Modern World History Chapter 12: Transformations Around the Globe

Flashcard maker : Edwin Holland
Opium
Drug that China asked Britain to stop trading because of addiction; Britain refused
Opium War
Conflict between Britain and Chinese over a trading item; Britain defeated Chinese outdated navy
Treaty of Nanjing
Ended Opium War; Britain got Hong Kong
Taiping Rebellion
Effort to make a peaceful Chinese kingdom started by Hong Xiuquan; peasant army took control of land in southeast Asia and declared Nanjing capital; over 20 million people died
Hong Xiuquan
Started the Taiping Rebellion
(Empress) Cixi
Chinese ruler who supported the self-strengthening movement; promoted modernization and industry
Open Door Policy
Proposed by USA for Japan; allowed all nations to trade, preventing colonization of China and protecting US trade
Boxer Rebellion
Conflict between peasants and Europeans against foreign privileges and Christianity
Boxers
Peasants who fought against foreign privileges and Christianity
Matthew Perry
US sailor sent to Tokyo Harbor with steam ships; convinced Japan to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa
(Treaty of) Kanagawa
Treaty that opened Japanese ports with the US and later, other countries
Meiji Era
Time period promoting modernization to prevent foreign influence in Japan
Germany
Country that Japan based its modernization off of
Sino-Japanese War
Conflict in which Japan drove Chinese out of Korea and gained Taiwan
Russo-Japanese War
Conflict between Russia and Japan; fought over Korea and Manchuria; Japan won
Treaty of Portsmouth
Ended Russo-Japanese War; Japan gained territory in Manchuria and kept Russia out of Korea
Caudillos
Military dictators in Latin America; political instability
Refrigerator
Invention that expanded exportable goods (beef, fruits, vegetables)
Monroe Doctrine
Issued by US; said North America would protect each other to prevent European colonization
Jose Marti
Lead the Cuban independence war
Spanish American War
US helped Cuba defeat Spain; After- US took all Spain’s territories and controlled Cuba’s new government
Panama Canal
Connected the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans; thousands died building it from disease and floods
Roosevelt Corollary
Labeled the US as the police force for the Western Hemisphere
Santa Anna
Led independence fight against Spain; elected president in 1833; exiled because of loss of Mexican land; exiled; returned as dictator; exiled again in 1855
(Treaty of) Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty in which the US gained 1/3 of Mexican land
Benito Juarez
Native Zapotec who worked for reform in Mexico; made president in 1861
La Reforma
Reform movement of Juarez; liberal reforms favored lower class
France
Country that invaded Mexico
Porfirio Diaz
Caudillo in the mid 1870s; overthrew the president; supported by military, elite, natives; ruled as a dictator until 1911; \”order and progress\”; eventually stepped down
(Francisco) Madero
Ran for Mexican president in 1910- arrested and exiled by Diaz; elected president in 1911 but unpopular; resigned and assassinated
Pancho Villa
Led the Mexican Revolution in the North; popular hero of the poor
Emiliano Zapata
Led the Mexican Revolution in the South
(General) Huerta
Took over Mexico for 13 months after Madero; overthrown by Villa and Zapata
Carranza
Put in power in Mexico by Villa and Zapata; killed Zapata; ended civil war; later overthworn
Institutional Revolutionary Party
Took over Mexico after Carranza; kept peace and stability

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