Mort Sci 274

ACUTE GRIEF
The intense physical and emotional expression of grief occurring as the awareness increases of a loss of someone or something significant.

ADAPTATION
The individual’s ability to adjust to the psychological and emotional changes brought on by a stressful event such as the death of a significant other person.

AFFECT
Feelings and their expression.

AGGRESSION
The intentional infliction of physical or psychological harm on another.

A.I.D.S.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

ALARM
Fear or anxiety caused by the sudden realization of danger created by the impact of the shock.

ALIENATION
In grief the inability of the individual to adjust to life without the presence of the deceased member; a feeling of loss of significance in the world; The state of estrangement an individual feels in social settings that are viewed as foreign, unpredictable or unacceptable; not feeling in control and not feeling a part of a situation; this often results in a lack of self-realization and a feeling of powerlessness and hopelessness

ALTERNATIVES
Providing a choice of services and merchandise available as families make a selection and complete funeral arrangements; formulating different actions in adjusting to a crisis.

ALTRUISTIC SUICIDE
Overly integrated into society and willing to die for the group

ANGER
Blame directed toward another person.

ANOMIC GRIEF
A term to describe the experience of grief, especially in young bereaved parents, where mourning customs are unclear due to an inappropriate death and the absence of prior bereavement experience; typical in a society that has attempted to minimize the impact of death through medical control of disease and social control of those who deal with the dying and the dead.

ANOMIC SUICIDE
Results from a lack of regulation of the individual when the norms governing existence no longer control that individual

ANTICIPATORY GRIEF
A syndrome characterized by the presence of grief in anticipation of death or loss; the actual death comes as an affirmation of knowledge of a life-limiting condition; Grief work aimed at loosening the bonds of attachment to the dying, making loss less painful when it occurs.

ANXIETY
A state of tension, typically characterized by rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath and other similar ramifications of arousal of the autonomic nervous system; an emotion characterized by a vague fear or premonition that something undesirable is going to happen.

AT-NEED COUNSELING
A death has occurred and the funeral director is counseling with the family as they select the services and items of merchandise in completing arrangements for the funeral service of their choice.

ATTACHMENT THEORY
(Bowlby) The tendency in human beings to make strong affectional bonds with others coming from the need for security and safety; attachment occurs in the absence of the reinforcement of drives for food and sex and provides a way to understand the strong emotional reaction that occurs when these bonds are threatened or broken.

ATTENDING (LISTENING)
Giving undivided attention by means of verbal and non-verbal behavior.

BEREAVEMENT
The experience of the emotion of grief; The act of separation or loss that results in the experience of grief; The condition arising from an event producing acute deprivation due to loss of someone or something in which emotional capital has been invested.

CEREMONY
A formal or symbolic act or observance that may or may not have symbolic content

CHILDHOOD BEREAVEMENT
The temporary role of children who are adjusting to the death of one or both parents. Bereavement is a social process of mourning where personal expressions of grief are socially defined and responded to by others in ways that may exclude a grieving child.

CLIENT-CENTERED COUNSELING
(NON-DIRECTIVE; ROGERIAN; PERSON-CENTERED COUNSELING) A phrase coined by Carl Rogers to refer to that type of counseling where one comes actively and voluntarily to gain help on a problem, but without any notion of surrendering his own responsibility for the situation; a non-directive method of counseling which stresses the inherent worth of the client and the natural capacity for growth and health.

COGNITIVE
From the Latin, “to know”, the study of the origins and consequences of thoughts, memories, beliefs, perceptions, explanations, and other mental processes

COMMITTAL SERVICE
The rite of finality in a funeral service preceding cremation, earth burial, entombment or burial at sea.

COMMUNICATIONS
A general term for the exchange of information, feelings, thoughts and acts between two or more people, including both verbal and non-verbal aspects of this interchange

COMPULSIVE
Unwanted acts; repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly.

