Habsburg Empire, Church vs. Civil Courts

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Challenge to Habsburg Empire
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Religious controversies led to differing views. There was profound diversity of the territories contained within the Empire 1. no resources 2. homogeneity of population 3. diversity of the territories 4. Poor european farmers
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Church vs. civil courts
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Papacy losing influence over the people, faith was no longer true. so only way to do legal things was through the church; town courts were determining outcomes of disputes rather than letting the church do it all – a Contest of legal jurisdiction during the rise of national principalities – Civil courts: granted autonomy and responsibly for towns. Result of scholasticism -Church: another option
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\”Channel of grace\”
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-Catholic Church -view themselves as means to help people achieve salvation
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Town burghers
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Merchant leaders in new towns; guild masters; considered the new secular (non-religious) power and began to challenge the power of the church and the power of the Habsburg Empire -part of mercantile class in Europe city -gained position = make money from town to boost economy
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Needs for municipal administration
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The need for a secular(modern) ruling system rather than religious
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Student \”unions\”
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Academic guilds; called for granted Charters to get rights for their Universities -demand fair treatment -called on teachers to prove instruction -bargaining power in numbers (collective bargaining)
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University of Bologna
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First European university in 1158 -Produced many amazing people, scientist, and movement leader.
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Petrus Vergerius
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Was a teacher at Florence, Bologna, and Padua. He was present at the Council of Constance, and later worked for the Emperor Sigismund; Wrote a work comparing liberal arts (history, philosophy, rhetoric, and literature) to the current professional disciplines (medicine, law, and theology – Wrote the first important Renaissance treatise(essay) on education for the son of Francesco Carrara, lord of Padua -discussed the medieval trivium and quadrivium, along with medicine, law and theology. -Argued that only the liberal arts should be taught in universities.
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Tradition of Liberal Studies
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Vergerius’ idea of studying philosophy and being well rounded 1) The trivium (grammer/logic/rhetoric) 2) The Quadrivium (arithmetic/geometry/music/astronomy)-distinguished a free person from slaves
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Cato the Elder vs. Domitian
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Cato: a model citizen of learning. Domitian: a Roman Emperor who had no learning. Wrote on the value of the liberal arts education; argues that someone who benefits from liberal studies is less likely to end like the roman emperor and become more like cato the elder who cherished books at his old age and would never feel alone; he contrasts them
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Scholasticism
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Method of critical thought which dominated teachings throughout Medieval Europe; synthesize beliefs and values of Christianity with logical rigor of Greek philosophy \”A scholar’s role is to organize, elucidate and defend the inherited truth\”Method of critical thought dominated by academics
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Thomas Aquinas
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(1225-1274) The most famous scholastic theologian who taught at the University of Paris; Like Aristotle’s works of how world and human life are results of a divine plan, he tried to prove existence of God, human reason has the potential to understand existence which led to an open approach to human reason in faith. -Dominican monk -taught at the University of Paris -Wrote the Summa Theologica -founder of the scholasticism
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Medieval Synthesis
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Francisco Petrarch tying in religion and rationalism; reconcile faith and logic. -Synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy and Christian philosophy -Aquinas combined human reason and faith -Aquinas tried to give faith a reason, tried to prove god in scientific way term that we use to explain what scholasticism did; most famous scholastict is thomas aquinas; bringing together new appreciation for reason from classical tradition with christian faith ; syntehsize christian faith with new interest in logic and reason
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\”Summa Theologia\”
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Written by Thomas Aquinas; proves the existence of God in 5 ways: whatever is in motion is done so by something else (Earth is in motion), nature of efficient cause, possibility and necessity, graduation to be found in things, taken from the governance of the world. Tried to explain religion through reasoning with five main points.-Possibility and necessity-there has to be some being that causes in other their necessity…. etc
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God as \”prime mover\”
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Thought by Aquinas; God is the father of medieval synthesis; nothing can move unless it is already moving; God is the prime mover who first set everything in motion. -\”God is behind the laws of science\”
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Frencesco Petrarch
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(1304-1374) individual who is most associated and responsible for the spread of literary humanism; talked about howwonderful learning was; celebrated humanism; rhetoric to find own truth; classical texts
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Symbolism of Cicero
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One of the renassiance poets who reintroduced the classics and his work was highly valued among the classic literature. he became a symbol of the renaissance poet, writer, etc. as someone who was in command for secular (non-religious) learning
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Pico Della Mirandola
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Wrote On The Dignity of Man. Which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurection. Man is placed in between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
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Art of Oration
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Mirandola’s piece was unsuccessful but he put in words what European scholars craved – an understanding of the world at large; showed a key part of humanism can come from how eloquently one can speak
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\”Indeterminate form\”
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Mirandola argued that God took humans in this form first as they were, constrained within the bounds of laws we give ourselves; humans could be whatever they wanted to be
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Free will
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The complete freedom of the individual to make moral choices.
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Centered vantage point of humanity
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Marsilio Ficino’s suggestion that \”Man is a kind of God.\” Humanists thought that by idealizing man, they were worshiping God, as God is man’s creator. Man, in creation, was placed at the midpoint of the
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Linear perspective
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Brunelleschi developed this idea; one central person; man is always in the center; artist places himself in the center of the scene and everything is organized according to that advantage point -a system that acts a tool for accurate translation of 3D space onto the 2D plane of a paper, wall, etc.
