Mineral Identification Flashcards

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Talc
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Hardness: 1 Heft: 2.7 – 2.8 Color: White, grey, green Streak: White Breakage: Looks like fracture Luster: Nonmetallic Other: Feels greasy.
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Graphite
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Hardness: 1-2 Heft: 2.3 Color: Grey, black Streak: Black Breakage: Looks like fracture Luster: Metallic Other: Marks paper and feels greasy
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Bauxite
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Hardness: 1-3 Heft: 2-2.3 Color: white, yellow, brown Streak: white, yellow, brown Breakage: looks like cleavage Luster: nonmetallic (earthy) Other: spherical grains (>2mm)
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Sulfur
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Hardness: 1- 1.5 Heft: 2.1 Color: Yellow Streak: Colorless Breakage: Fracture Luster: Nonmetallic Other: Distinct and strong odor
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Gypsum
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Hardness: 2 Heft: 2.3 Color: Clear, white Streak: white Breakage: Cleavage in one direction Luster: Nonmetallic (crystalline) Other: Flexible but inelastic tubes
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Kaolinite
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Hardness: 2 – 2.5 Heft: 2.6 Color: White Streak: White Breakage: Cleavage in one direction Luster: Nonmetallic (earthy) Other: Fine-grained masses
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Chlorite
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Hardness: 2-2.5 Heft: 2.6-2.9 Color: Green Streak: White, green Breakage: Cleavage in one direction Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Fine-grained and greasy
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Muscovite
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Hardness: 2-2.5 Heft: 2.7-3.1 Color: Black,brown, green Streak: white Breakage: cleavage in one direction Luster: nonmetallic (glassy) Other: Thin elastic sheets
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Galena
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Hardness: 2.5 Heft: 7.4-7.6 Color: Grey Streak: Grey, black Breakage: Cleavage in three directions Luster: Metallic Other: Lead ore
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Halite
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Hardness: 2.5 Heft: 2.2 Color: Clear, white Streak: white Breakage: cleavage in 3 directions Luster: nonmetallic Other: \”Rock\” salt
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Biotite
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Hardness: 2.5-3 Heft: 2.8-3.2 Color: brown, black Streak: Brown, green Breakage: cleavage in 1 direction Luster: Nonmetallic (glassy) Other: Thin elastic sheets
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Gold
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Hardness: 2.5-3 Heft:15-19 Color: gold, yellow Streak: gold, yellow Breakage: Fracture Luster: Metallic Other:Malleable, ductile, and opaque
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Silver
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Hardness: 2.5-3 Heft: 10-11 Color: Silver, grey Streak: white, grey Breakage: Fracture Luster: Metallic Other: Malleable, ductile, and opaque
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Copper
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Hardness: 2.5-3 Heft: 8.9 Color: Copper, red Streak: Red Breakage: Fracture Luster: metallic Other: malleable, ductile, and opaque
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Silicon
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Hardness: 2.5-4 Heft: 2.6 Color: Silver Streak: Grey, black Breakage: cleavage in one direction Luster: metallic Other: highly reflective
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Lepidolite
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Hardness:2.5-4 Heft: 2.8 Color:Pink, lilac, purple Streak: white, grey Breakage: cleavage in two directions Luster: nonmetallic (vitreous) Other:small crystals and flaky
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Serpentine
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Hardness: 2-5 Heft: 2.2-2.5 Color: Green, black Streak: white Breakage: fracture Luster: nonmetallic (waxy) Other: Hard surface with greasy or waxy feel
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Calcite
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Hardness: 3 Heft: 2.7 Color: Varies Streak: White Breakage: Cleavage in 3 directions Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Effervesces in cold acid
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Bornite
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Hardness: 3 Heft: 5.1 Color: Iridescent Streak: Grey Breakage: Fracture Luster: Metallic Other: Form of pyrite; called peacock ore
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Barite
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Hardness: 3-3.5 Heft: 4.5 Color: White, pink Streak: White Breakage: Cleavage in one direction Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: (None)
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Azurite
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Hardness: 3.5-4 Heft: 3.8 Color: Blue, Green, Streak: Blue Breakage: Fracture Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Effervesces in cold acid; used in paint
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Chalcopyrite
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Hardness: 3.5 – 4 Heft: 4.2 Color: Blue, green Streak: green, black Breakage: Fracture (curved or conchoidal) Luster: Metallic Other: Low-grade Copper ore
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Fluorite
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Hardness: 4 Heft: 3.2 Color: Varies Streak: White Breakage: Cleavage in four directions Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Crystals, if present, are cubic
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Apatite
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Hardness: 4 Heft: 3.2 Color: White, green, brown Streak: White, pink Breakage: Fracture Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Found in granular masses
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Limonite
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Hardness: 5 – 5.5 Heft: 3.6 – 4 Color: Yellow, brown Streak: Brown Breakage: Fracture Luster: Nonmetallic (earthy) Other: Earthy, massive, or concretionary
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Chromite
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Hardness: 5.5 Heft: 4.6 Color: Black, brown Streak: Brown Breakage: Fracture Luster: Metallic Other: Usually found in granular masses
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Hornblende
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Hardness: 5-6 Heft: 3.2 Color: Green, black Streak: Green, grey Breakage: Cleavage in two directions Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Long, slender crystals
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Hematite
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Hardness: 5.5 -6.5 Heft: 5.3 Color: Red, brown, black Streak: Red, brown Breakage: Looks like fracture Luster: Nonmetallic or metallic Other: Radial, earthy, oolitic, or micaceous
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Feldspar
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Hardness: 6 Heft: 2.6 Color: Pink, green, grey Streak: White Breakage: Cleavage in two or three directions Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Most common mineral
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Magnetite
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Hardness: 6 Heft: 5.2 Color: Black Streak: Black Breakage: Fracture Luster: Metallic Other: Strongly magnetic; micaceous
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Pyrite
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Hardness: 6-6.5 Heft: 5 Color: Brass, yellow Streak: Green, black Breakage: Fracture Luster: Metallic Other: Crystals commonly striated cubes
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Olivine
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Hardness: 6.5-7 Heft: 3.3-3.4 Color: Green Streak: Green, white Breakage: Fracture (curved or conchoidal) Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Granular find-grained aggregate
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Quartz
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Hardness: 7 Heft: 2.6-2.7 Color: Varies Streak: none Breakage: Fracture (curved or conchoidal) Luster: Nonmetallic Other: Transparent to translucent crystals
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Tourmaline
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Hardness: 7-7.5 Heft: 3-3.2 Color: Varies Streak: None Breakage: Fracture Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Sometimes has striations on crystals
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Spinel
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Hardness:7.5-8 Heft: 3.5-4.1 Color: Black, green Streak: White Breakage: Fracture Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Rare octahedral crystals
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Topaz
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Hardness: 8 Heft: 3.5-3.6 Color: Colorless, white Streak: None Breakage: Fracture (curved or conchoidal) Luster: Nonmetallic (vitreous) Other: Pale blue and pink tints
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Corundum
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Hardness: 9 Heft: 4 Color: Brown, pink, blue Streak: None Breakage: Fracture Luster: Nonmetallic Other: Transparent to translucent crystals

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