Midterm 1 Part 2 – Flashcards

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Why did Johann Sebastian Bach compile the "Well-Tempered Clavier?"
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for teaching purposes and for "those already skilled in this study"
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In 1648, at the end of the Thirty Years' War, the Treaty of Westphalia
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permanently excluded Spain from meddling in the affairs of the Netherlands.
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Paintings that depict scenes of people from everyday life are called
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genre scenes.
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Johannes Kepler substantiated Nicolaus Copernicus's theory that the planets orbited the sun and not the Earth by
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making detailed records of the movements of the planets.
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Rembrandt van Rijn was famous for all of the following EXCEPT:
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--*********still lifes using the camera obscura. --gestural brushwork --dramatic contrasts of lights and darks. --etchings of scenes from the life of Christ.
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Of all the artists of his era, Rembrandt van Rijn was the most interested in
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self-portraiture.
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Johann Sebastian Bach, "Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, III" What aspect of this track is instructive in determining it to be a concerto grosso?
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the prominent soloing of various instruments
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Why was Rembrandt van Rijn's large painting of Captain Frans Banning Cocq mustering his company also known as The Night Watch?
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The painting was covered by a layer of grime and darkened varnish.
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Which statement is not true of seventeenth-century Dutch culture?
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--The approach to art was significantly informed by the values of the Dutch Reformed Church. --**********The values of European court culture tended to erode those of the middle class. --Religious tolerance and spiritual austerity coexisted. --A condition of restraint pervaded despite economic success.
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How do heliocentric theories of the cosmos differ from geocentric theories?
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They are sun-centered.
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A still life is a painting that
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represents an arrangement of inanimate objects.
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Johann Sebastian Bach, Cantata No. 78, "Jesu, der du meine Seele", Select the incorrect statement about Johann Sebastian Bach's Cantata No. 78:
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Johann Sebastian Bach regularly composed liturgical music in the form of the cantata, which is
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a multi-movement work usually based on Lutheran melodies.
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The iconoclasm of the Dutch Reformed Church is reflected in its
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whitewashed, unornamented interiors.
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Who famously said "Cogito, ergo sum" ("I think, therefore I am")?
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René Descartes
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According to Thomas Morley, the keyboard fantasia had to comprise a
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point, but not a ditty.
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A camera obscura works by
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admitting a ray of light through a small hole.
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In keeping with the themes of Dutch vernacular painting, the work of Johannes Vermeer is marked by all of the following EXCEPT:
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--an interest in the portrayal of figures as individuals. --the theme of the domestic interior. --detailed observation. --********the depiction of the lavish life of the noble class.
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Johann Sebastian Bach's Passion According to Saint Matthew focuses on the story of
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the death and resurrection of Jesus.
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Paintings that depict scenes of people from everyday life are called
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Genre Scenes
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The brand of faith that argues that the basis of belief in God is reason and logic, rather than revelation or tradition, is called
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Deism
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The person famous for discovering the "little animals" now called bacteria and protozoa was
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Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.
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The term Cartesian dualism refers to the
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distinction between mind and matter, the soul and the body.
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Dutch Baroque paintings can generally be distinguished from Italian Baroque paintings by their
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familiar, everyday subjects.
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The vanitas paintings of Dutch artists are intended to
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remind viewers that the material world is not as long-lived as the spiritual.
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The strong contrast of values in The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (The Night Watch) illustrates Rembrandt's
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use of light to animate figures.
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The process of drawing general conclusions from observing particular examples is known as
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Inductive Reasoning
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A(n) __________ is a contrapuntal work in which a musical theme is played by a series of musical lines until all play at once.
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fugue
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The Church banished Galileo Galilei and banned his writings because of its opinion that his work
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contradicted certain passages in the Bible.
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Absolutism is expressed in all of the following ways except
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a. strong centralized government. b. the divine right of kings. c. ostentatious regal splendor. (NO) d. self-determination of the people.
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Peter Paul Rubens's Garden of Love exhibits the Baroque style in its
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exuberant brushwork and composition.
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• As seen in his Landscape with St. Matthew and the Angel, Nicolas Poussin can be called a Classicist chiefly because
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his painting technique is controlled and refined.