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Vanishing point
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Everything is geometrically arranged with a fixed vantage point. Oblique lines then converge at one point, which is the vanishing point.*
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Leon Alberti
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Wrote \”On painting\” which praises the great Florentine artists; an accomplished humanist scholar who was a noted architect and builder in Florence, known for his public buildings that should be planned out rationally…thought that if done this way cities would inspire citizens through its order and harmony
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Urban achitecture
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Renaissance vs. Gothic style
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Architecture had the idea of rational order and symmetry vs. Gothic cathedrals; it inspired different avenues and approaches to faith.
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Housing for the poor
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Alberti was the one who had ideas about the role of public buildings and what they should be like including what kind of housing to provide for the poor; rich should not be so extravagant and there should also be housing for the poor
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Teleological historical perspective
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Everyone looks at the end and our destiny; European supremacy, fatalist; God is the \”designer\” of nature…linear perspective translates to a historical outlook on history using this paradigm
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Filippo Brunelleschi
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(1377 – 1446) A friend of Donatello, he was a skilled sculptor and goldsmith whose 1401 competition with Lorenzo Ghiberti for the commission of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery is a frequent question topic (Ghiberti got the chief commission). As an architect, he is mainly known for the extraordinary octagonally-based dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore (also known as the Florence Cathedral), which dominates the Florentine skyline. The task required an innovative supporting framework and occupied much of his career (as described in detail in Vasari’s Lives of the Artists). Other projects include the Spedale degli Innocenti (a hospital), the Old Sacristy at San Lorenzo, and the Pazzi Chapel in the Cloisters of Santa Croce, all from 1421 to 1430.
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Remodelling of San Lorenzo
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San Lorenzo was a gothic chapel and brunelleschi would transform it into renaissance architecture
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Leornardo Da Vinci
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Renaissance Artists of MONA LISA & LAST SUPPER; known as renaissance man-studied corpses, flying machines, human body
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Plan for River Arno
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Leonardo’s biography; how to transform nature and take advantage and use human technology and reason to improve nature
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The Last Supper
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A fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci depicting Jesus and his disciples at the moment Jesus announces that one of them has betrayed him.
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Marilio Ficino
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Translated plato’s work; first westerner to have read all of Plato; ordained a priest; proved that he and other philosophers hadn’t rejected Christianity; showed how the role of humans have a special place in God’s universe because we can govern and teach; said \”Mans a great miracle\”
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\”Vicar of God\” idea
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Ficino’s argument stating man = a \”vicar of God\”, since he cultivates all of earth’s elements, rules animals, and governs his own body in so many ways for a fulfilling life; humanist piece explaining what role human beings have in Gods creation; vicor is religious term meaning God; human beings are gods representatives in this world
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Ecological perspective of the Renaissance
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Theoretical model emphasizing that changes occur throughout life in the relations between the individual and multiple levels of the environment; man’s destiny to conquer mother nature
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German nationalist sentiments
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rising people starting a revolution -\”German\” states were under emperors, but in actuality did what they wanted and exercise their own power -Martin Luther jumped on the nationalist bandwagon so to speak -helped him gain popularity among the principalities -reformation occuring at the time in germany were also trying to break away from habsburg empire; reformation coincided with aspirations for independece
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Emperor Charles V
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Inherited authority over Habsburg’s Austrian domains and the Kingdom of Spain; Told luther to recant his views but he said no so he called him to the Diet of Worms; advocated for the council of Trent (wanted to bring protestants back to the Roman Catholic churches) -need the German Princes, because he fight against France and the Habsburgs. -John Calvin wrote him a letter in 1544 saying that he must tell the pope to unite all the various parties of the Church.
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Diet of Worms decree
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Banned people from supporting Martin Luther; Ordered Luther to recant his statements and take back all his challenges towards the church; Luther was caste out of the Catholic church. Anyone who supported Luther showed defiance against church.
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Peace of Augsburg 1555
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Treaty which ended religious warfare between Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, it acknowledged Lutheranism as a religion, and those states had the same rights at Catholic states; German states were free to choose the religion of their country, but individuals were not able to choose their religions -Gives complete religious autonomy -Only in Holy Roman Empire for Germanic princes to decide.
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German Peasant Revolts 1524-25
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Peasants rose up against their lords in parts of the central and southern German states. They demanded the return of rights, such as to hunt freely and pasture their animals. Wanted abolition of tithes and serfdom \”against God’s will\”. Bands of poor people burned castles and monasteries; peasants took Luther’s message as a call for social equality because he accused church as striping commoners from their livelihood -This revolt was put down and Luther took the side of the nobility.
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Gutenberg Bible
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Martin Luther’s translation of the Bible from Latin to German. Allowed the common people to read the Bible rather than take the words of clergy First book to be majorly circulated throughout the West after the introduction of the printing press -significant for reformation because new technology is what allowed this to come about
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Desiderius Erasmus
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Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536) -He was an early proponent of religious toleration -he was critical of the church -he never joined the Reformers. -He was committed to reforming the church from within.
