Medical Terminology for Health Professions Chapter 9

nephr/o, ren/o
kidneys

pyel/o
renal pelvis, bowl of kidney

ur/o, urin/o
urine, urinary tract

ureter/o
ureters

cyst/o
urinary bladder, cyst, sac of fluid

urethr/o
urethra

prostat/o
prostate

-cele
hernia, tumor, swelling

dia-
through, between, apart, complete

-ectasis
stretching, dilation, enlargement

glomerul/o
glomerulus

lith/o
stone, calculus

-lysis
breakdown, separation, setting free, destruction, loosening

-pexy
surgical fixation

-tripsy
to crush

-uria
urination, urine

kidneys
constantly filter the blood to remove waste products and excess water, help maintain the proper level of fluid in the body, produce hormones that control blood pressure and make red blood cells, and activate vitamin D to maintain healthy bones

urea
the major waste product of protein metabolism

creatinine
waste product of muscle metabolism

renal
pertaining to the kidneys

renal cortex
the outer region of the kidney, this layer of tissue contains more than one million microscopic units called nephrons

medulla
inner region of the kidney, contains most of the urine collecting tubules

nephrons
microscopic functional units of each kidney, it is here that urine is produced through the process of filtration, reabsorption and secretion

glomerulus
cluster of capillaries inside the nephron, surrounded by a cup shaped membrane called the Bowman’s capsule and a renal tube

renal artery
where blood enters the kidney through here, then flows into the nephrons

renal vein
after passing through the filtration system of the glomerulus, the filtered blood containing protein and blood cells leaves the kidney and returns to the bloodstream through this

renal pelvis
the funnel shaped area inside each kidney that is surrounded by the renal cortex and medulla, this is where newly formed urine from the nephrons collects before it flows into the ureters

ureters
two narrow tubes, each about 10-12 inches long , which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder

urinary bladder
an oval, hollow, muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body

urethra
the tube extending from the bladder to the exterior of the body

urethral meatus
the external opening of the urethra

nephrologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing diseases and disorders of the kidneys

urologist
a physician who specializes in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males

nephropathy
means any disease of the kidney

renal failure
the inability of one or both of the kidneys to preform their functions, the body cannot replace damaged nephrons

uremia
a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea and other waste products normally secreted in urine are retained in the blood

acute renal failure (ARF)
has a sudden onset and is characterized by uremia, it can be fatal if not reversed promptly, this condition cna be caused by the kidneys not receiving enough blood to filter due to dehydration, or a sudden drop in blood pressure or blood volume due to injury, burns or a severe infection

chronic kidney disease (CKD)
the progressive loss of renal function over months or years, may result from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or a family history of kidney disease

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
the final stage of chronic kidney disease, this condition is fatal unless the functions of the failed kidneys are successfully replaced by dialysis or with a successful kidney transplant

nephrotic syndrome
a group of conditions in which excessive amounts of protein are lost through the urine, this condition which is usually caused by damage to the kidney’s glomeruli, results in abnormally low levels of protein in the blood

hyperproteinuria
the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine

hypoproteinemia
the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood

hydronephrosis
is the dilation of one or both kidneys, this condition can be caused by problems associated with the backing up of urine due to an obstruction such as a nephrolith or a stricture in the ureter

nephritis
is a inflammation of the kidney or kidneys, the most common causes are toxins, infection or an autoimmune disease

glomerulonephritis
a type of nephritis caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into the urine

nephroptosis
is the prolapse of a kidney into the pelvic area when the patient stands

nephropyosis
is suppuration of the kidney

polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
a genetic disorder characterized by the growth numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys, these cysts, which slowly replace much of the mass of the kidney, reduce the kidney function and eventually lead to kidney failure

renal colic
an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a nephrolith

Wilms tumor
a rare type of malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children, there is a high cure rate for this condition when treated promptly

nephrolithiasis
describes the presence of stones in the kidney

nephrolith
is a stone found in the kidney

ureterolith
a stone located anywhere along the ureter

cystolith
a stone located within the bladder

hydroureter
is the condition of the swelling of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked

ureterectasis
is the enlargement of the ureter

ureterorrhagia
is the discharge of blood from the ureter

cystalgia
pain in the bladder

cystocele
is a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall

interstitial cystitis
a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder

vesicovaginal fistula
an abnormal opening between the bladder and the vagina that allows constant involuntary flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina

neurogenic bladder
is a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination

benign prostatic hyperplasia
is an enlargement of the prostate gland that most often occurs in men over 50, this condition makes urination difficult and causes other urinary tract problems for men

proststism
is a disorder resulting from the compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatic hyperplasia

prostatitis
a group of disorders characterized by inflammation of the prostate gland

urethrorrhagia
is bleeding from the urethra

urethrostenosis
is a narrowing of the urethra, this condition occurs almost exclusively in men and is caused by scarring from infection or injury

urethrorrhea
is an abnormal discharge from the urethra, this condition is sometimes associated with some sexually transmitted diseases

epispadias
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening, in males the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis and in the female the opening is in the region of the clitoris

hypospadias
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening, in males the urethral opening is located on the underside of the penis and in females the urethral opening is in the vagina

cystitis
inflammation of the bladder

pyelitis
inflammation of the renal pelvis

pyelonephritis
inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney, this is usually caused by a bacterial infection that has spread upward from the bladder

urethritis
inflammation of the urethra

anuria
the absence of urine formation by the kidneys

diuresis
is the increased output of urine

dysuria
is difficult or painful urination

enuresis
is the involuntary discharge of urine

nocturnal enuresis
is urinary incontinence during sleep

nocturia
frequent and excessive urination during the night

oliguria
means scanty urination

polyuria
means excessive urination, and is a common symptom of diabetes

urinary hesitancy
is difficulty starting a urinary stream, most common in older men with enlarged prostate glands