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o In deciding that the below painting is NOT poussiniste, all of these factors would be relevant except
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a. the emphasis on addressing the senses. b. *******the mythological subject. c. the emphasis on flesh. d. the dynamic pose of the body
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o Rubenists argues that color was the essence of painting, while the poussinistes were dedicated to
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narrative
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• A comédie-ballet performance was part ballet, part
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opera.
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Short displays of dance, song, or instrumental music, such as those found in the work of Jean-Baptiste Lully, are known as
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divertissements.
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Jean-Baptiste Lully's tragédie en musique generally consisted of all of the following except
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a. *****a gigue. b. an allegorical prologue. c. a French overture. d. intermezzi.
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• The masques written by Ben Jonson and staged in collaboration with the architect Inigo Jones were a type of performance that combined speech, dance, and spectacle, and are closely related to the
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comedies en musique composed by Lully for the French court.
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• The most popular dance form of the age was an elegant, triple-time dance of moderate tempo, the
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minuet.
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o The leading playwrights of the theater at the French court include all of the following except
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a. Jean Racine. b. Pierre Corneille. c. Molière. d. ******Tartuffe.
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In drama, the notion of the Classical unities, derived from Aristotle's Poetics, requires that a play have
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only one action that occurs in one place within one day.
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Molière's "Tartuffe" concerns a
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hypocrite who masquerades as a pious man.
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Although the English King Charles I shared the absolutist convictions of the French King Louis XIV, his reign was beset by controversy, and he was eventually
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executed for treason.
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As depicted by his court painter, Anthony van Dyck, England's King Charles I is the very embodiment of a
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Cavalier.
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The most notorious of the lewd anti-puritanical plays was
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William Wycherley's "The Country Wife."
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Henry Purcell, "Dido's Lament" from Dido and Aeneas The tragedy of the story of Dido and Aeneas is expressed in all of these ways in this track except
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a. use of a minor key. b. repetition of lines. c.********the prioritization of instrumentation. d. use of chromatics.
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Dido's final aria is
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a lament built on a repeating descending ground bass
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All of the following resulted from England's Glorious Revolution EXCEPT::
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a. Parliament enacted a Bill of Rights. b. Constitutional monarchy was reestablished. c. *****Puritanism was made the state religion. d. The divine right of kings was permanently suspended.
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The seventeenth century is often referred to as Spain's "Golden Age" because of the
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outpouring of Spanish arts and letters.
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When Philip IV assumed the Spanish throne in 1598 at the age of sixteen, his principal adviser urged him to rival all the other courts of Europe by
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employing the greatest painters of the day.
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PIC: Las Meninas The red cross, symbol of the Order of Santiago, was painted onto this picture after Diego Velázquez's death. Velázquez had, at first, not been eligible for membership in the Order because
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he worked with his hands.
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The example of Miguel de Cervantes freed Spanish writers to be
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Entertaining.
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Plays in Golden Age Spain were generally intended for
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a single performance.
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Pedro Calderón de la Barca's plays concern the
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conflict between love and honor.
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Writer Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas was known in particular for
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exposing the corruption of the Spanish court.
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A cross that combines Native sculptural traditions with Christian imagery is an example of:
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syncretism
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San Xavier del Bac, near Tucson, Arizona, is a mission church notable for its
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Churrigueresque-style retablo and portal.
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What is brocateado?
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the application of gold leaf to canvas
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A retablo is...
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a large altarpiece emsemble
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What distinguishes the estípite column from other types of columns?
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It is narrowest at the base and top.
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For what is the Mexican artist called the Laguna Santero known?
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creating altar ensembles
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The Scientific Revolution was the product of
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empirical reasoning
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What do Peter Paul Rubens, Molière, and Pedro Calderón de la Barca have in common?
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an ability to look beneath the surface of experience
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-Feeling unsafe in Paris, Louis XIV
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constructed a new, lavish palace at Versailles.
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As a consequence of the Pueblo revolt of 1680, the Spanish did all of the following except
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******discontinue the practice of allowing native and Christian decorative traditions to stand side by side. • recognize Pueblo rights to their lands. • stop forcing Christianity on the population. • reassert control over the region.
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-A dance of short, distinct phrasing, in double meter and moderate to fast in tempo is the
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bourrée.
