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Module 3: Chapter 6 Essay

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acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
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the advanced stage of an HIV infection
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adenoid/o
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adenoids
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an-, ana-
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up, apart, backward, excessive
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anti-
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against
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bacteri/o
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bacteria
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brachy-
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short
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carcin/o
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cancerous
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cervic/o
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neck
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-cide
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causing death
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cyt/o, cyte-
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cell
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edem-, edemat/o
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swelling, fluid, tumor
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fer/o
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bear, carry
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fung/i
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fungus
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-genesis
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creation, production
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gen-. gen/o, -gen
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producing, forming
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globin/o, -globulin
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protein
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immun/o
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immune system
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inter-
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between, among
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-ize
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to make, to treat
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lymph/o
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lymph
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lymphaden/o
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lymph nodes
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lymphangi/o
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lymph fluid and vessels
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lymphocyt/o
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lymphocytes
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-lytic
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to reduce, destroy
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mamm/o
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breast
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mega-, megal/o
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large, great
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meta-
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change, beyond, subsequent to, behind, after or next
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neo-, ne/o
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new, strange
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-oma
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tumor, neoplasm
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onc/o
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tumor
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phag/o
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eat, swallow
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-phylactic, -phylaxis
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protection, preventive
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-plasm
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formative material of cells
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sarc/o
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flesh connective tissure
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splen/o
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spleen
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-stasis, -static
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control, maintenance of a constant level
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suppress/o
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press down
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tele/o
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distant, far
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therap/o, therapeut/o
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treatment
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thym/o
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thymus
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-tic
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pertaining to
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tonsill/o
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tonsils
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tox/o
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poison
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adjuvant therapy
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cancer treatment used after the primary treatments have been completed to decrease the chance that a cancer will recur
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allergen
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a substance that produces an allergic response in an individual
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anaphylaxis
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a severe. systemic response to an allergen
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angiogenesis
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the process through which the tumor supports its growth by creating its own blood supply
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anthrax
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a contagious disease that can be transmitted through livestock
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antibiotics
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medications capable of inhibiting growth or killing pathogenic bacteria
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antibody (A, Ab)
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(disease-fighting protein) released in response to a specific antigen
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antifungal
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an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi
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antigen (AG, Ag)
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(pathogens, allergens, toxins) triggers an immune response
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antiangiogenesis
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cancer treatment that disrupts the blood supply to the tumor
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antigen-antibody reaction
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immune system binds foreign antigens to antibodies to form antigen-antibody complexes that tag the antigen to be destroyed
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autoimmune disorder
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a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against the body’s own tissues
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bascillus
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a rod shaped bacteria commonly found in soil and water
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bacterium
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a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease
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bioimpedance spectroscopy
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a noninvasive method of diagnosing lymphedema by measuring the limb’s resistance to an electrical current
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breast self-examination (BSE)
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a self-care procedure for the early detection of breast cancer
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brachytherapy
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the use of radioactive materials in contact with or implanted into the tissues to be treated
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candidiasis
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a yeast infection
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carcinoma (Ca, CA)
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a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue
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carcinoma in situ (CIS)
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a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues
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complement system
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a part of the immune system that helps or complements the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear pathogens from an organism
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cytokine
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any of a number of substances, such as interferon, interleukin, and growth factors, that are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and have an effect on other cells
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cytomegalovirus (CMV)
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a type of herpesvirus found in most body fluids
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cytotoxic drug
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medication that kills or damages cells
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ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
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breast cancer at its earliest stage before the cancer has broken through the wall of the milk duct
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enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
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a popular format of “wet-lab” type analytic biochemistry assay that uses a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay to detect the presence of a substance, usually an antigen, in a liquid sample or wet sample
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hemolytic
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relating to or involving the rupture or destruction of red blood cells
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herpes zoster (HZ)
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an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve
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Hodgkin’s lymphoma
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a malignancy of the lymphatic system that is distinguished by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells
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human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
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a bloodborne pathogen that damages or kills the T cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail
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immunodeficiency disorder
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a condition that occurs when immune system response is compromised
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immunoglobulin (IG)
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antibodies that bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response
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immunosuppressant
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a substance that prevents or reduces the body’s normal immune response
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immunotherapy
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a disease treatment that involves either stimulation or repressing the immune response
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infectious mononucleosis
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an infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus that is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
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a herpesvirus causing infectious mononucleosis and associated with certain cancers, for example Burkitt’s lymphoma
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infiltrating ductal carcinoma
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breast cancer that starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of that duct, and invades the fatty breast tissue
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infiltrating lobular carcinoma
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breast cancer that starts in the milk glands, breaks through the wall of the gland, and invades the fatty tissue of the breast
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inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)
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a rare but aggressive form of breast cancer
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interferon
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a protein released by animal cells, usually in response to the entry of a virus, that has the property of inhibiting virus replication
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lumpectomy
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surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue with the surrounding margin of normal tissue
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Lyme disease
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a bacterial infection caused by a spirochete belonging to the genus Borrelia
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lymphadenitis
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inflammation of the lymph nodes
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lymphadenopathy
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any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes
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lymphangioma
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a benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels
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lymphedema (LE)
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swelling of the tissues due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues
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lymphocyte
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a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system
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lymphoma
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a general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues
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lymphoscintigraphy
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A diagnostic nuclear scan performed to detect damage or malformations of the lymphatic vessels is termed
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macrophage
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a large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection
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malaria
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a disease caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes and is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito
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mammography
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a radiographic examination of the breast to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells
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mastectomy
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surgical removal of the entire breast and nipple
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measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR)
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childhood immunization that can prevent these three viral conditions
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metastasis (MET)
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the new cancer site that results from the spreading process
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metastasize (met)
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the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another
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methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
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one of several types of bacteria that are now resistant to most antibiotics
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myoma
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a benign tumor made up of muscle tissue
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myosarcoma
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a malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue
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non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)
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the term used to describe all lymphomas other than Hodgkin’s lymphoma
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opportunistic infection
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caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans
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osteosarcoma
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a hard tissue sarcoma that usually involves the upper shaft of long bones, pelvis, or knee
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parasite
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a plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism at the expense of that organism
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rabies
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an acute viral infection transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal
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rickettsia
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a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites
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rubella
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a viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, and a fine, pink rash
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sarcoma
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a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues
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spirochete
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long, slender spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement
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splenomegaly
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an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
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staphylococcus (staph)
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a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes
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streptococcus (strep)
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bacteria that form a chain, many are harmless; however, other members of this group are responsible for illnesses including strep throat
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systemic reaction
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When an inflammation spreads from a limited area of one organ (like the skin) to other organ systems in the body
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teletherapy
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radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body that is precisely targeted with the use of three-dimensional computer imaging
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toxoplasmosis
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a parasite most commonly transmitted from animals to humans by contact with contaminated feces
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varicella (VSZ)
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a highly contagious infection caused by the herpes virus Varicella zoster; also known as chickenpox