Medical Terminology (Neurological) – Flashcards

question
AMS
answer
altered mental status - any state of awareness that differs from the normal awareness of a conscious person
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Aphasia
answer
inability to express oneself through speech
question
Ataxia
answer
gross lack of coordination of muscle movements, such as staggering gait
question
Dizziness
answer
a word that is often used to describe either lightheadedness or vertigo
question
Dysarthria
answer
motor speech disorder due to weakness, paralysis, or muscular un-coordination, characterized by poor articulation
question
Dysphasia
answer
impairment of speech
question
Fecal incontinence
answer
inability to control one's bowels
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HA
answer
headache
question
Hemiparesis
answer
weakness on one side of the body
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Hemiplegia
answer
total paralysis on one side of the body
question
Lightheadedness
answer
the feeling that you are about to faint or "pass out"
question
LOC
answer
loss of consciousness
question
Paresthesias
answer
sensation of tingling, prickling, or numbness of a person's skin
question
Post-ictal
answer
the altered state of consciousness that person enters after experiencing a seizure
question
Saddle anesthesia
answer
loss of sensation restricted to the area of the buttocks and perineum
question
Syncope
answer
temporary loss of consciousness (fainting)
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Syncope - near
answer
pre- or near-syncope occurs when individual can remember events during the episode, not a total loss of consciousness
question
Tinnitus
answer
an abnormal noise in the ear, such as a ringing or swishing sound
question
Urinary incontinence
answer
the involuntary excretion of urine
question
Vertigo
answer
a type of dizziness, where there is a feeling of motion when one is stationary
question
Bell's Palsy
answer
a temporary form of facial paralysis that occurs with damage to the nerve that controls movement of the muscles in the face
question
Cerebral Aneurysm
answer
a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of the cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel
question
Cerebral Palsy
answer
a neuromuscular condition of hypertonia and spasticity in the muscles of the lower extremities of the human body
question
CVA
answer
cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
question
Dementia
answer
loss of brain function that affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior
question
Epidural abscess
answer
a collection of pus between the outer covering of the brain and spinal cord and the bones of the skull or spine
question
Epidural hematoma
answer
a type of traumatic brain injury in which a buildup of blood occurs between the dura matter and the skull
question
Epilepsy
answer
brain disorder involving repeated, spontaneous seizures of any type
question
Hydrocephalus
answer
a buildup of fluid inside the skull, leading to brain swelling
question
Meningitis
answer
swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the membranes covering the brain and the spinal cord
question
Parkinson's
answer
a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs the sufferer's motor skills, cognitive processes, and other functions
question
Peripheral Neuropathy
answer
damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerves or from the side-effects of systemic illness
question
SAH
answer
subarachnoid hemorrhage - sudden bleeding into the subarachnoid space
question
Subdural Hematoma
answer
a collection of blood on the surface of the brain
question
TIA
answer
transient ischemic attack (mini-stroke)
question
A&O
answer
alert and oriented (normal finding: A&O X 3 - person, place and time)
question
Babinski
answer
necrologic test based upon what the big toes does when the sole of the foot is stimulated (normal finding: toes down going)
question
Romberg Test
answer
to test cerebellar function; patient is stood up and asked to close his eyes. A loss of balance is interpreted as a positive Romberg sign
question
Finger-Nose-Finger Test (FNF)
answer
to test cerebellar function; test of coordination in which the patient is asked to alternately touch their nose and the examiner's finger
question
Heel to Shin Test
answer
to test cerebellar function; the patient is asked to touch the heel of one foot to the opposite knee and then drag their heel in a straight line all the way down the front of their shin and back up again
question
Alt rapid hand movements
answer
to test cerebellar function; the patient is asked to strike one hand on the dorsum of the other hand, raise, the hand, turn it over, and then strike it back down as fast as possible
question
Clonus
answer
a series of involuntary muscular contractions due to sudden stretching of the muscle
question
Cranial Nerves
answer
twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the brain (normal finding: CN's II-IV intact, CN's grossly intact)
question
DTRs
answer
deep tendon reflexes, measured on a scale from 1+ to 5+, 2+ is normal
question
Focal neuro deficit
answer
a problem nerve, spinal cord, or brain function that affects a specific location
question
Gag reflex
