
protects rights from govt interference, according to the 5th and 14th amendments

procedural due process
when the govt deprives a person of rights, the person must be given notice & the opportunity to be heard

what act did NCLB reform and reauthorize?
ESEA – Elem & Secondary Education Act

Zone of Proximal Development
social interaction influences cognitive development – students learn best when a more capable adult/peer teaches in a social context

SQ3R
Survey
Question
Read
Recite
Review

what is deductive reasoning? what is another name for it?
Top-down approach;

working with lots of general info and then getting specific