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Debate over free-will
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Erasmus said that our freewill was the greatest threat and made us vulnerable to the devil’s influence upon us; Luther believed we were at the Mercy of God to reach salvation
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Martin Luther
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(1483-1546) a German monk who, in 1517, took a public stand against the sale of indulgences by nailing his 95 Theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg; he believed that people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them; his actions began the Reformation; his 95 theses sparked an Anti-Catholic Rebellion; rejected idea of \”freewill\” because people who chose freewill were rejecting God himself; believed you can build your faith by reading scriptures not by salvation to the church Martin Luther -Skilled at oration and persuasive writing, originally trained as a lawyer but decides to become a monk -Challenges the Catholic Church, lead the Reformation movement. -\”Faith alone\” can grant one entrance into Heaven.
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\”The Just Shall Live By Faith Alone\”
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Quote by Martin Luther…this is the reason why indulgences cant erase sins…the Roman Catholics think that simply doing good works will help you achieve salvation but Luther says faith alone is more important; direct engagement through the scriptures can deepen your faith -Believed that the most important part of Christianity was relying on complete faith in God. -Faith is more important than \”works\” of the Catholic Church.
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View on worship of saints
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-Luther rejected belief in saints the protestants stance on saints was that it was a form of idol worshipping; one of the areas where they differed from the catholic church; banning any worship of saints
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\”Ninety-Five Theses\”
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Martin Luther’s denouncement of the Roman Church’s selling of indulgences, Document written by Martin Luther and posted on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg in Germany on the 31st of October, 1517 that listed 95 things that Luther saw wrong with the church; preached especially against the sale of indulgences; widely translated and circulated by Nuremberg Humanists
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Jubilee Indulgence 1517
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The church created a fundraising to build St. Peters Balsilica; the church made a promise that if you contribute you would be granted to be erased of your payment; Priests could transmute your eternal sins to a temporal one; you could work off the penalty; \”get out of jail free card\” -Large indulgence drive initiated by Pope Leo X to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica. -Organized by one of the largest banking house in Europe. -Led Martin Luther to write his 95 theses
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\”Treasury of Merit\”
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Pope Clement VI, declared an infinite reservoir of good works in the church’s possession that could be dispensed at the Pope’s discretion; the church could buy people’s indulgences, could buy people’s relatives from hell, exploits people’s fear of hell -The church sold a treasury of merit -merit: lessen the time spent in purgatory or gain complete exemption from purgatory if you bought a certain amount of merit. -Luther’s challenge:why not just dispense it out of charity.
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Temporal vs. eternal penance
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Temporal penalty could be eliminated by purchasing indulgences from the pope’s treasury of merit… a part of the ‘indulgence tradition’; if you don’t buy indulgences then you will be punished in heaven Catholic church: buying of indulgences, you could change a eternal sentence into a temporal sentence
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John Tetzel
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Friar who sold indulgences and set off Martin Luther to create the 95 Theses, Archbishop Albert hired John Tetzel to sell indulgences to the people. Tetzel even made up an advertising scheme for the sale of indulgences. He drew up a chart with the prices for the forgiveness of sins. Was also a monk. Responsible for part of Luther’s 95 Theses but also protested against it -Celebrity indulgence preacher -\”As soon as a coin in the coffer rings/the soul from purgatory springs\”. -Very charismatic and preached in town where Luther was..
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Letter of indulgence
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Martin Luther objecting the act of people buying letters as a way of eliminating penalty for their sins; people were allowed to buy dead relatives out of purgatory; Roman Catholic church had indulgences to bring in money to build St. Peters Balsilca; Luther saw this as greed, hypocracy, and fraud because church authorities did not have the right to admit people to heaven; said church should feed the poor instead of their greed -Sold by the church to make someone’s eternal sin, temporal -People could buy them for dead ones
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Iserloh’s thesis on Luther’s intent
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-that Luther was more interested in reforming the Catholic Church than starting a dissension (open rebellion against the church) – suspects that Luther did not nail the 95 theses to the door of Cathedral
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Ulrich Zwingli
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(1484-1531) Swiss humanist, priest and disciple of Erasmus. After the Battle of Marignano in Italy in 1515, he became a critic of Swiss mercenary sevice, believing it threatened political sovereignity. By 1518, he became known for opposition against the sale of indulgences. He won people’s priest post in Church of Zurich. He believed anything that was not written in Scripture was not to be believed; A Protestant reformer in Switzerland, wrote the 67 Articles which became officially adopted in Zurich. -wanted reform in the Church -Ended up leading the reformation in Switzerland. -Split with Luther over the issue of Transubstantiation
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Transubstantiation
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Idea that during the Eucharist, the bread and wine actually became the body and blood of Jesus -Luther rejects this.
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Anabaptists
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Believed the church should be separate from the states and that infant baptism was not true baptism so adult baptism was necessary when the individual knew good from evil \”Roots\” of Christianity.