COMPLICATED GRIEF (UNRESOLVED, CHRONIC)
Grief extending over a long period of time without resolution

CONGRUENCE
According to client-centered counseling, the necessary quality of a counselor being in touch with reality and with others’ perception of oneself

COPING
Characteristic ways of responding to stress

COUNSELEE
The individual seeking assistance or guidance

COUNSELING (JACKSON)
Counseling occurs anytime someone helps someone else with a problem.

COUNSELING (OHLSEN)
A therapeutic experience for reasonably healthy persons; do not confuse this with psychotherapy which is treatment for emotionally disturbed persons, who seek, or are referred for assistance with pathological problems. A counselor’s clients are encouraged to seek assistance before they develop serious neurotic, psychotic, or characterological disorders.

COUNSELING (ROGERS)
Good communication within and between men; or, good (free) communication within or between men is always therapeutic.

COUNSELING (WEBSTER)
Advice, especially that given as a result of consultation.

COUNSELOR
The individual providing assistance and guidance for the one seeking a better adjustment to a problem

CRISIS
A highly emotional temporary state in which an individual’s feelings of anxiety, grief, confusion or pain impair his or her ability to act.

CRISIS COUNSELING
Interventions for a highly emotional, temporary state in which individuals, overcome by feelings of anxiety, grief, confusion or pain are unable to act in a realistic normal manner. Intentional responses which help individuals in a crisis situation

DEATH ANXIETY
A learned emotional response to death-related phenomena which is characterized by extreme apprehension; Used synonymously with death fear.

DELAYED GRIEF REACTION
Inhibited, suppressed or postponed response to a loss.

DENIAL
A protective coping mechanism characterized by an inability to perceive external reality. The defense mechanism by which a person is unable or refuses to see things as they are because such facts are threatening to the self (ego); a defense mechanism, closely related to repression, in which the individual simply denies the existence of the events that have aroused anxiety.

DEPENDENCY
a form of behavior which suggests an inability to make decisions

DIRECTIVE COUNSELING
The counselor takes a live speaking role, asking questions, suggesting courses of action, etc.

DISENFRANCHISED GRIEF
Grief that cannot be openly acknowledged, socially sanctioned and publicly shared

DISORDER
an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress; current term for neurosis

DISPLACED AGGRESSION
A defense mechanism in which anger is re-directed toward a person or object other than the one who provoked the anger originally

DISPLACEMENT
Redirection of emotion to other targets

DSM
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association; latest revision is DSM IV TR published in 2000

DYAD
Two units regarded as a pair; for example, husband and wife.

EGO DEFENSE MECHANISMS
An unconscious, irrational means used by the ego to defend against anxiety.

EGOISTIC SUICIDE
Occurs when the person is inadequately integrated into the society

EMOTION
The outward expression or display of mood or feeling states

EMOTIONS
Feelings such as happiness, anger or grief, created by brain patterns accompanied by bodily changes

EMPATHY
The ability to enter into and share the feelings of others; A basic level of empathy is a counselor’s capacity to understand the subjective world of the client and communicating this deep understanding to the client (Carl Rogers)

EUPHEMISM
A word or phrase that is considered less distasteful than other words or phrases

EUTHANASIA (RIGHT TO DIE)
A means for producing a gentle and easy death; literally “the good death”; an act or practice of allowing the death of persons suffering from a life-limiting condition

EXAGGERATED GRIEF (WORDEN)
Persons are usually conscious of the relationship of the reaction to the death, but the reaction to the current experience is excessive and disabling.

FACILITATE
To assist understanding of the circumstances or situations the individual is experiencing, and to assist that person in the selection of an alternative adjustment if necessary.

FATALISTIC SUICIDE
Too much control over a person by society may lead to feelings of oppression under extremely strict rules

FEAR
Strong emotion marked by such reactions as alarm, dread and disquieting.

FEELINGS
Pleasant or unpleasant experiences occurring when an individual is awake and conscious

FOCUSING
Centering a client’s thinking and feelings on the situation causing a problem and assisting the person in choosing the behavior or adjustment to solve the problem.

FRUSTRATION
The state of being prevented from attaining a purpose; thwarted; the blocking of motive satisfaction by some kind of obstacle.