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Absolutism is expressed in all of the following ways except
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a. strong centralized government. b. ******self-determination of the people. c. ostentatious regal splendor. d. the divine right of kings.
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Name of the French National Theater:
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Comédie Française
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According to Poussin, what should be a painting's subject matter?
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Classical mythology or Christian tradition
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Why has the era of Louis XIV's reign come to be known as the Age of Absolutism?
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Louis was a strong monarch who exerted power based on divine right.
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The French gardens at Versailles are noted for their
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geometric layout
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All of the following are true of Asmat bis poles except:
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a. *******They are used to decorate the prows of funerary canoes before they are set alight and launched to sea. b. They are meant to restore balance to the community after the death of a community member. c. They reflect each step of the head-hunting process. d. They are decorated with projections representing enlarged penises.
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2. John Locke refuted the divine right of kings and argued that
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humans are "by nature free, equal, and independent."
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An epistolary novel is a novel
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comprised of a series of letters.
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In his design of Saint Paul's, Christopher Wren brought various stylistic elements together into a coherent whole. Which style is most closely reflected in the dome?
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Renaissance
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Who took over the design of the gardens at Stowe after 1740?
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Lancelot "Capability" Brown
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The effectiveness of William Hogarth's satiric prints relies upon his skills in caricature, which is
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portraiture that exaggerates peculiarities or defects.
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Which of these are carved out of large rock outcroppings?
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Moai on Easter Island
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William Hogarth's The Marriage Contract is the opening scene of a group of paintings, called Marriage à la Mode, that
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ridicule the moral bankruptcy of British society.
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John Locke claimed that at birth, the human mind is a tabula rasa, or "blank slate," and that therefore human beings
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can grow to become reasonable people.
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Thomas Hobbes argued that humankind's only hope lay in accepting the social contract, whereby people
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relinquish sovereignty over themselves and bestow it on a ruler.
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In the Leviathan, the philosopher Thomas Hobbes argued that people are driven by two things, which are
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fear of death and the desire for power.
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The ceramic tablewares of Josiah Wedgwood are seen to usher in the Industrial Revolution because
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they were mass-produced using molds and mechanically printed patterns.
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George Frideric Handel, Messiah, "Hallelujah" Select the INCORRECT statement about this track:
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a. The texture shifts between polyphony and homophony. b. All four voices sing in unison at certain points only. c. The mood of the musical elements imitates the meaning of the text. d. ******The inclusion of multiple voices reflects a divergence from its original intention to be sung by a single voice.
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The iron bridge at Colebrookdale, England, was designed with all of the following factors in mind except
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a. the height of the bridge, which would accommodate boat traffic. b. *******the bridge's ability to carry railroad cars bringing coal to iron furnaces. c. the demonstration of the structural potential of cast iron. d. the reflection of the bridge in the water, which would complete a visual circle.
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In John Milton's "Paradise Lost," Lucifer's self-regard as naturally free most implies a likening to the thinking of
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John Locke.
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Samuel Johnson's "Marriage has many pains, but celibacy has no pleasures" is an example of
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an aphorism
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What aspect of Stourhead Park reflects a departure from French garden design?
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the meandering line of the pathways
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In John Milton's Paradise Lost, the tensions between absolute rule and the civil liberty of the individual are expressed through dialogues between
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God and Lucipher
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In his epic poem Paradise Lost, John Milton sought to
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justify the ways of God to man.
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20. A fundamental principle of Enlightenment thought is that .
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social change and political reform are desirable and possible
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21. William Hogarth, Jonathan Swift, and Alexander Pope shared the belief that
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satire is an effective means of promoting social change.
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Why would Samuel Richardson's Pamela be classified as an epistolary novel?
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It is made up of a series of letters.
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The longest continuously practiced artistic tradition anywhere in the world is
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Aboriginal rock art of Australia.
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When Captain James Cook met the Maori of New Zealand, he encountered all of the following except
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a. *******monumental heads with torsos, known as moai, erected on stone platforms called ahu. b. men with tattoos, permanent ritual markings, particularly on the head. c. the ideas that gods manifest themselves through mana protected by restrictions called tapu. d. hei-tiki, stylized carvings of a legendary hero or ancestor figure.
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The English painter Joseph Wright was close friends with members of a group known as the Lunar Society, who were
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prominent naturalists, inventors, and manufacturers who met monthly.
