MKTG Principles of Marketing 8th edition chapter 6 lamb/hair/mcdaniel

need recognition
Result of an imbalance between actual and desired states
recognition of an unfulfilled need and product that will satisfy it
any unit of input affecting one or more of the five senses: sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing
internal stimuli
occurrences you experience such as hunger or thirst
external stimuli
influences from an outside source such as someones recommendation or color of a car
consumer decision making process
Need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, pospurchase behavior
internal information search
The process of recalling past information stored in the memory
external information search
The process of seeking information in the outside environment
nonmarketing controlled information search
a product information source that is not associated with advertising or promotion
marketing controlled information source
A product info source that originates with marketers promoting the product
evoked set
a group of brands, resulting from an information search, from which a buyer can choose. also called a consideration set
fully planned purchase
when a person is buying an expensive or complex item based on a lot of information
partially planned purchase
when they know the product category they want to buy but wait until they get to the store to choose a specific style or brand
unplanned purchase
people buy on impulse
cognitive dissonance
Inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions
the amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision process of consumer behavior
routine response behavior
The type of decision making exhibited by consumers buying frequently purchased, low-cost goods and services; requires little search and decision time
limited decision making
the type of decision making that requires a moderate amount of time for gathering information and deliberating about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category
extensive decision making
The most complex type of consumer decision making, used when buying an unfamiliar, expensive product or an infrequently bought item; requires use of several criteria for evaluating options and much time for seeking information.
the set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human behavior and the artifacts or products, of that behavior as they are transmitted from one generation to the next
Social factors
reference groups, opinion leaders, family
individual factors
gender, age and family life cycle stage, personality, self concept, lifestyle
cultural factors
culture and values, subculture, social class
psychological factors
perception, motivation, learning, beliefs and attitudes
the enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct
A homogeneous group of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements of their own group
social class
A group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioral norms
reference group
all of the formal and informal groups in society that influence an individuals purchasing behavior
primary membership group
a reference group with which people interact regularly in an informal, face-to-face manner, such as family, friends, and co-workers
secondary membership group
a reference group with which people associate less consistently and more formally than a primary membership group, such as a club, professional group, or religious group
aspirational reference group
A group that someone would like to join.
a value or attitude deemed acceptable by a group
nonaspirational reference group
a group with which an individual does not want to associate
opinion leader
an individual who influences the opinions of others
socialization process
how cultural values and norms are passed down to children
a way of organizing and grouping the consistencies of an individuals reactions to situations
self concept
how consumers perceive themselves in terms of attitude, perceptions, beliefs, and self evaluations
ideal self image
the way an individual would like to be perceived
real self image
the way an individual actually perceives himself or herself
the process by which people select, organize, and interpret stimuli into a meaninful and coherent picture
selective exposure
the process whereby a consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others
selective distortion
a process whereby a consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with his or her feelings or beliefs
selective retention
A process whereby a consumer remembers only that information that supports his or her personal beliefs
a driving force that causes a person to take a, A driving force that causes a person to take action to satisfy specific needs
maslows hierarchy of needs
a method of classifying human needs and motivations into five categories in ascending order of importance: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self actualization
a process that creates changes in behavior, immediate or expected, through experience and practice
stimulus generalization
A form of learning that occurs when one response is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first
stimulus discrimination
A learned ability to differentiate among similar products.
An organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world.
a learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given subject
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