FUNERAL RITE
An organized, flexible, purposeful, group centered and time-limited response to death which reflects reverence, dignity and respect.

FUNERAL SERVICE PSYCHOLOGY
The study of human behavior as related to funeral service.

GENUINENESS
The ability to present one’s self sincerely.

GOALS
objectives or adjustments to be achieved

GRIEF
A state defined by Webster as “intense emotional suffering caused by loss”; an emotion or set of emotions due to a loss that is involved in the work of mourning

GRIEF COUNSELING
Helping people facilitate uncomplicated grief to a healthy completion of the tasks of grieving within a reasonable time frame.

GRIEF SYNDROME (LINDEMANN)
A set of symptoms associated with loss.

GRIEF THERAPY (WORDEN)
Specialized techniques which are used to help people with complicated grief reactions.

GRIEF WORK (LINDEMANN)
A process occurring with loss aimed at loosening the attachment to the dead for reinvestment in the living.

GUIDANCE
Support or support system provided to the counselee who is seeking an alternative adjustment to problems.

GUILT
Blame directed toward one’s self based on real or unreal conditions.

HELPLESSNESS
Being without power to help one self

HOMICIDE
The killing of one human being by another

HOSPICE
A specialized health care program that serves patients with illnesses such as cancer during the last days of their lives; historically an Inn for travelers, especially one kept by a religious order; also used to indicate an institution designed to treat patients with a life-limiting condition.

HOSPICE MOVEMENT
A response to fears related to the dying process and the institutionalized ways in which death is typically handled in institutional settings

HOSPICE TEAM
An interdisciplinary team of professional and volunteers who work together to contribute their expertise to the quality of patient care

HOSTILITY
the willful refusal to accept evidence that one’s perceptions of the world is wrong

ILLUSTRATING
Detailed examples of adjustments, choices or alternatives available to the client or counselee, from which a course of action may be selected.

INFORMATIONAL COUNSELING
a counselor shares a body of special information with a counselee

KAROSHI
Death by overwork, a current phenomenon of concern in Japan

MASKED GRIEF
Occurs when persons experience symptoms and behaviors which cause them difficulty but they do not see or recognize the fact that these are related to the loss.

MITIGATION
Any event, person or object that lessens the degree of pain in grief

MORES
Ways of society that are felt to be for the good of society; these are “must” behaviors that have stronger sanctions than a folkway but that are not as severe as laws

MOTIVATION
The process that initiates, directs, and sustains behavior satisfying physiological or psychological needs.

MOURNING
An adjustment process which involves grief or sorrow over a period of time and helps in the reorganization of the life of an individual following a loss; the process of working through grief

MUTUAL PRETENSE
The term to describe one of the four types of “awareness contexts” that shape the interaction between patients and their medical caregivers and family members. Mutual pretense is extremely common among children who are dying, as observed by Bluebond-Langner in her study of leukemic children from age three to nine.

NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
That which is expressed by posture, facial expression, actions, physical behavior; that which is communicated by any means except verbally.

NEUROSIS
See disorder

OBITUARY
Notice of a death, usually with a brief biography

OPTION
Choice of actions provided through counseling as a means of solving the client or counselee’s dilemma.

OBSESSIVE
Unwanted thoughts; attempts to ignore or suppress such recurrent or persistent thoughts, impulses, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action

PALLIATIVE CARE
Care designed to give the patient as pain-free a condition as possible; in addition to physical needs, the patient’s social, psychological, cultural and spiritual needs are considered

PANIC
A strong emotion characterized by sudden and extreme fear.

PARAPHASING
Expressing a thought or idea in an alternate and sometimes a shortened form

PERSONALITY
Is a relatively stable system of determining tendencies within the individual.

POST-NEED COUNSELING, POST FUNERAL OR POST-VENTION COUNSELING
Those appropriate and helpful acts of counseling that come after the funeral.

PREJUDICE
Negative attitude towards others based on their gender, religion, race or membership in a particular group.

PRE-NEED COUNSELING OR INFORMATIONAL COUNSELING
That counseling before the death occurs, designed to create a more meaningful and personal funeral service.

