Mission College EMT, Spring 2014

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Occlude
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to stop, close up, or obstruct
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Occlusion
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a blockage, usually of a tubular structure such as a blood vessel
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Renal
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relating to, involving, or located in the region of the kidneys.
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Cyanosis
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A bluish grey skin color that is caused by a reduced level of oxygen in the blood.
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Tachycardia
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a rapid heart rate; more than 100 beats/min
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Ventricular Tachycardia
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a rapid heart rhythem in which the electrical impulse begins in the ventricle (instead of the atrium), which may result in inadequate blood flow and eventually deteriorate into cardiac arrest.
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Bradycardia
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a slow heart rate; less than 60 beats/min
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Hypertension
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blood pressure that is higher than the normal range.
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Pregnancy-induced hypertension
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a condition of late pregnancy that involves headache, visual changes, and swelling of the hands and feet; a.k.a. preeclampsia
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Hypotension
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blood pressure that is lower than the normal range
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Libel
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false and damaging information about a person that is communicated in writing.
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Slander
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false and damaging information about a person that is communicated by the spoken word.
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Assault
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unlawfully placing a patient in fear of bodily harm.
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Battery
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touching a patient or providing emergency care without consent.
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Rales
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a crackling, rattling breath sound that signals fluid in the air spaces of the lungs; also called crackles.
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Ronchi
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coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the upper airways.
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Wheezing
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the production of whistling sounds during expiration such as occurs in asthma and bronchiolitis.
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Stridor
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a high-pitched noise heard primarily on inspiration
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Arteriosclerosis
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the stiffening of vessel walls. It contributes to systolic hypertension in many older patients, which places an extra burden on the heart. May be a consequence of disease states such as diabetes.
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Atherosclerosis
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a disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of the blood vessels, forming plaque, which eventually leads to partial or complete blockage of blood flow.
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Hyperglycemia
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an abnormally high glucose level in the blood. Prolonged hyperglycemia with exceptionally high glucose levels results in diabetic ketoacidosis.
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Hypoglycemia
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a condition characterized by a low blood glucose level. Hypoglycemia will progress to unresponsiveness and eventually a hypoglycemic crisis.
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Subcutaneous emphysema
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a crackling sound produced by air bubbles under the skin.
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Normal Ranges for Blood Pressure
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Adult: 90 to 140 mm Hg (systolic) Children (ages 1 to 8): 80 to 110 mm Hg (systolic) Infants (newborn to 1 year): 50 to 95 mm Hg (systolic)
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Shock (hypoperfusion)
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describes a state of collapse and failure of the cardiovascular system. Abnormal state of inadequate oxygen and nutrient delivery to the cells of the body, which causes organs then organ systems to fail.
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Homeostasis
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a balance of all systems of the body.
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Perfusion
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the circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells current needs for oxygen, nutrients , and waste removal.
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Systolic pressure
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the peak arterial pressure, or pressure generated every time the heart contracts.
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Diastolic pressure
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the pressure maintained within the arteries while the heart rests between heartbeats.
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Which side of the autonomic nervous system will assume more control of the body’s functions during a state of shock?
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The sympathetic side, which is responsible for the fight-or-flight response, will assume more control of the body’s functions during a state of shock.
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Cardiogenic shock is caused by what?
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Cardiogenic shock is caused by inadequate function of the heart. Cardiogenic shock develops when the heart cannot maintain sufficient output to meet the demands of the body. Cardiac output is the volume of blood that the heart can pump per minute.
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Edema
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is the presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid between cells in the body tissues, causing swelling of the affected area.
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Myocardial contractility
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the ability of the heart to muscle to contract.
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Obstructive shock
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Obstructive shock results when conditions that cause mechanical obstruction of the cardiac muscle also impact pump function.
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Cardiac tamponade and tension pneumothorax are two examples of which type of shock?
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Obstructive shock.
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Cardiac tamponade is also known by what other name?
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Pericardial tamponade.
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Pericardial tamponade
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A collection of fluid between the pericardial sac and the myocardium. It is caused by blunt of penetrating trauma and can progress rapidly. Blood leaks into the pericardium, causing an accumulation of blood within the pericardial sac. This accumulation leads to compression of the heart.
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Becks Triad
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The three symptoms of cardiac tamponade. Jugular vein distention, muffled heart sounds, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure starting to merge.
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Tension pneumothorax
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Caused by damage to the lung tissue. Air normally held within the lung escape into the chest cavity. Left untreated, a sufficient amount of air will accumulate within the chest cavity and begin applying pressure to the structures in the mediastinum. When trapped air shifts organs to the uninjured side is when a pneumo becomes a tension pneumo. Increasing pressure will eventually prevent the vena cava from staying fully expanded.
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Distributive Shock
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when there is widespread dilation of the small arterioles; small venules, or both.
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The 4 most common types of distributive shock
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Septic shock, neurogenic shock, anaphylactic shock, and psychogenic shock.
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Septic shock
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occurs as a result of severe infections, usually bacterial, in which toxins (poisons) are generated by the bacteria or by infected body tissues. The toxins damage vessel walls, which leak and loose contractibility.
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Neurogenic shock
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Anaphylactic shock
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Anaphyaxis. When a person reacts violently to a substance to which he or she has been sensitized. Reactions can develop within minutes or seconds after contact. Widespread vascular dilation, increased permeability, and bronchoconstriction.
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Psychogenic shock
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sudden reaction of the nervous system that produces a temporary, generalized vascular dilation, resulting in syncope. Life threatening potential causes of psychogenic shock are irregular hearbeat, and brain aneurysm.
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Hypovolemic shock
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the result of an inadequate amount of fluid or volume in the system.
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Carbon dioxide has a _____ times greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen.
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Carbon dioxide has a 250 times greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen.
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Anemia
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Occurs when there is an abnormally low number of red blood cells. Anemia may be the result of either chronic or acute bleeding, a deficiency in certain vitamins or minerals, or an underlying disease process.
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The 3 stages of shock are?
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Compensated shock, decompensated shock, and irrreversible shock.
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7 reasons to suspect shock
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Massive bleeding (internal or external). Multiple severe factures. Abdominal or chest injury. Spinal injury. A severe infection. a major heart attack. Anaphylaxis.

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