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John Calvin
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(1509-1564) Protestant reformer; published a book called Institutes of the Christian Religion; faith will save you, not good deeds; absolute sovereignty of God; predestination or \”eternal decree\”; kept baptism and the Lord’s summer; made Geneva a Protestant city; believed society should be governed by clergy and laid men -Wanted to establish a more godly society – Believe religion had a much more central role in the discipline of ordinary line -Believed in predestination, the idea that God already knew the paths and choices we would taken in life before we did or made them
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The \”Consistory\” in Geneva
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-the creation of the Consistory, a church-related court composed of elders and ministers -the Consistory could judge only ecclesiastical matters having no civil jurisdiction
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Council of Trent (1545-1563)
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This council met to correct abuses of the Church, but refused to agree with or give credit to any Protestants. They ended the sale of indulgences, and made rules to regulate the behavior of clergy. They ordered seminaries formed where there were no universities in order to end clerical ignorance. They also held onto the insistence that salvation was based on faith and good works, not faith alone. The ideals of the Council of Trent were the epitome of Counter-Reformation ideals in the Catholic Church; Catholic church tried to implement changes but also demonstrated their commitment to their traditional views of the Church Set up to encourage reform,but ended up reaffirming core beliefs, only ways it actually helped Original Purposes: 1. to bring back Protestants to the Church 2. to state Catholic teaching clearly 3. to address the issue of abuses in the Church
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Church reforms to instill discipline
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Catholic church says they need to instill acts to get the church together so they create things such as the council of trent -More moderation on selling of indulgences, but not ban the selling -Priests were now able to be better equipped w/knowledge and well versed and educated. -Bishops can’t abuse religious power
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Ignatius Loyola
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Founded the Society of Jesus,who were dedicated to promoting the Catholic faith through missionary work; resisted the spread of Protestantism; wrote Spiritual Exercises; he was a Spanish milititant and had a moment of awakening in which he felt it was more important to establish religious order; him being a soldier helps us understand Jesuits Ethos (always submit to your superiors- pope); Had great emphasis on preserving fundamental ideas and discipline within the Church
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Society of Jesus
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Members were known as Jesuits, had a very advanced education that allowed them to argue against their opponents. Spread the reformed Roman church’s teachings through missionaries; A Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work. -Jesuits-military origins. -Followed the pope without question -primary motive was to get converts to Catholicism.
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Protestant view of celibacy
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-Marriage and motherhood was a woman’s highest calling -Obey her husband and not leaving him even if he is hostile
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\”Domestic Seminary\”
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A way of controlling women; the highest calling for women was marriage and motherhood; believed women should bear children till death because \”they were created for that\” (Luther); Guidelines on how you should marry and to whom and how to raise your children; guidelines differed between protestants and church; both sides agreed that women were naturally subordinate to men -The home was a church sort of atmosphere -the women must teach the children Christian faith within the household
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Charitas Pirckheimer
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Was head of a convent in Nuremberg during the Reformation that she was opposed to…her convent eventually got shut down as a Catholic place of worship because Luther thought nunneries were bad; tried to protect nuns from persecution -Female humanist who challenged the Reformation -Abbess(head) of Saint Clara’s convent in Nurmberg -Opposed due to the threat posed by Martin Luther to Catholic houses
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St. Clara’s in Muremberg
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Pirckheimer had maintained a chronicle during her abbacy of events at the monastery during the period of upheaval (1524-1528).
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Katherine Von Bora
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Luther’s wife; they married when she was 26 and him 42. Considered a happy marriage– she did the household duties but didn’t fear scolding her husband for being too generous. Six kids. This traces the first indication that a women could, in the future, be of equal status- this was an improvement in woman stature.
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Pauline injunction
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The claim that Paul the Apostle had, at some point, set restrictions that limited what women could do in the church and how they could approach their fate -affected role of women in the Catholic Churcha lot of the arguments in favor of limiting women’s role in the church were attributed to paul; these arguments generally attributed their attrition to what paul said but as weisner tells us, paul was ambivalent about the role of women; how did they use his sayings to their advantage?
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Argula von Grumbach
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Protestant women, defended right of women to speak publicly. She wrote to University of Ingolstadt & Duke Wilhelm to defend Arsacius Seehofer who had been arrested and tried for teaching Lutheran ideas and was forced to recant and be confined to monastery or would be killed. Seehofer recanted but escaped and continued teaching Lutherans ideas -Started involving the Protestant Reformation debates going on in Germany in 1520. – the first protestant woman writer -published letters and poems support Martin Luther student.
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St. Anne- patron saint of pregnant women
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Catholics believed that you could not worship St. Anne because sex was bad; Banned worship of St. Anne and Virgin Mary; women should have strong roles Mother of (Mary, mother of Jesus)as part of the counter reformation, a lot of former privelages and rights that catholic women had were stripped from them especially by protestant reformers; women in protestant areas were denied to worship a saint like saint anne; patron saint of pregnant women; many women with difficult pregnancy would pray to her but because of reformation they cannot
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Beguines
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A reform group that welcomed women without the wealth to enter regular convent. Using funds from selling their weavings and embroidery, they helped the poor and set up hospitals and shelters. -not nuns, could not take vows and could return to the world if they chose, and did not renounce their property. -support themselves by manual labour or teaching the children of Burghers -Pope Clement V accused the Beguines of spreading heresy. Then suppression started
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Anna Bijns
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Women shouldn’t get married too soon, slave to men, ring is a shackle, men are drunk and abusive, single have their own income, do what they want, when they want; Wrote the poem \”Unyoked is best, happy with women without a man\” -Opened a school in Antwerp with her brother. -Part of the brotherhood of instructors. -Renaissance Humanists consider her the best-selling Dutch author of the 16th century after Erasmus. -Works consisted of religious and against Martin Luther, whom she considered an instrument of evil.
