Module 25 – Social Psychology

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Def. Social psychology
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A broad field whose goals are to understand and explain how our thoughts, feelings, percetions, and behaviors are influenced by the presence of, or interactions with, others.
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Def. Cognitive social psychology
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A subarea of social psychology that focuses on how cognitive processes, such as perceiving, retrieving, and interpreting info about social interactions and events, affect emotions and behaviors and how emotions and behaviors affect cognitions
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Def. Person perception
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Seeing someone and then forming impressions and making judgements about that person’s likability and the kind of person he or she is, such as guessing his or her behaviors, intentions, and traits
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4 factors influencing judgement
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1) physical appearance 2) influence on behavior 3) need to explain 4) effects of race
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Def. Stereotypes
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Beliefs that people have certain traits because they belong to a particular group. Stereotypes are often inaccurate and frequently portray the members of less powerful, less controlling groups more negatively then members of more powerful or more controlling groups
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Def. Prejudice
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An unfair, biased, or intolerant attitude toward another group of people
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Def. Discrimination
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Unfair behaviors exhibited toward members of a group
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Def. Schemas
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Mental categories that, like computer files, contain knowledge about people, events, and concepts
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Def. Person schemas
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Include our judgments about the traits that we and others possess
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Def. Role schemas
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Based on the jobs people perform or the social positions they hold
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Def. Event schemas
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Also called scripts, contain behaviors that we associate w/ familiar activities, events, or procedures
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Def. Self schemas
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Contain personal info about ourselves, and this info influences, modifies, and distorts what we perceive and remember and how we behave
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Def. Internal attributions
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Explanations of behavior based on the internal characteristics or depositions of the person performing the behavior. Sometimes referred to as dispositional attributions
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Def. External attributions
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Explanations of behavior based on the external circumstances or situations. Sometimes called situational attributions
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Def. Attributions
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Things that we point to as the causes at events, other people’s behaviors, and our own behaviors
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Adv
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Adv – provide guidelines for how to behave in various social events dis adv – schemas may restrict, bias, or distort what we attend to and remember – schemas are resistant to change because we generally select and attend to info that supports our schemas and deny info that is inconsistent with them
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2 functions of stereotypes
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Thought-saving device Alertness and survival
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Def. Thought-saving device
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Stereotypes help us save time and energy when making decisions in social situations -making quick and sometimes inaccurate decisions thus saving time and energy by not having to analyze an overwhelming amount of personal and social info.
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Def. Alertness and survival
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The sight of a stranger of another race leads to heightened physiological arousal, which likely reflects unconscious biases and a natural awareness of individuals of unfamiliar groups(such as a race)
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Def. Social cognition
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Studies how and what pele learn about social relationships
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Def. Covariation model
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Developed by Harold Kelly I making attributions, we should look for factors that present when the behavior occurs and factors that are absent when the behavior does not occur
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Def. Consensus
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Determining whether other people engage in the same behavior in the same situation
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Def. Consistency
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Determining whether the person engages in this behavior every time he or she is in a particular situation
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Def. Distinctiveness
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Determining how differently the person behaves in one situation when compared to other situations
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Def. Cognitive miser model
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In making attribution, peole feel they must conserve time and effort by taking cognitive shortcuts
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Def. Fundamental attribution error
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Refers to our tendency, when we look for causes of a person’s behavior, to focus on the person’s disposition or personality traits and overlook how the situation influenced the person’s behavior
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Def. Actor-observer effect
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Refers to the tendency, when you are behaving (or acting), to attribute your own behavior to situational factors. How ever, when you are observing others, you attribute another’s behavior to his or he personality traits or disposition
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Def. Self-serving bias
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Refers to explaining our success by attributing them to our dispositions or personality traits and explaining our failures by attributing them to the situations
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Def. Attitude
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Is any belief or opinion that includes an evaluation of some object, person, or event along a continuum from negative to positive and that predisposes us to act in a certain way toward that object, person, or event
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3 components to attitudes
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1- cognitive component 2- affective component 3- behavioral component
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Def. Cognitive component
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Includes both thoughts and beliefs that are involved in evaluating some object, person, or idea
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Def. Affective component
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Involves emotional feelings that can be weak or strong, positive or negative
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Def. Behavioral component
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Involves performing or not performing some behavior
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Def. Cognitive dissonance
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Refers to state of unpleasant psychological tension that motivates us to reduce our cognitive inconsistencies by making our beliefs more consistent with our behavior
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Def. Counter attitude behavior
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Ivolves taking a public position that runs counter to your private attitude
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Def. Self-perception theory
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We first observe or perceive our own behavior and then, as a result, we change our attitudes
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Def. Persuasion
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Attitude change
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Def. Central route for persuasion
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Presents info with strong arguments, analyses, facts, and ogic
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Def. Peripheral route
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Emphasizes emotional appeal, focuses on personal traits, and generates positive feelings
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Def. Source
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-one element in persuading someone to adopt your point of view involves the source of the message -more likely to believe sources who have a sense of authority, appear honest and trustworthy
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Def. Message
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-another element of persuasion on involves the contents of the message -if the persuader is using the central route, the messages will contain convincing and understandable facts -if the persuader is using the peripheral route, the messages should be designed to arouse emotion, sentiment, and loyalty
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Def. One- versus 2-sided messages
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One side- present only the message that you want accepted 2-side- include both the message and arguments against any potenetial disagreements
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Def. Audience
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-another element of being an effective persuader involves know the charcteristics of the audience -ex: audiences who are interested in facts are best persuaded using the central route, while audiences interested in personal traits are best persuaded using the peripheral route