urinary retention
is the inability to completely empty the bladder when attempting to urinate

incontinence
is the inability to control the excretion of urine, feces or both

overflow incontinence
is continuous leaking from the bladder wither because it is full or because it does not empty completely

stress incontinence
the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, lifting, sneezing, laughing, or coughing, this condition occurs more often in women than men

overactive bladder (OAB)
occurs when the muscles of the bladder contract involuntarily even though the bladder is not actually full enough to indicate the need to urinate, the urinary sphincters relaxation in response tot his urgent need to urinate may result in urinary frequency or accidental urination, this is common in adults over 40 and may be caused by excessive consumption of alcohol or caffeine, urinary tract infections, neurological diseases, or bladder or prostate problems

urinalysis
the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal element, used to diagnose diseases as well as to detect the presence of illegal drugs

bladder ultrasound
is the use of a hand-held ultrasound transducer to look for stones or for elevation of the bladder by an enlarged prostate and to measure the residual amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination

urinary catheterization
the insertion of a tube into the bladder to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes, it is also used to drain urine from the bladder when the patient is unable to urinate for other reasons, another use is to put medication into the bladder

cytoscopy
is the visual examination of the urinary bladder with the use of a specialized type of endoscope known as a cytoscope

voiding cystourethrography
a diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra

computed tomography (CAT scan)
more commonly used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system because it can be rapidly preformed and provides additional imaging of the abdomen which may reveal other potential sources for the patient’s symptoms

cystography
a radiographic, or x-ray, examination of the bladder after a contrast medium is instilled via a urethral catheter

intravenous pyelogram
a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters, a contrast medium is administered intravenously to clearly define these structures in the resulting image, this examination is used to diagnose changes in the urinary tract resulting from nephroliths, infections, enlarged prostate, tumors and internal injuries after an abdominal trauma

KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder)
a radiographic study without the use of a contrast medium,used to detect bowel obstructions and nephroliths

retrograde urography
a radiograph of the urinary system taken after a contrast medium has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward through the urinary tract

digital rectal examination
preformed on men using a gloved finger placed in the rectum to palpate the prostate gland to detect prostate enlargement and to look for indications of prostate cancer or tumors of the rectum

prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
blood test used to screen for prostate cancer

diuretics
medications used to increase urine secretion, primarily to rid the body of excess water and salt

dialysis
a procedure to remove waste products such as urea, creatinine, as well as excess water from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function

hemodialysis
the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient’s blood

peritoneal dialysis
the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood

nephrolysis
is the surgical freeing of the kidney form adhesions

nephropexy
AKA nephrorrhaphy is the surgical fixation of nephroptosis or a floating kidney

nephrostomy
is the placement of a catheter to maintain an opening from the pelvis of one or both kidneys to the exterior of the body

pyeloplasty
the surgical repair of the ureter and renal pelvis

pyelotomy
surgical incision into the renal pelvis

renal transplant (kidney transplant)
the grafting of a donor kidney from either a living or nonliving donor, into the body to replace the recipient’s failed kidneys

extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)
high energy ultrasonic waves travelling through water or gel are used to break the stone into fragments which are then passed through urine

percutaneous nephrolithotomy
the surgical removal of a nephrolith through a small incision in the back

ureterectomy
the surgical removal of a ureter

ureteroplasty
the surgical repair of a ureter

ureterorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of a ureter

ureteroscopy
is a treatment for a nephrolith lodged in the ureter, a specialized instrument called a ureteroscope is inserted throuht the urethra and the bladder into the ureter, if possible the nephrolith is removed intact through the scope, if the stone is too large a laser is used to break it up and the pieces are then removed

cystectomy
is the surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

neobladder
a replacement for the missing bladder created by using about 20 inches of the small intestine, it allows patient’s to avoid having an abdominal stoma

ileal conduit
is the use of a small piece of intestine to convey urine to the ureters and to a stoma in the abdomen

cystopexy
is the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall

cystorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of a wound or defect in the bladder

lithotomy
is a surgical incision for the removal of a nephrolith from the bladder

indwelling catheter
remains inside the body for a prolonged period of time based on need

suprapubic cateterization
the placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone

Foley catheter
made of a flexible tube with a balloon filled with sterile water to hold it into the bladder

intermittent catheter
is inserted as needed several times a day to drain urine from the bladder

meatotomy
a surgical incision made in the urethral meatus to enlarge the opening

urethropexy
the surgical fixation of the urethra to nearby tissue, this procedure is usually used to correct urinary stress incontinence

urethrotomy
surgical incision into the urethra for relief of stricture

ablation
used to describe some types of treatment of prostate cancer, this treatment involves the removal of a body part or the destruction of of it’s function through the use of surgery , hormones, drugs, heat, chemicals, elecrocautery, or other methods

prostatectomy
the surgical removal of part or all of the prostate gland

transurethral prostatectomy (TURP)
is the removal of excess tissue from an enlarged prostate gland with the use of a resectoscope

retrograde ejaculation
when an orgasm results in semen flowing backward into into the bladder instead of out through the penis

Kegel exercises
a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor

bladder retraining
is behavioral therapy in which a patient learns to urinate on a schedule with increasingly larger intervals as the bladder increases its capacity

ARF
Acute Renal Failure

BPH
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

cath
catheterization

CKD
Chronic Kidney Disease

cysto
cystoscopy

DRE
Digital Rectal Examination

ESRD
End-Stage Renal Disease

IVP
Intravenous Pyelogram

PKD
Polycystic Kidney Disease

TURP
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate

UTI
Urinary Tract Infection