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William Gouge
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Wrote \”On Domestical Duties\”…stated that a woman must mary any man that is sent for her no matter how gross he is because he has God’s image beneath his layers of gluttony; said women must be subject to her husband He considered adultery equally bad in both genders, and encouraged love matches.
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Global evengelical mission of Jesuits
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Jesuits played a big role in converting China -Sent out to be the vanguard of Catholicism around the globe. -Within a decade of the creation of the society of Jesus, they were able to set up missions in India, SE Asia, China and Japan in the mid 16th century.
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Nobunaga and the Portuguese
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Worked closely with Portuguese to acquire arms; Portuguese played an important role in initial stages of unification; The Portuguese played a crucial in Japan in 2 ways:1) Provided arms to Nobunaga(GUN). Developing an infantry superior to the traditional samurai 2) Portuguese serve as a conduit for trade b/n China and Japan
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Kyushu daimyos
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Daimyo = \”great name\”, these were the powerful territorial lords of Japan during the 16th C that ran their own little mini cities…shoguns sought to control them in order to prevent civil war since they were powerful and had their own mini-militaries set up; -Town leaders. Jesuits would land at ports in towns -With daimyos to encourage more Jesuits to land, many daimyos converted their people to Christianity -The daimyos then claimed they were entitled to guns since they had converted.
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\”Black Ships\” trade
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Sailed between Macao and Nagaski from Portugal; super armored ships; traded copper and silver for Chinese goods; trade brought revenue for unification -Controlled by the Jesuits missionaries -They decided which of the daimyos and ports in Japan were entitled to trade based on conversion -result in rapid conversion took place. -European trade ships going from Macao to Japan.
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\”Maria Kannon\”
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The female bodhisattva of compassion; Combination of Virgin mary and bodhisattva. Religious syncretism. -Exaggerated the similarities between Catholicism and traditional religion in Japan (Buddhism). -The fusion of the Virgin Mary and the Bodhisattva Kannon -A direct result of these efforts at syncretism.
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Francis Xavier
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Early Jesuit missionary often called the Apostle to the Indies. He was an associate of St Ignatius of Loyola, with whom he took the vow founding the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). From 1541 he traveled through India, Japan, and the East Indies, making many converts; Led the first mission to Japan and converted many Japanese -One of the earliest Jesuit missionaries to Japan. -Said the Japanese was the greatest race and fit for conversion
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Hideyoshi’s ban on Christianity 1597
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-Christianity was gaining such prominence in Japan, he banned Christianity -crucified monks and 20 converts to enforce his point.
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San Felipe Incident
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-Misunderstanding of Christians in Japan. -San Felipe is one of the ships that shipwrecked on the coast of Japan. -The ship was carrying a tons of guns and the Japanese thought they were going to get conquered.
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Gaspar Coelho
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Told Hideyoshi that he can convince Christians to support him as a ruler and rather than gaining his trust, causes Hideyoshi to crack down on Christians; A Portuguese Jesuit missionary in Japan who tried meddling in politics -He replaced Francisco Cabral as the Superior and Vice-Provincial of the Jesuit mission in Japan during the late 16th century. Coelho became infamous among Jesuits and Japanese Christians alike. Becuase he sped up the disfavor of Toyotomi Hideyoshi against the Jesuit mission in Japan
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Tokugawa Edict of 1633
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Closed Japan off to the rest of the world out of fear of Christianity overriding them; banned Japanese from going abroad -Banned all Japanese from going abroad, also banned people from coming in, any padre found in Japan would be executed, same w/any Japanese converts. -Japanese hearing tales of the Christian aggression that took place in Portugal and Spain.
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Shimbara Peasant Revolt
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Socioeconomic grievances against daimyos because of exploitation of peasant; peasants and Bateren (masterless samurai) were christian; threat of christianity -A rebellion of 40,000 disenfranchised peasants against the traditional social structures of Japan. -This threatened the Tokugawa unification
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Dutch massacre of \”Kirishitans\”
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40 thousand escaped to mountainous coastal region and Tokugawa were not able to reach them— so they asked the Dutch to use their gun ships to destroy the Christians; wanted to suppress Christian rebels; Dutch wanted to made money -Tokugawa was unable to quell the rebellion alone. -Bargains with the Dutch, who use their cannons to blast the rebels out of the mountains they were hiding in. -This is a case of economic interest trumping religious concern.
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1640 Embassy from Macao
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Exclusion of Portuguese embassy from the Macao; death penalty on padres who preached/converts; execution of the Portuguese Portuguese still sent an embassy to Macao even after the Japanese clearly banned them from their lands. Ended up basically getting crucified.
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Dejima
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Literally means \”exit island\”. It is a small, artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki. It was made by digging a canal through a small peninsula. It was the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period. -Offshore base that was linked to Nagasaki -only entry points in terms of outside trade offshore landfill outside navasaki where all the foreigners would confine to; symbolizes how restricted the japanese were about letting any foreigners on japanese land
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Macao
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One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty; formal Portuguese trading post in 1557 City on east China bordering the sea.
