Molecular genetics study guide

Meischer
First to discover and isolate DNA from cells

Hershey and chase
First to determine that DNA is the molecule that contains hereditary information

Watson and crick
Discovered that DNA has a double helix structure

Wilkins and franklin
Used x-ray Crystallography experiments to help determine the structure of DNA

Main role of DNA
translation

Three parts of DNA nucleotide
Deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group, and Nitrogenous base

Four nitrogenous bases in DNA
Adenine guanine thymine and cytosine

Nitrogenous bases that are purines
Adenine and guanine

Nitrogenous bases that are pyrimidines
Thymine and cytosine

Base pairing rules
Adenine bonds with thymine, and guanine bonds with cytosine

What does a hydrogen bond hold
Phosphate and deoxyribose sugar

What does a covalent bond hold
Nitrogenous base pairs

DNA is named after…
Deoxyribonucleic acid

Copying of DNA is called…
Replication

Helicase
Unwind and unzip the DNA molecule by breaking the hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous base pairs

Polymerase
Build the new DNA polymers

ATGGATTA
UACCUAAU

Translation
The role of DNA in the cell

Three parts of an RNA nucleotide
Ribose sugar phosphate group and nitrogenous base

Nitrogenous bases in RNA
Adenine guanine urucil and cytosine

What Nitrogenous bases RNA are purines
Adenine and guanine

what nitrogenous bases in RNA are pyrimidines
Urucil and cytosine

RNA is named after…
ribonucleic acid

Function of mRNA
Carries instruction for making proteins from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes

Structure of mRNA
Structure is a single straight chain of nucleotides

Codons
Sequence of three mRNA nucleotides

Function of tRNA
Carries amino acid from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes

Structure of tRNA
Structure is a single chain of nucleotides folded into a hairpin/Cloverleaf shape

Anti-codons
Sequences of three tRNA nucleotides that are complementary to mRNA codons

Function of rRNA
Makes up the structure of the ribosomes

Structure of rRNA
Has a globular structure

Transcription
DNA to mRNA

Translation
mRNA to amino acid

Function of RNA polymerase
Produces primary transcription

What kind of bond holds amino acids together in a protein
Covalent bond

What is another name for protein
Polypeptide