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27. How did the British react to Thomas Jefferson's attitude toward slavery?
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In Britain, Jefferson was considered a hypocrite.
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28. An oratorio differs from an opera in its lack of
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costumes.
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29. Handel likely stopped composing Italian operas and began writing English oratorios because
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stage productions of biblical stories were banned.
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Automated Listening Guide: George Frideric Handel, Messiah, "Hallelujah" "Hallelujah" opens with
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an instrumental passage.
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What possibilities for trade did Captain James Cook's expeditions uncover?
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furs
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In eighteenth-century England, books that we would today call novels were known as all of the following except
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--adventures. --histories. --******novellas. --tales.
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The Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 required all of the following except
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--*******the requirement that monarchs obey the law like other British citizens. --details of the reasons for the arrest. --the right to a speedy trial. --a warrant for the arrest of anyone.
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In the eighteenth century, the city of London was rivaled as a center of European intellectual culture only by which city?
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Paris
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Joseph Addison and Richard Steele invented the journalistic essay when they published
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periodicals such as The Tatler and The Spectator.
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. When Captain James Cook traveled to the Pacific islands, his primary mission was to
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visit Tahiti in order to chart the transit of the planet Venus.
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After the Great Fire of London, Christopher Wren was
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empowered, along with the Royal Society of London, to govern the city during the rebuilding process.
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Jane Austen wrote
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novels about the world of the provincial gentry.
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In Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, the Yahoos are
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degenerate, human-looking slaves.
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What did William Hogarth aim to show with his caricatures of English society?
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Moral bankruptcy
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John Locke's ideas about society influenced what social development?
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liberalism
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Why did Alexander Pope use heroic couplets for his discourse on ethics, An Essay on Man?
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To reflect classical balance and harmony
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Why was the Great Fire advantageous to London?
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It allowed the city's center to be modernized.
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According to Isaac Newton, why does the universe function harmoniously and orderly?
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The sun and planets exert gravitational pulls
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Rococo music was characterized by
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a delicate and light sound written for the harpsichord.
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According to the philosophes, the universe proceeded according to what they termed
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natural law.
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Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun was asked to withdraw this image from submission to the Salon of 1783 because
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the acceptance committee thought that the queen was in her underwear.
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View of the Wilderness at Kew illustrates the way in which
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European gardens were embellished with elements inspired by China.
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The primary vehicle of Classical music was the
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symphonic orchestra.
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. The term chinoiserie refers to
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the taste in the West for all things Chinese.
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In music, the number of beats per measure is known as the
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time signature.
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8. Wang Hui is known for creating
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paintings in the manner of earlier masters.
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Jean Etienne Liotard's Still Life: Tea Set captures the essence of
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chinoiserie
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All of the following are true of Deists except:
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a. They believe that the universe proceeds along laws derived from nature. b. They scoff at the idea of the divine right of kings. c. ******They view the Bible as the literal revealed truth of God. d. They believe that God created the universe, but do not believe he interferes with its day-to-day workings.
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What aspect of this work would have been perceived as specifically Western to the Qianlong court?
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the scientific perspective
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12. By the term "noble savage," Jean-Jacques Rousseau meant that
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humans are naturally good and are only corrupted by society.
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What did Jean-Jacques Rousseau mean by "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains," the opening line of The Social Contract?
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By renouncing their own humanity, humans enslave themselves.
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In his essay Laocoön, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing sought to
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distinguish the fine arts from one another.
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The painter Jean-Antoine Watteau is a notable exponent of the Rococo style, best known for his paintings of fêtes galantes, which were
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parties enjoyed in a pastoral or garden setting.
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Germain Boffrand compared architecture to theater, saying that it had both a tragic and pastoral mode. The element in the Salon de la Princesse that demonstrates the pastoral mode is the
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eroticism of its paintings.
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17. The use of Western conventions in Chinese art was to be found most in
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paintings on ceramics.
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Terms such as allegro and lento are indications in musical scores to show
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pace.
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19. Which is true of Madame de Pompadour?
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She was the subject of many paintings at court depicting her as Venus.
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Both the symphony and the string quartet are four-movement genres, but they differ in that the symphony
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is written for a full orchestra in a concert hall, whereas the string quartet is for four players in a private setting.