PROJECTION
Attribution of one’s unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or behaviors to someone else

PSYCHIATRIST
A medical doctor with a specialty in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.

PSYCHOGENIC
is a physical disease that originates in the mind or in mental or emotional conflict. The disease is not caused by a structural change, as seen in an organic disease.

PSYCHOLOGY
The study of human behavior; the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

PSYCHOSOMATIC
Symptoms show that a human body can create physical symptoms that compensate for relationship deficiencies

PSYCHOTHERAPY (JACKSON)
Intervention with people whose needs are so specific that usually they can only be met by specially trained physicians or psychologists. The practitioners in this field need special training because they often work with deeper levels of consciousness.

RAPPORT
A relation of harmony, conformity, accord or affinity established in any human interaction.

RATIONAL SUICIDE
Suicide in which the individual is not insane and is aware of what he or she is doing

RATIONALIZATION
Supplying a logical, rational, socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action

REGRESSION
A defense mechanism used in grief to return to more familiar and often more primitive modes of coping.

RELIGION
A system of beliefs and practices related to the sacred, the supernatural and or a set of values to which the individual is very committed

REPRESSION
Blocking of threatening material from consciousness

RESPECT (WOLFELT)
The ability to communicate the belief that everyone possesses the capacity and right to choose alternatives and make decisions.

RITUALS
The symbolic affirmation of values by means of culturally standardized utterances and actions; a set of culturally prescribed set of actions or behaviors charged with symbolic content.

SEARCHING
Preoccupied and intense thoughts about the deceased

SHAME
A painful feeling of having done something wrong, improperly, a loss of reputation, disgrace, dishonor; The assumption of blame directed toward one’s self by others.

SHOCK
The reaction of the body to an event often experienced emotionally as a sudden, violent and upsetting disturbance.

SITUATIONAL COUNSELING
Related to specific situations in life that may create crises and produce human pain and suffering. This type of counseling adds another dimension to the giving of information in that it deals with significant feelings that are produced by life crises.

SOCIAL FACILITATION
A phenomenon that occurs when an individual’s performance improves because of the presence of others

STRESS
Life events and minor hassles that exert pressure or strain.

STRESSOR
Any event capable of producing physical or emotional stress

SUBLIMATION
Redirection of emotion to culturally or socially useful purposes

SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME (SIDS)
Also known as CRIB DEATH; The sudden unexpected death of a child where autopsy does not reveal a single cause of death; SIDS is the leading cause of death in children age one month to one year, and second only to fatal accidents as a cause of death of children under fifteen.

SUICIDAL IDEATION
Thoughts of ending one’s life

SUICIDE
A deliberate act of self destruction or intentional inaction when it is known that inaction will lead to death.

SUICIDE CLUSTER
An excessive number of suicide occurring in close temporal and geographical proximity (Copycat Suicide)

SUICIDE GESTURE
A life-threatening action that is taken to force others to intervene and recognize the individual’s loneliness, alienation, anger, or despair. An unsuccessful attempt made by the person to end his own life.

SUMMARY
A brief review of points covered in a portion of the counseling session or the summary at the close of the session.

SUPPRESSION
A conscious postponement of addressing anxieties and concerns

SURVIVOR GUILT
Feelings of guilt experienced by the survivors after a loss event

SYMPATHY
Sincere feelings for the person who is trying to adjust to a serious loss or the death of close friend or relative

TASKS OF MOURNING (WORDEN)
Since mourning is a process and not a state, specific task must be completed as a person does the “grief work” in adjusting to a loss.

TEMPORAL
Referring to a “here and now” or “this worldly” orientation that does not take into account the afterlife or a supernatural existence

THANATOLOGY
The interdisciplinary study of death-related behavior including actions and emotions concerned with dying, death, and bereavement. The study of death, especially the medical, emotional and final problems associated with dying.

THANATOPHOBIA
An irrational, exaggerated, abnormally great fear of death.

VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Spoken, oral communication expressed in words.

WARMTH AND CARING (WOLFELT)
The ability to be considerate and friendly as demonstrated by both verbal and non-verbal behaviors

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