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Matteo Ricci
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(1552-1610) Italian Jesuit that wanted to bring Christianity to China, was popular in the Ming court and studied Chinese traditions/language/religion -Ricci started leaning Chinese language and customs in Macao -the beginning of a long term project that made him one of the first Western scholars to master Chinese script and Classical Chinese -Travelled to Guangdong’s major cities to establish a permanent Jesuit mission outside Macau
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The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven
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Title of treatise Matteo Ricci wrote to reconile Christian Catholics belief with confucian values; tried finding a \”middle ground\” because the Chinese believed in ancestoral worship; shows how sin has spread to affect even the behavior of nations, who seek glory in power, might, and dominance without a thought for god -it was okay for Chinese to convert to Christianity while believe Confucianism something that ricci wrote as part of the process of spreading christianity in china; he is explaining the christian god in a way that makes sense for the chinese confucians; he tried to find a way to bridge confucian ideas with christian faith
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Chistian/Confucian compromise
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Attempts at finding convergence between Christianity and Buddhism; Attempts to minimize difference between Christianity and Confucianism -Tried to minimize the difference between the two traditions and instead emphasized the parallels EX: teachings of Jesus & teachings of Confucius
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Chinese Rites Controversy
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Conflict between traditional Chinese rites and rituals and foreign Christian taboos on idol worship during the 17th-18th centuries. Sects of Christianity disagreed upon whether ceremonies honoring Confucius were idolatrous or not. Eventually, the Vatican banned the rites. This position was upheld until it was overturned in the mid 20th century; Recalled Jesuits from China because of distrust which led to undermined missionary status -Jesuits appealed for the pope to make certain exceptions for Chinese rites and rituals (worshipping their ancestors, bowing down to emperor). -However, Dominicans insinuated that the Jesuits were allowing for heresy, selling out Christianity for their own interests
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Vatican hard-line policy
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Jesuits would be successful in China if the church would make an exception for ancestral worship; They took a reactionary position – dominicans were the enemies of the Jesuits so that helped the church to accept it -Final decision when it came to the Chinese Rites controversy. -All chinese converts to Christianity or Not -Confucianism can’t parallel with Christianity
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Preconditions for Scientific Revolution
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Scholasticism- the system of theology and philosophy taught in Medieval European Universities; based on Aristotelian logic and the writings of the early church fathers; have a strong emphasis on tradition and dogma Exploration- idea of thirst for new land, produce, etc. Commerce- profits drove motivation
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Royal Society of London
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The leading English scientific organization, made up of leading merchants, planters and even theologians, all devoted to the discoveries of scientific ideas.
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Nicolaus Copernicus
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(1473-1543) Polish clergyman. Thought Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. Destroyed Aristotle’s view of the universe; used heliocentric theory using math
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Heliocentric vs. Ptolemaic system
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sun = center vs. earth = center
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Tycho Brahe
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(1546-1601)Danish astronomer who studied the night sky for 20 years gathering data, and discovered a new star, which challenged Aristotle’s theory that the universe was perfect and unchanging; wanted to debunk Copernicus’ idea but ended up helping prove it; Church started to become against these ideas
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Vatican’s position on science
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God’s universe is based on miracles, not natural law; Church was thought of as infallible;
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Galileo Galilei
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(1564-1642) improved telescope, discovered imperfections in space (moons of jupiter, mountains on moon, rings of saturn), made people think the universe was bigger; known as the father of modern science
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Modern scientific enterprise
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Galileo piece; father of modern science; conducted his own experiments, setting up own labs, etc. demonstrated that you should form a hypothesis and publish your findings, etc.
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Pope Urban VIII as \”Simplicius\”
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Was a close friend of Galileo but gained power as pope and backstabbed him; Galileo wrote a dialogue with a character with the named Simplicius who was a parody of pope urban;Galileo was saying he was a simpleton and the pope got offended; science was the last word and the pope got offended
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Letter to Grand Duchess Christina
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Galileo confided in Christina his fear of spreading his findings because she endowed and funded his research so thought best to consult he; galeleo tries to defend himself in this letter arguing why all his attackers are essentially idiots; tone is represenative of the man; wasnt trying to get on anyone’s good side
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Trial of Galileo
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Galileo believed that the Earth was not the center of the universe and that it moved but the sun stayed motionless and was the universe. This went against what the church taught and believed. Thus, the church charged Galileo and made him take all of the things he said back. He was then put under house arrest. The significance of this is that it brought new ideas into peoples minds about astronomy.
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\”E Pur Si Muove\”
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Supposedly muttered by Galileo Galilei after his recantation of his beliefs (as a result of the criticism drawn from the RCC), this translates to, \”It [the Earth] still moves.\”
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\”The Big Three\”
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Compass (for better travels), Gunpowder (death of feudal aristocracies) , Printing ( catalyst for humanist, renaissance, and reformation and was more than accessible) Time gap in innovation: East vs. West – West was beginning to advance more than China; Lande’s proposal was that China was an agricultural society and didn’t need much technology
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Chinese astronomical water-clock
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One of the Emperors had patron to discover this; once he died its use/re-invention did not continue
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Monastic needs for timekeeping
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wanted bells to regulate civic life…part of the revolution in \”time-discipline\”; time for prayer, to get up, go to bed, work, etc.
