Microbiology Exam #3 Review

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Sterilization
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Destruction or removal of all forms of microbial life; ideal goal. Usually done with steam under pressure or sterilizing gas
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Aseptic
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prevent contamination
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Disinfection
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Destruction of vegetative pathogens; may use physical or chemical methods.
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Antisepsis
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Destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue; usually done with chemical antimicrobials.
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Degerming
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Removal of microbes from a limited area, such as the skin around an injection site; alcohol soaked swab. An example is also taking a shower.
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Sanitation
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Treatment intended to lower microbial count on eating and drinking utensils.
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Pasteurization
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Process that is done to avoid food spoilage; involves heating food to between 55-60C to kill mesophyles.
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Vegetative form
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feeding form of microorganisms; all other forms are survival forms.
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Stasis
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Inhibit microorganism activity
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Cidal
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killing microorganisms
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Moist heat
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Physical method of microbial growth control which denatures proteins through boiling or flowing steam; not as effective on endospores.
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Autoclaving
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Physical method that denatures proteins by putting microorganism in 15psi of pressure and 121C for 15 minutes; kills all vegetative forms and endospores.
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Refrigeration & Freezing
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Physical method of microbial growth control that does not lead to cidal event, only stasis.
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Filtration
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Physical method of microbial growth control that removes microbes by passage of a liquid or gas through a screen like material; usually consists of cellulose acetate or nitrocellulose.
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Desiccation
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Physical method that involves drying; ancient form of sterilization.
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Lyophilization
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Physical method that is used to preserve microorganisms; combination of freezing and drying.
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Osmotic pressure
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Physical method where an organism is suspended in a hypertonic solution; ancient form.
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Radiation
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Physical method where nucleic acids are killed through the use of UV light.
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Alcohols & Phenols
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Chemical method that denatures proteins.
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Halogens
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Chemical method that involves the use of chemicals in group 7 such as iodine (antiseptic), chlorine (bleach), fluorine (toothpaste), and bromine (hot tubs).
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Peroxides & Ozone
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Reactive oxygen that kills microbes by oxidizing their enzymes and preventing metabolism; chemical methods.
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Surfactants
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Soaps and detergents that reduces the surface tension of solvents and disrupts cell membranes; chemical method.
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Heavy metals
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Chemical method that alter the 3d shape of proteins.
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Zinc (Zn), Arsenic (As), Mercury (Hg), Copper (Cu), and Silver (Ag)
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Heavy metals
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Aldehydes
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Compounds containing a CHO group that denatures proteins; no longer used to disinfect medical and dental equipment.
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Gaseous agents
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Used to sterilize plastic lab ware, mattresses, and things that cannot be easily sterilized by heat, chemicals, or radiation. Examples include ethylene dioxide, propylene oxide.
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Quaternary ammonium compounds (cationic detergents)
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Antiseptic for skin, instruments, utensils, and rubber goods. Bacteriocidal, Bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and virocidal against enveloped viruses; examples are Zephiran and Cepacol.
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Organic acids
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Metabolic inhibition mostly affecting molds.
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Nitrates/Nitrites
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Preferred use is in meat and prevents clostridium botulinum.
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Paul Ehlrich
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Reasoned the ‘magic bullet’ theory of developing a compound that only targets the desired illness.
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Alexander Flemming
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Discovered antibiotics
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Inhibits cell wall synthesis
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Penicillin, cephalosporins, vancomycin, bacitracin
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Inhibits protein synthesis
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chroramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracyclines, streptomycin, gentamycin.
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Disruption of cytoplasmic membranes
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Amphotericin B, Polymyxin B
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Inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis
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quinolones, rifampin; can be used to treat tuberculosis
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Inhibiting metabolites
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sulfonamide, trimethoprim
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Sulfonamide
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structural analog of PABA which competes to synthesize folic acid, therefore, inhibiting bacterial growth.
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Rifampin
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Inhibits RNA polymerase
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Quinolones
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Act against prokaryotic DNA
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Aminoglycosides
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amino sugars that change the shape of 30S subunits of ribosomes; streptomycin and gentamycin.
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Treats fungi
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Ketoconazole
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Treats malaria (protozoa)
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Mefloquine
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Treats tapeworms
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Niclosamide
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Treats flukes
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Praziquantel
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Treats mycobacteria
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Sterptomycin and Isoniazid
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Protista
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algae and protozoa
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Fungi
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yeasts and molds
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Platyhelminthes
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flatworms
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Tapeworms
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cestodes; a type of flatworm
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Flukes
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trematodes; a type of flatworm
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Roundworm
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nematoda
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Coccus
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round
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Bacillus
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cigar shaped
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Coccobacillus
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round and cigar shaped (mixed)
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Vibrio
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comma shaped; resists high osmotic pressure
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Cholera is shaped like
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Vibrio
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Spirilum
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spiral shaped (short)
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Sphirochate
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spiral shaped (long)
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Sphirochate shaped bacteria causes
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syphilis
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Pleomorphic
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can take any shape
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Streptococci
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chain of prokaryotic cells
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Tetrad
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Four prokaryotic cells
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Sarcinae
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eight prokaryotic cells
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Staphylococci
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Many prokaryotic cells; looks like grapes
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Palisade
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bacilli prokaryotic cells lined parallel to each other
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Streptobacilli
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Chain of of bacillus shaped cells
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Endospore
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Produced by the gram positive bacteria bacillus, and clostridium. They are extremely resistant to drying, heat, radiation and lethal chemicals. Not reproductive but a defense strategy against hostile environments.
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Vegetative cells
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Cells that produce endospores.
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Bacteriophage
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Viruses that infect and usually destroy bacterial cells.
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Basidiomycetes
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club fungi
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Ascomycetes
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cup fungi
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Zygomycetes
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bread mold fungi

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