answer
reflex contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the soft palate
question
Gait
answer
how the person walks; can be shuffling, unsteady, ataxic or if normal will be steady and at a normal pace
question
GCS
answer
Glasgow Coma Scale: a neurological scale that aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person. Measure eyes, verbal and motor response (normal is 15)
question
Meningismus
answer
signs and symptoms are headache, neck stiffness
question
Mentation
answer
mental activity; thinking
question
Somnolent
answer
extremely sleepy or drowsy
question
Obtunded
answer
depressed level of consciousness, mentally dulled
question
Motor strength
answer
muscle strength is rates on a scale of 0/5 to 5/5 (BLE and BUE)
question
MAE
answer
moves all extremities
question
Muscle tone
answer
the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles
question
Posturing
answer
the involuntary flexion or extension of the arms and legs (normal is no posturing)
question
Pronator drift
answer
the patient is asked to forward flex his arms 90 degrees at the shoulders, supinate his forearms, close his eyes and hold the position. If a forearm pronates then the person is said to have pronator drift to that side
question
Contracture
answer
a shortening of a muscle or joint, usually in response to prolonged hypertonic spasticity in a concentrated muscle area
question
Nuccal rigidity
answer
inability to flex the head forward due to rigidity of the neck muscles
question
Resting tremor
answer
tremor which occurs when a body part is at complete rest again gravity
question
Grand Mal (tonic-clonic) seizure activity
answer
a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain
question
Focal seizure activity
answer
seizures which affect only a part of the brain
question
Petit Mal seizure activity
answer
absence seizure
question
Marching seizure activity
answer
a clonic seizure that begins in one area of the body (typically the hand or foot) and moves progressively towards the other side of the body
question
Postictal
answer
the altered state of consciousness that a person enters after experiencing a seizure
question
Sensation
answer
the perception of a stimulus as touch (normal finding: sensation intact, no sensory deficits)
question
EEG
answer
electroencephalogram is a test that measures and records the electrical activity of your brain
question
Head CT
answer
computed tomography (CT) scan of the head
question
Head MRI
answer
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head, not frequently done in the ED
question
Lumbar Puncture
answer
a procedure to collect and look at the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord, also called a spinal tap
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question
AMS
answer
altered mental status - any state of awareness that differs from the normal awareness of a conscious person
question
Aphasia
answer
inability to express oneself through speech
question
Ataxia
answer
gross lack of coordination of muscle movements, such as staggering gait
question
Dizziness
answer
a word that is often used to describe either lightheadedness or vertigo
question
Dysarthria
answer
motor speech disorder due to weakness, paralysis, or muscular un-coordination, characterized by poor articulation
question
Dysphasia
answer
impairment of speech
question
Fecal incontinence
answer
inability to control one's bowels
question
HA
answer
headache
question
Hemiparesis
answer
weakness on one side of the body
question
Hemiplegia
answer
total paralysis on one side of the body
question
Lightheadedness
answer
the feeling that you are about to faint or "pass out"
question
LOC
answer
loss of consciousness
question
Paresthesias
answer
sensation of tingling, prickling, or numbness of a person's skin
question
Post-ictal
answer
the altered state of consciousness that person enters after experiencing a seizure
question
Saddle anesthesia
answer
loss of sensation restricted to the area of the buttocks and perineum
question
Syncope
answer
temporary loss of consciousness (fainting)
question
Syncope - near
answer
pre- or near-syncope occurs when individual can remember events during the episode, not a total loss of consciousness
question
Tinnitus
answer
an abnormal noise in the ear, such as a ringing or swishing sound
question
Urinary incontinence
answer
the involuntary excretion of urine
question
Vertigo
answer
a type of dizziness, where there is a feeling of motion when one is stationary
question
Bell's Palsy
answer
a temporary form of facial paralysis that occurs with damage to the nerve that controls movement of the muscles in the face
question
Cerebral Aneurysm
answer
a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of the cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel
question
Cerebral Palsy
answer
a neuromuscular condition of hypertonia and spasticity in the muscles of the lower extremities of the human body
question
CVA
answer
cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
question
Dementia
answer
loss of brain function that affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior
question
Epidural abscess
answer
a collection of pus between the outer covering of the brain and spinal cord and the bones of the skull or spine
