Medical Terminology :Chapter 9: Blood, Lymph, and Immune Systems

Blood
hem/o or hemat/o
55% is liquid = plasma

45% is solid = cells

Cells containing fluid that circulates through the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries, carrying nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat and oxygen to the tissue and taking away waste matter and carbon dioxide.

Venipunture (phlebotomy):
blood is withdrawn from the vein for testing.

Liquid plasma
55% of the total blood volume.

92% water and contains the plasma proteins (albumin, globulins and fibrinogen), as well as gases, nutrients, salts, hormones and excretory products.

Blood serum
serum: ser/o
product of blood plasma that does not contain fibrinogen (fibrinogen is responsible for clotting of blood).

Red blood cells
Erythrocytes: Erythr/o = red
Function: carry oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide to the lungs.
The average life cycle of a red blood cell is 120 days
Hemoglobin gives the RBC’s color.

White blood cells
Leukocyte Leuk/o = white

1 ½ times larger than RBCs.
Function: Protects the body against infection by bacterial and foreign substances.

The white blood cells have a rather short life cycle, living from a few days to a few weeks. A drop of blood can contain anywhere from 7 000 to 25 000 white blood cells at a time. If an invading infection fights back and persists, that number will significantly increase.

Granulocytes
have granules (little grains) in cytoplasm.

Neutrophils:
(50-70%) most numerous of the WBCs.

Responsible for body’s protection against infection.

Eosinophil
(1-4%) greatest in numbers when there is an allergic reaction or parasitic infection.

Basophils:
(0-1%) least in numbers of the five types of WBCs. There is an increase when there is healing, migrate to the inflamed area

Agranulocytes
few granules in the cytoplasm.

Lymphocytes
(20-40%) smallest of the WBCs.

Involved with the immune system and the production of antibodies.

Monocytes
(3-8%) one of the first lines of defense in the inflammation process. Largest of the WBCs. Circulate into the tissues and mature into macrophage

Platelets
Thrombocyte :
Function: Small cells which aid in blood clotting when an injury occurs. The human body does not handle excessive blood loss well. Therefore, the body has ways of protecting itself. If, for some unexpected reason, sudden blood loss occurs, the blood platelets kick into action. Platelets are irregularly-shaped, colorless bodies that are present in blood. Their sticky surface lets them, along with other substances, form clots to stop bleeding.

The lifespan of a platelet is 8-12 days and there are

150 – 350,000/cubic millimeter of blood.

Generally, low platelet counts increase bleeding risks and high counts may lead to thrombosis.

Blood groups
four groups: ABO system: discovered in 1901. Discovered because physicians were trying to learn why blood transfusions sometimes caused death and at other times save a patient.

A, B, AB, and O:
system of classifying blood according to differences in antigen makeup. There are two antigens and two antibodies that are mostly responsible for the ABO types.
Type A: second most common blood type.

Type B: third most common blood type.

Type AB: least common blood type.

Type O: most common.

Antigen
(identifier) foreign materials that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.

Naturally occurring antigens are the blood type factors A and B that are present at birth in some individuals.

Antibodies:
(destroyer) a Y-shaped protein on the surface of B cells that is secreted into the blood or lymph in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a bacterium, virus, parasite, or transplanted organ, and that neutralizes the antigen by binding specifically to it; an immunoglobulin.

An antibody then helps to neutralize or inactivate the antigen that
stimulated its formation.

Two types of antigens on the surface of RBCs: A or B.
Type A: second most common blood type, contains the A antigen and the anti-B antibody.

Type B: third most common blood type, contains the B antigen and the anti-A antibody.

Type AB: least common blood type, contains A and B antigens and no anti-A or anti-B antibodies.

Type O: most common, contains no A or B antigens and both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.

O – blood: universal donor.

AB+ blood: universal recipient, no antibodies or A or B.

Blood type diet: according to the author of Eat Right For Your Type, a chemical reaction occurs between your blood and the foods you eat. This reaction is part of your genetic inheritance. This reaction is caused by a factor called Lectins. Lectins, abundant and diverse proteins found in foods, have agglutinating properties that affect your blood. So when you eat a food containing protein lectins that are incompatible with your body type antigen, the lectins target an organ or bodily system and begin to agglutinate blood cells in that area.
Type O: do well as meat eaters.

Type A: do well as vegetarians.

Type B: do well with a balanced diet.

Type AB: do well with a mixed diet in moderation.

Rh Factor
discovered in 1940. 85% are Rh + and 15% are Rh-.

A system of antigens (identifiers) discovered on the surface of the RBCs of the rhesus monkey. When the Rh factor is present in an individual then the person is Rh positive. If Rh antigen is absent then the person is Rh negative.
If a negative person receives positive blood, there are problems because the positive blood has antigens (identifiers) so the negative person develops antibodies (destroyers). The negative person now builds antigens (identifiers).

If Rh positive blood is transfused into an Rh negative person, the recipient will begin to develop antibodies that would agglutinate (clot) any Rh positive blood if another transfusion were to occur subsequently.

Erythroblastosis fetalis: If a pregnant women has Rh negative blood and if the baby has Rh positive blood and if in the next pregnancy the new baby has Rh positive blood then the Rh antibodies in the mothers blood may pass the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of the new fetus. Biliverdin and bilirubin levels rise which deposit in the skin and developing teeth of the fetus. Only the primary teeth are affected with colors from green/bluish green to yellowish gray. Permanent teeth are typically not affected. The child that is born will also have an enlarged liver or spleen, edema, jaundice, and anemia.
Laboratory tests will show low hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RBCs in the fetus.
Treatment: blood transfusion in or out of utero. Failure to act could result in the child having mental retardation or will result in death of the child.