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Def. Hazing
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May be part of a group’s initiation ritual dying which individuals are subjected to a variety of behaviors that range from humiliating and unpleasant to potentially dangerous both physically and psychologically
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Def. Conformity
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Refers to any behavior you perform because of group pressure, even though that pressure might not involve direct request
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Def. Asch’s experiment
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Causes us to change the way we think about something -how an individual can be pressure to conform to a groups standards
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Def. Compliance
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Is a kind of conformity in which we give in to our social pressure in our public responses but do not change our private beliefs
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Def. Foot-in-the-door technique
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Refers to the technique of starting with a little request to gain eventual compliance with a later request
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Df. Obedience
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Refers to performing some behavior in response to an order given by someone in a position of power or authority
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Def. Milgram’s experiment
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Study whether people would obey commands that were clearly inhumane and immoral
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Def. Debriefing
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Occurs after an experimental procedure and involves explaining the purpse and method of the experiment, asking the subjects their feelings about being in the experiment, and helping the subjects deal with possible doubts or guilt arising from their behaviors in the experiment
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Def. Prosocial behavior
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Also called helping, is any behavior that benefits others or has a positive social consequences
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Def. Altruism
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One form of helping or doing something, often at the cost or risk, for reasons other than the expectation of a material or social reward
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Def. Decision-stage model of helping (5 stages)
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1- you notice the situation 2- you interpret it as one in which help is needed 3- you assume personal responsibility 4- you choose a form of assistance 5- you carry out that assistance
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Def. Arousal-cost-reward model of helping
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Says that we make decisions to help by calculating the costs and rewards of helping
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Def. Groups
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Are collections of two or more people who interact, share some common idea, goal or purpose and influence how their members think and behave
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Def. Group cohesion
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Group togetherness, which is determined by how much group members perceive that they share common attributes
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Df. Group norms
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Are the formal or informal rules aout how group members should behave
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Def. Social comparison theory
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Says we are driven to compare ourselves to others who are similar to us, so that we can measure the correctness of our attitudes and beliefs. – according to Festinger, this drive to compare ourselves motivates us to join groups
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Def. Task-oriented group
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The members have specific duties to complete
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Def. Socially-oriented group
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The members are primarily convened about fostering and maintaining social relationships among the members of the group
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Def. A crowd
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Which is a large group of persons who set usually stangers, can facilitate or inhibit cartain behaviors
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Def. Social facilitation
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Is an increase in performance in the presence of a crowd
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Def. Social inhibition
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Is a decrease in performance ithe presence of a crowd
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Def. Deindividuation
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Reefs yo the increased tendency for subjects to behave irrationally or perform antisocial behaviors when there is less chance of being personally identified
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Def. Bystander effect
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Says that an individual may feel inhibited from taking some action because of the presence of others
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Def. Informational influence theory
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Says that we use the reactions of others to judge the seriousness of the situation
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Def. Diffusion of responsibility theory
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Says that, in the presence of others, individuals feel less personal responsibility and are less likely to take action in a situation where help is required
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Def. Group polarization
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Is a phenomenon in which group discussion reinforces the majority’s point of view and shifts that view to a more extreme position
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Def. Goupthink
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Refers to a group making bad decisions because the group is more concerned about reaching agreement and sticking together than gathering the relevant info and considering all the alternatives
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Def. Social neuroscience
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Refers to an emerging area of research that examines social behavior such as perceiving others, by combining biological and social approaches. In other words, it focus on understanding how social behavior influences the brain as well as on how the brain influences social behavior
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Def. PET scan
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Involves injecting a slightly radioactive solution into the blood and then measuring how much radiation is absorbed by neurons – different levels of absorption are represented by colors -red and yellow indicate maximum activity of neuron -white blue and green indicate minimal activity
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Def. EEG
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Involves placing electrodes at various points across the scalp -electrodes detect electrical activity throughout the brain’s surface
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Def. tMRI
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Measures the changes in the activity or specific neurons that are functioning during cognitive tasks, such as thinking about another person
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Df. TMS
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Is a noninvasive technique that sends pulses of magnetic energy into the brain -it works to either activate or supress the brain acitivity
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Def. Aggression
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Is any behavior directed toward another that is intended to cause harm
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Def. Social cognitive theory
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Says that much human behavior, including aggressive behavior, may be learner through watching, imitating, and modeling and does not require the observer to perform ant observable behavior or receive any observable reward
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Def. Frustration-aggression hypothesis
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Says that when our goals are blocked, we become frustrated and respond with anger and aggression
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Df. Modified frustration-aggression hypothesis
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Says that although frustration may lead to aggression, a number of situational and cognitive factors may override the aggressive response
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4 types of rapists
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1- power rapist 2- sadistic rapist 3- anger rapist 4- acquaintance or date rape
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Df. Power rapist
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Commits 70% of all rapes -out to possess -acts premeditated -preceded by rape fantasies – may carry weapon but to intimidate
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Def. Sadistic rapist
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Smallest type of but most dangerous because for him sexuality and aggression have become fused and using physical force is arousing and exciting
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Def. Anger rapist
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Rape is an impulsive, savage attack of uncontrolled physical violence – short duration – abusive language – victim usually suffers from extensive physical trauma, such as broken bones and bruises
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Def. Acquaintance or date rape
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Knows his victim and uses varying amounts of verbal or physical coercion to his partner to angage in sexual activities
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Def. Rape myths
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Are misinformed, false beliefs about women, and these myths are frequently held by rapist
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Def. Catharsis
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Is a psychological process through which anger or aggressive energy is released by expressing or letting out powerful negative emotions

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