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Clocks and civic life
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The mechanical clock
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Symbol and catalyst for all other scientific pursuits
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Manufacturing and time-keeping in Europe
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Bells regulated civic life; bells regulated the work day
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Noreene Shaffer’s Thesis
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China and Western Europe developed separately but that didn’t mean one was more advanced than the other; Tech innovations such as the printing press, gunpowder, and compass did have a lasting impact on China; China’s goals were peasant based and they didn’t need technology
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Song commericial revolution
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Neo-Confucianism and printing press
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With the printing press, this led to an increased demand for confucian classics and it revived neo-confucianism
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Joseph Needham
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World’s leading authority on Chinese science; One who suggested that china had all the preconditions for a scientific revolution centuries before Europe.
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Taoist Alchemy
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One of the origins was the ‘search for elixirs’, which is how they accidentally discovered gunpowder using salt, arsenic, honey, and other items
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Huo yao
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Chinese name for gunpowder
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Innovation during Mongol-Song Conflict
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Most significant advances on the use of gunpowder
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Early Chinese Firearms
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\”Three-minute flamer-thrower\”- Chinese used on Mongols in the 900’s; effective Mongol weapons Bamboo barreled-gun- Case-shot launchers-
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…Introduction to Europe 1285
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European metallurgy of bell-casting
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made bells so they could understand how metal worked; used to create metal canon. European took technology from 1285 and then developed really powerful canon. Which gave them unsurpassed superiority. Acclusion.
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Francis Bacon
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English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw conclusion from a general point) called empiricism; rejected Medieval view of knowledge based on tradition, believed it’s necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method; \”Novum Organum\”
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Empiricism
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Assumption of Science. Information is collected by objective observations
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Proof through Induction
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argued that you start with a general hypothesis, use proofs to develop smaller truths. something general to smaller truth. Descartes .
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Iconoclasm towards the \”Four Idols\”
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Tribe, Cave, Marketplace, Theatre; points out human nature is prone to subjective judgment, our senses may represent a false mirror. This tribe is tribe of humanity; We are equally susceptible to allusions that out mind may bring up. We are also susceptible to forms of indoctrination. We cant see what is truly out there because of indoctrination; Problem of language and discourse itself. So much talk and cacophony of language brings confusion. Like tower of babel in bible. Science should be less rhetoric, more fact. Stage is an artificial construction and we should see previous for what they are.
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Isaac Newton
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A scientist who used the scientific method to discover the law of Gravity; it proved that the scientific method actually worked; explained motion of the universe; \”Principia Mathematica\” – universal law governs the majestic clockwork of the heavens, calculated movement of the earth and showed it had eliptical orbits
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Principia Mathematica 1687
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Newton’s publication of a collection of his most significant mathematical and mechanical discoveries; wrote about law of universal gravitation
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\”Majestic clockwork of the heavens\”
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Newton’s theory = God made the clock and the earth runs as his majestic clockwork
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Law of universal gravitation
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All objects in the universe attract each other through gravitational force. The size of the force depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.
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Space and time as absolutes
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Newton believed they could not change or refute because they were Universal
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Miguel Cervantes
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Spanish writer best remembered for ‘Don Quixote’ which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
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Modern genre of the novel
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People used to focus on poetry and plays but eventually they moved onto novels; novels were now works of fiction that were alot more ironic in nature
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Self-reflexivity of fiction
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Cervantes’ novel was self reflexive, the novel mocked itself
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Relativist vs. absolutist approach to \”truth\”
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Relativist: Descartes, Bacon – said a few things we know for sure, and we take what we get vs. the church saying truths are non negotiable; there is no such thing as absolute truth but is only relative depending on who is claiming to be the truth
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Renee Descartes
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Enlightenment philosopher; Deductive Reasoning (moving from the big idea [hypothesis] to the details), Cartesian dualism, wrote \”Discourse of method\”, \”Cogito ergo sum\” (I think therefore I am)
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Philosophy as \”fable\”
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Philosophic work as fable, suggests they weren’t as confident as other scholars
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Deductive negation
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Having a larger hypothesis and then breaking it down; context of \”I think therefore I am\” which means because he can doubt, he exists, by eliminating truth and recognizing doubt the subject is there
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Political abolutism
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Having complete control over an area or government; Louis XIV was the absolute monarchy
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Louis XIV
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\”the Sun King;\” considered to be the model of absolute monarchs; he controlled all aspects of government, and demonstrated his power and wealth with his palace at Versailles; engaged in efforts to increase his power by taking attacking Huguenots and engaging in wars to acquire more territory and power
