Medical Terminology :Chapter 9: Blood, Lymph, and Immune Systems
55% is liquid = plasma
45% is solid = cells
Cells containing fluid that circulates through the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries, carrying nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat and oxygen to the tissue and taking away waste matter and carbon dioxide.
92% water and contains the plasma proteins (albumin, globulins and fibrinogen), as well as gases, nutrients, salts, hormones and excretory products.
product of blood plasma that does not contain fibrinogen (fibrinogen is responsible for clotting of blood).
Function: carry oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide to the lungs.
The average life cycle of a red blood cell is 120 days
Hemoglobin gives the RBC’s color.
1 ½ times larger than RBCs.
Function: Protects the body against infection by bacterial and foreign substances.
The white blood cells have a rather short life cycle, living from a few days to a few weeks. A drop of blood can contain anywhere from 7 000 to 25 000 white blood cells at a time. If an invading infection fights back and persists, that number will significantly increase.
Responsible for body’s protection against infection.
Involved with the immune system and the production of antibodies.
Function: Small cells which aid in blood clotting when an injury occurs. The human body does not handle excessive blood loss well. Therefore, the body has ways of protecting itself. If, for some unexpected reason, sudden blood loss occurs, the blood platelets kick into action. Platelets are irregularly-shaped, colorless bodies that are present in blood. Their sticky surface lets them, along with other substances, form clots to stop bleeding.
The lifespan of a platelet is 8-12 days and there are
150 – 350,000/cubic millimeter of blood.
Generally, low platelet counts increase bleeding risks and high counts may lead to thrombosis.
Type A: second most common blood type.
Type B: third most common blood type.
Type AB: least common blood type.
Type O: most common.
Naturally occurring antigens are the blood type factors A and B that are present at birth in some individuals.
An antibody then helps to neutralize or inactivate the antigen that
stimulated its formation.
Type B: third most common blood type, contains the B antigen and the anti-A antibody.
Type AB: least common blood type, contains A and B antigens and no anti-A or anti-B antibodies.
Type O: most common, contains no A or B antigens and both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.
O – blood: universal donor.
AB+ blood: universal recipient, no antibodies or A or B.
Blood type diet: according to the author of Eat Right For Your Type, a chemical reaction occurs between your blood and the foods you eat. This reaction is part of your genetic inheritance. This reaction is caused by a factor called Lectins. Lectins, abundant and diverse proteins found in foods, have agglutinating properties that affect your blood. So when you eat a food containing protein lectins that are incompatible with your body type antigen, the lectins target an organ or bodily system and begin to agglutinate blood cells in that area.
Type O: do well as meat eaters.
Type A: do well as vegetarians.
Type B: do well with a balanced diet.
Type AB: do well with a mixed diet in moderation.
A system of antigens (identifiers) discovered on the surface of the RBCs of the rhesus monkey. When the Rh factor is present in an individual then the person is Rh positive. If Rh antigen is absent then the person is Rh negative.
If a negative person receives positive blood, there are problems because the positive blood has antigens (identifiers) so the negative person develops antibodies (destroyers). The negative person now builds antigens (identifiers).
If Rh positive blood is transfused into an Rh negative person, the recipient will begin to develop antibodies that would agglutinate (clot) any Rh positive blood if another transfusion were to occur subsequently.
Erythroblastosis fetalis: If a pregnant women has Rh negative blood and if the baby has Rh positive blood and if in the next pregnancy the new baby has Rh positive blood then the Rh antibodies in the mothers blood may pass the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of the new fetus. Biliverdin and bilirubin levels rise which deposit in the skin and developing teeth of the fetus. Only the primary teeth are affected with colors from green/bluish green to yellowish gray. Permanent teeth are typically not affected. The child that is born will also have an enlarged liver or spleen, edema, jaundice, and anemia.
Laboratory tests will show low hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RBCs in the fetus.
Treatment: blood transfusion in or out of utero. Failure to act could result in the child having mental retardation or will result in death of the child.
Other functions: transporting materials (nutrients, hormones, and oxygen) to the body cells and carry waste products from the body tissues back to the bloodstream. Transports lipids away from the digestive organs. Aids in the control of infection by providing lymphocytes and monocytes.
Lymph passes from lymph capillaries to larger vessels and to lymph nodes.
Lymph vessels: CF: lymphangi/o begin as closed-ended capillaries in tissue spaces and terminate at the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct in the chest cavity.
Lymph nodes: CF: lymphaden/o small filtering stations which help fight infection. Serve as depositories for cellular debris. Lymph is filtered and replenished with lymphocytes and antibodies. The macrophages lining the lymph nodes destroy bacterial and debris. Lymph nodes become larger in size when there is an infection due to the increase in the number of bacteria.
All other sites enter the thoracic duct and drain into the left subclavian vein.
Lymph is now in the blood and will circulate and become plasma.
After birth, produces lymphocytes (involved with immune response and production of antibodies) and monocytes (defense for inflammation, become macrophages). Repository for healthy RBCs.
Function: development of the immune response in newborns. If removed at an early age then there is an increased risk of acute infections.
The thymus is essential to the maturation of the thymic lymphoid cells: T cells (the cells important in the body’s cellular immune response).
Function: produces lymphocytes (involved with immune system and production of antibodies) and monocytes (first line of defense in the inflammation process, become macrophages) and contains macrophages that phagocytize pathogens that get through the epithelium. Also aid in the development of WBCs.
Tonsillectomy provides a reduction in the episodes of sore throat, days of school absence associated with sore throat, and upper respiratory infections
the development of antibodies or cell-mediated immunity.
Ex: Chicken pox vaccine
hemo/lysis: blood/ separation, destruction, loosening
9used primarily with blood cells) : abnormal condtion of a blood clot