question
Epidural hematoma
answer
a type of traumatic brain injury in which a buildup of blood occurs between the dura matter and the skull
question
Epilepsy
answer
brain disorder involving repeated, spontaneous seizures of any type
question
Hydrocephalus
answer
a buildup of fluid inside the skull, leading to brain swelling
question
Meningitis
answer
swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the membranes covering the brain and the spinal cord
question
Parkinson's
answer
a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs the sufferer's motor skills, cognitive processes, and other functions
question
Peripheral Neuropathy
answer
damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerves or from the side-effects of systemic illness
question
SAH
answer
subarachnoid hemorrhage - sudden bleeding into the subarachnoid space
question
Subdural Hematoma
answer
a collection of blood on the surface of the brain
question
TIA
answer
transient ischemic attack (mini-stroke)
question
A&O
answer
alert and oriented (normal finding: A&O X 3 - person, place and time)
question
Babinski
answer
necrologic test based upon what the big toes does when the sole of the foot is stimulated (normal finding: toes down going)
question
Romberg Test
answer
to test cerebellar function; patient is stood up and asked to close his eyes. A loss of balance is interpreted as a positive Romberg sign
question
Finger-Nose-Finger Test (FNF)
answer
to test cerebellar function; test of coordination in which the patient is asked to alternately touch their nose and the examiner's finger
question
Heel to Shin Test
answer
to test cerebellar function; the patient is asked to touch the heel of one foot to the opposite knee and then drag their heel in a straight line all the way down the front of their shin and back up again
question
Alt rapid hand movements
answer
to test cerebellar function; the patient is asked to strike one hand on the dorsum of the other hand, raise, the hand, turn it over, and then strike it back down as fast as possible
question
Clonus
answer
a series of involuntary muscular contractions due to sudden stretching of the muscle
question
Cranial Nerves
answer
twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the brain (normal finding: CN's II-IV intact, CN's grossly intact)
question
DTRs
answer
deep tendon reflexes, measured on a scale from 1+ to 5+, 2+ is normal
question
Focal neuro deficit
answer
a problem nerve, spinal cord, or brain function that affects a specific location
question
Gag reflex
answer
reflex contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the soft palate
question
Gait
answer
how the person walks; can be shuffling, unsteady, ataxic or if normal will be steady and at a normal pace
question
GCS
answer
Glasgow Coma Scale: a neurological scale that aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person. Measure eyes, verbal and motor response (normal is 15)
question
Meningismus
answer
signs and symptoms are headache, neck stiffness
question
Mentation
answer
mental activity; thinking
question
Somnolent
answer
extremely sleepy or drowsy
question
Obtunded
answer
depressed level of consciousness, mentally dulled
question
Motor strength
answer
muscle strength is rates on a scale of 0/5 to 5/5 (BLE and BUE)
question
MAE
answer
moves all extremities
question
Muscle tone
answer
the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles
question
Posturing
answer
the involuntary flexion or extension of the arms and legs (normal is no posturing)
question
Pronator drift
answer
the patient is asked to forward flex his arms 90 degrees at the shoulders, supinate his forearms, close his eyes and hold the position. If a forearm pronates then the person is said to have pronator drift to that side
question
Contracture
answer
a shortening of a muscle or joint, usually in response to prolonged hypertonic spasticity in a concentrated muscle area
question
Nuccal rigidity
answer
inability to flex the head forward due to rigidity of the neck muscles
question
Resting tremor
answer
tremor which occurs when a body part is at complete rest again gravity
question
Grand Mal (tonic-clonic) seizure activity
answer
a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain
question
Focal seizure activity
answer
seizures which affect only a part of the brain
question
Petit Mal seizure activity
answer
absence seizure
question
Marching seizure activity
answer
a clonic seizure that begins in one area of the body (typically the hand or foot) and moves progressively towards the other side of the body
question
Postictal
answer
the altered state of consciousness that a person enters after experiencing a seizure
question
Sensation
answer
the perception of a stimulus as touch (normal finding: sensation intact, no sensory deficits)
question
EEG
answer
electroencephalogram is a test that measures and records the electrical activity of your brain
question
Head CT
answer
computed tomography (CT) scan of the head
question
Head MRI
answer
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head, not frequently done in the ED
question
Lumbar Puncture
answer
a procedure to collect and look at the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord, also called a spinal tap