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Bishop Bossuet
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In time of LXIV was principal theorist of Absolutism. Advanced the old Christian teaching that all power comes form God and that all who hold power are responsible to God for the way they use it. Absol power of royalty was free from dictates of parlements. Law was the will of the sovereign (as long as conformed to will of God-not arbitrary) then should be obeyed; served Louis XIV
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Voltaire
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(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church; all people should unite and stand together in believing God
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Deism
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A concept of God during the Scientific Revolution; the role of divinity was limited to setting natural laws in motion; universal religion of reason and tolerance;
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Religious toleration
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acceptance of religious differences; Voltaire believed in religious toleration with Deism
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Kant’s definition of \”enlightenment\”
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Freedom from tutelage
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\”Man, who is an animal, about five feet high, is certainly a very inconsiderable part of the creation; but one of those hardly visible beings says to others of the same kind inhabiting another spot of the globe: Hearken to me, for the God of all these worlds has enlightened me. There are about nine hundred million of us little insects who inhabit the earth, but my ant-hill is alone cherished by God, who holds all the rest in horror and detestation; those who live with me upon my spot will alone be happy, and the rest eternally wretched.\” (Voltaire \”On Universal Toleration\”)
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Speaker: Voltaire Subject: God made us and stepped back, we were just a little part of the world. Why did others think that they could control others? \”Destroy the infamous thing\” – Church Occasion: Philosopher Purpose: General Time period:Idea: Humans are only a small speck in the Universe; Deism is what God holds true in Voltaire’s POV if you don’t chose to love people and be tolerant
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\”They took Nobunaga’s attack on the Mt. Hiei monastery and the favor they enjoyed in the court as license to do what they pleased, even to the point of echoing Spanish practices in Mexico by inciting their converts to burn Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, practices particularly rampant in and around Nagasaki. Elisonas observed that in order for Christianity to take root, local religious institutions, images, and shrines had to be destroyed.\” (Nelson \”Myths, Missions, and Mistrust\”)
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\”I may here glance for a moment the three great professional Disciplines: Medicine, Law, Theology. Medicine, which is applied science, has undoubtedly much that makes it attractive to a student. But it cannot be described as a Liberal Study. Law, which is based upon moral philosophy, is undoubtedly held in high respect. Regarding Law as a subject of study, such a respect is entirely deserved: but Law as practiced becomes a mere trade. Theology, on the other hand, treats of themes removed from our senses, and attainable only by pure intelligence.\” (Petrus Vergerius \”The New Education\”)
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Speaker: Petrus Vergerius Subject: Education Occasion: Teacher Timer Period: 1400’s Purpose: Vergerius was present at the council of Constance and later worked for Emperor Sigismund. In this letter, he recommends to the young lord virtually all of the disciplines in the Medieval Liberal Arts Curriculum, the trivium, quadrivium, and acknowledges his respect for the advanced professional disciples of medicine, law, and theology. However, his emphasis on rhetoric was thought to be highly practical. He argues that literature surpasses all other disciplines and explains the significance of books to Ubertino. He argues that we cannot understand one subject unless we perceive its relation to other subjects. His treaty remained very popular for about 150 years.
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\”I am not unacquainted with the word of Paul that women should be silent in Church but, when no man will or can speak, I am driven by the word of the Lord when he said, ‘He who confesses me on earth, him will I confess, and he who denies me, him will I deny’ and I take comfort in the words of the prophet Isaiah, I will send you children to be my princes and women to be your rulers.\” (Merry Wiesner \”Nuns, Wives, and Mothers\”)
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Speaker: Argula Von Grumback Subject: Gender Occasion: Noblewomen Timer Period: 1523 Purpose: The German Reformation affected the lives of many women. She concludes that the German Reformation made dramatic social changes for the social status of women. She highlights how religious change from Catholic to Protestant changed the social status of women who participated in religious orders, women who were married or single, and women who worked. Before the Protestant Reformation women had no say in anything and were forced to marry and bare children. Protestant states passed laws that overall changed the behavior of women in marriage and in religion. In reaction to this, the Catholic church took a different approach and encouraged women to disobey their parents, escape marriages, or enter converts. However, both the Protestants and Catholic Church believed that women were subordinate to men. She wrote this to protest a Universities treatment of a young teacher accused of Lutheran Learnings. She argues that if a man is incapable of speaking up or does not have the desire to, then a women is given the right to speak in his place. She quotes the prophet Isaiah basically saying to treat others how you want to be treated.
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\”There was, then, no continuous process of construction and emendation; no multiplicity of private initiatives; no dynamic of continuous improvement. Instead, we have these occasional peak moments of achievement, highly fragile, vulnerable to political hostility and adventitious violence, easily buried and forgotten once the team of builders had dissolved and died.\” (Landes \”Clocks: A Revolution in Time\”)
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Speaker: David Landes Occasion: Historian who supports European Exceptionalism Subject: Technological advance of China compared to Europe Timer Period: Purpose: He is supporting his thesis that in China, technological advances were centered at the imperial court, not by private inventors or innovators like in Europe, meaning that progress was random. He criticizes the Chinese method and does not take into consideration that China has different priorities than Europe. He looks at technology such as the compass, gunpowder, and clocks. Gunpowder was used as a weapon but did not have the sweeping impact in China as it did in Europe and the compass was not as necessary because the spice islands were close to China.
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\”But now that God has taken my salvation out of the control of my own free will, and put it under the control of His, and promised to save me, not according to my working or running, but according to His own grace and mercy, I have the comfortable certainty that He is faithful and will not lie to me, and that He is also great and powerful, so that no devils or opposition can break Him or pluck me from Him.\” (\”Luther vs. Erasmus\”)
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