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By illustrating manufacturing principles, the Encyclopédie intended to transmit knowledge in order to
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foster freedom of thought.
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When Voltaire said "Things changed visibly: Sparta became Athens," he was referring to
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Frederick the Great's transformation of militaristic Prussia into a center of culture.
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Painting-- . François Boucher. "Girl Reclining" Select the statement about this work that is INCORRECT:
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********It could best be classified as a fête galante. --Its eroticism is typical of the Rococo age. --It is a typical subject for this artist. --Although it alludes to Venus imagery, it does not depict a mythological being.
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The English author Samuel Johnson considered China's highest achievement to be
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the civil service examination.
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After being exposed to artistic styles and tastes of the West, the Qing emperor preferred
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traditional Chinese art painted in the manner of earlier masters.
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Franz Joseph Hayden, Symphony No. 94, III Identify the two key attributes of this piece that are instructive in determining it to be in minuet-and-trio form:
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It is in ¾ meter and has a moderate tempo.
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More than any other philosophe, Voltaire
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saw the value of non-Western cultures and traditions.
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When Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert edited the Encyclopédie, their intention was to
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promote Enlightenment ideas to change the general way of thinking
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Which writer functioned early as an art critic, beginning to review the official Paris Salon exhibitions in 1759?
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Denis Diderot
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The favored form for third movements was the
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minuet and trio.
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Opera buffa differs from opera seria in its inclusion of
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everyday people for its characters.
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, I All are true of this track EXCEPT:
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a. It includes passages with polyphonic texture. b.********It exhibits all key traits of opera buffa. c. It is the antitheses of the Rococo style gallant. d. It employs the sonata form.
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Classical music shares all of these qualities with Greek and Roman art except
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--clarity. --balance. ******humor. --formal unity.
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36. As the eighteenth century progressed, the salons of Paris became
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centers of French culture.
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Once the courtiers moved back to Paris, they sought primarily paintings that
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entertained them.
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The first of the new Classical genres that Joseph Haydn played a large role in developing was the
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string quartet
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The philosophes who dominated the intellectual life of the French Enlightenment emphasized
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reason and rationality.
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All of the following are true of the Rococo style in painting except that
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--******the values of restraint and reason are prioritized. --the color range emphasizes pastels, gold, and silver. --compositions are generally asymmetrical. --its subject matter typically emphasizes love and pleasure.
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Invented around 1720, the ________ became the favored solo instrument at the heart of the symphony orchestra.
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pianoforte
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The third movement of Joseph Haydn's Symphony No. 94 is remarkable for its
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complex changes of dynamic, loudness, and theme.
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People in the African diaspora were best able to preserve their
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music.
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The joining of the 13 colonies into states was enacted by the adoption of the
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Articles of Confederation.
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A laissez-faire economic policy, by definition, favors
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free trade
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Who proposed a land ordinance that effectively installed a Neoclassical pattern on the American landscape?
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Thomas Jefferson
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Jacques-Louis David's Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard, showing Napoleon leading his army on a white charger, is an example of art used as propaganda because Napoleon in fact
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crossed with his rear guard, mounted on a mule.
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Although the French and the American revolutions differed in many ways, both
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looked to Classical antiquity for models on which to build a new society.
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The Neoclassical style in American architecture became known as the
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Federal style. (In English culture it was called Adam style)
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The façade of Kedleston Hall is directly inspired by
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the Arch of Constantine.
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Arguing for a new republicanism, Thomas Paine published Common Sense in January 1776, advocating
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a new government with a chief of state who was not a monarch.
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In France, the events leading to revolution were most directly brought about by
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the national debt.
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In this sculpture, Antonio Canova depicts Napoleon nude to
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show him as the modern embodiment of Mars, the Roman god of war.
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Commissioned by Napoleon to commemorate his victories and the glory of his rule, Pierre-Alexandre Vignon's La Madeleine
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was built to culminate a north-south axis and has sixty-three-foot-high Corinthian columns
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All of the following are true of both John Trumbull's The Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776 and Jacques-Louis David's The Tennis Court Oath except:
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a. Both include portraits drawn from life. b. Both portray real events. c.******Both express the Baroque taste for emotional drama. d. Both capture the monumentality of a historical moment.
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When the German philosopher Immanuel Kant declared the motto of the Enlightenment to be, "Have the courage to use your own understanding," what did he want his reader to understand?
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Given freedom, enlightenment is almost inevitable.
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Which of these women was a popular Neoclassical painter in London?
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Angelica Kauffmann
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Republican government in France ended in 1799 when
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Napoleon Bonaparte took power in a coup d'etat.
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Both Mary Wollstonecraft and Olympe de Gouges broadened the agenda of the Enlightenment by
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demanding equal rights for women.
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Who is responsible for fashioning the main points of what would become the liberal feminist agenda?
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Mary Wollstonecraft
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Which is not true of Olympe de Gouges?
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a. She was a victim of the Reign of Terror. b. She wrote a work that radically revisited Jean-Jacques Rousseau's ideas. c. She was regarded as a counterrevolutionary. d. ******She opposed the French Revolution from the outset.
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The Neoclassicism of Jean-Antoine Houdon's life-sized statue of George Washington is exemplified in all of the following ways except
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a. association with attributes of an ancient Roman general. b.*****Roman clothing. c. a contrapposto pose. d. a grave facial expression.
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Because this city was the economic center of the new colony and a dominant force in shaping its ideas, America's First Continental Congress met in
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Philadelphia
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Which is true of Pierre-Charles L'Enfant's plan for the capitol in Washington, D.C.?
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It superimposed diagonal avenues, connecting public squares, upon an orthogonal street grid.
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After being kidnapped as a child and enslaved in a household in Boston, Phillis Wheatley
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became the first black American to publish a book
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All of the following are characteristic of sub-Saharan music except
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a. *****single, unchanging rhythms. b. improvisation. c. repetition and gradual variation. d. the presence of both the drum and the mbira.
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In what way does this sculpture by Antonio Canova differ from the two works by the artist illustrated in the chapter?
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It depicts actual mythological figures.
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On June 17, 1789, the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly and gathered at a nearby indoor tennis court, where its members swore an oath to
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never disband until they had given France a constitution.
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Jean-Paul Marat was assassinated in his bath by
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Charlotte Corday, a royalist.
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North American slaveholders grouped Africans of differing backgrounds together in order to
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reduce the possibility of rebellion.
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When Thomas Jefferson designed the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, he made it a literal copy of the
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Maison Carrée in Nîmes.
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Who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman?
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Mary Wollstonecraft
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Which nation profited most from the slave trade?
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England
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For writing that the future government of France should be determined by popular referendum, not by the National Convention, Olympe de Gouges was
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sent to the guillotine.
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Why did sympathizers of the French Revolution closely identify Jacques-Louis David's "The Lictors Returning to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons" with the cause of the French Republic?
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It asserted the priority of the republic over the demands of personal life.
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The mbira player produces sound by
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plucking a row of thin metal strips, which deliver sound to a wooden box or gourd.
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The Estates General that King Louis XVI was forced to convene on May 5, 1789, was comprised of representatives of the
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clergy, nobility, bourgeoisie, and peasants.
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The Jacobins in France's National Assembly
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favored the institution of egalitarian democracy.
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The style of art known as Neoclassicism demands all of the following EXCEPT:
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a. balance. b. proportion. c. ******ornamentation. d. order
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In his best-selling autobiography, published in England in 1789, Olaudah Equiano describes
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conditions on board a transatlantic slave ship.
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Which of the following is not true of Jacques-Louis David's painting The Oath of the Horatii?
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******Its compositional complexity is typical of French academic history painting. --Its ancient Roman subject is drawn from the work of Corneille. --Its message is that sacrifice is the price for citizenship. --Although it is Neoclassical in style, there are elements of Baroque influence as well.
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The three classes of society comprised of clergy, nobility, and bourgeoisie, together less than 10 percent of the population, owned what percent of the land in France in 1789?
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65%
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A major motivation for the revolutions in both America and France was
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economic
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Angelica Kauffmann's Cornelia Pointing to Her Children as Her Treasures,, while carrying the weight and force of historical narrative, also
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extols the virtues of motherhood.
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Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres's Napoleon on His Imperial Throne combined themes from the lives of which great figures?
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Charlemagne and Charles V
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