Hemolytic disease (HDN):
pertains to breakdown of RBCs. Anemia, jaundice, liver and spleen enlargement. May cause death inutero due to transplacental transmission of maternal antibody.

Lymphatic system:
Consists of the fluid lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and tonsils.

Lymphatic system:Primary function:
drain fluid from the tissue spaces and return the fluid to the blood.

Other functions: transporting materials (nutrients, hormones, and oxygen) to the body cells and carry waste products from the body tissues back to the bloodstream. Transports lipids away from the digestive organs. Aids in the control of infection by providing lymphocytes and monocytes.

Lymph
lymph/o clear, watery fluid that surrounds body cells and flows in a system of lymph vessels that extend throughout the body. Originates from blood plasma. Blood circulates through the capillaries, small amounts of plasma seep through the capillary wall, (now called interstitial fluid), this fluid either returns to the capillary or enters the lymph capillary and is then called lymph.

Lymph passes from lymph capillaries to larger vessels and to lymph nodes.

Lymph vessels: CF: lymphangi/o begin as closed-ended capillaries in tissue spaces and terminate at the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct in the chest cavity.

Lymph nodes: CF: lymphaden/o small filtering stations which help fight infection. Serve as depositories for cellular debris. Lymph is filtered and replenished with lymphocytes and antibodies. The macrophages lining the lymph nodes destroy bacterial and debris. Lymph nodes become larger in size when there is an infection due to the increase in the number of bacteria.

Lymph circulation
lymph vessels form the right chest and arm join the right lymphatic duct which drains into the right subclavian vein.

All other sites enter the thoracic duct and drain into the left subclavian vein.

Lymph is now in the blood and will circulate and become plasma.

Three Lymphatic organs :
Spleen: CF: splen/o blood formation, storage and filtration. Destroys old RBCs Forms red and white blood cells prior to birth.
After birth, produces lymphocytes (involved with immune response and production of antibodies) and monocytes (defense for inflammation, become macrophages). Repository for healthy RBCs.

Splenectomy
Splenectomy is rather infrequently needed to help lymphoma patients. From the time the spleen has been removed, however, you are at risk from severe infections.Without protection, there is a risk of harmful infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pnuemococcus), Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus), and malaria. Also tick-borne babesiosis, Capnocytophaga canimorsus from dog bites and, to a lesser extent, other streptococci, E.coli, pseudomonas and staphylococci.

Thymus gland
thym/o organ located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart. Thymus grows rapidly during the first two years of life and then slows down.

Function: development of the immune response in newborns. If removed at an early age then there is an increased risk of acute infections.

The thymus is essential to the maturation of the thymic lymphoid cells: T cells (the cells important in the body’s cellular immune response).

Tonsils
a mass of lymphatic tissue located in the depressions of the mucous membranes of the fauses (opening form mouth and oral pharynx and pharynx.

Function: produces lymphocytes (involved with immune system and production of antibodies) and monocytes (first line of defense in the inflammation process, become macrophages) and contains macrophages that phagocytize pathogens that get through the epithelium. Also aid in the development of WBCs.

Tonsillectomy provides a reduction in the episodes of sore throat, days of school absence associated with sore throat, and upper respiratory infections

Immune system:
is responsible for identifying invaders and destroying the invaders and then retreating with the memory of the invader and how to destroy the invader. Antigens are identifiers and antibodies are destroyers. Immune: CF: immun/o

Immunity:
if you are immune then you are protected from or resistant to a disease or infection by a pathogenic organism as a result of
the development of antibodies or cell-mediated immunity.
Ex: Chicken pox vaccine

WBCs role in the immune system
the monocytes and lymphocytes are WBCs used in the immune system. Monocytes leave the vascular system, enter the tissue and become macrophages. The macrophages then consume large numbers of bacteria and other antigens. The monocytes process these bacteria and place their antigenic property on their cell surface and become antigen-presenting cells (APCs). APCs will encounter lymphocytes (involved with immune system and production of antibodies) and initiate immune response. Macrophages are found in spleen, lymph nodes, alveoli and tonsils.

Lymphocytes
wo specific lymphocytes in the immune system

T lymphocytes (T-cells)
develops in the bone marrow and migrates to the thymus gland where the cells begin to mature. T cells circulate throughout the body and are essential for specific immune response. T cells determine a weakness in cellular membrane of the antigen (identifier) and use the weakness as a point of attack to destroy the antigen.

B lymphocytes (B-cells):
formed in the bone marrow and migrate to the spleen and lymph nodes. B cells produce a clone of cells called plasma cells that produce antibodies (destroyers). Antibodies (destroyers) enter the circulatory system and travel through the plasma, tissue fluid and lymph.

Anemia
a decrease in the number of circulating RBCs per cubic mm of blood. This decrease will reduce the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Exists when hemoglobin content is less than that required to provide the oxygen demands of body. Not a disease but a symptom for a disease.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS):
the final stage of infection by the HIV virus. This virus destroys the immune system and compromise patient’s health.

Allergy
are inappropriate or exaggerated reactions of the immune system. An acquired abnormal immune response to a substance (allergen) that does not normally cause a reaction.

Autoimmune disease:
disease produced when the body’s normal tolerance of its own antigenic (identifiers) markers on cells disappear. Body produces antibodies (destroyer) against antigens found on its own cells.

Edema
local or generalized condition in which the body tissues contain an excessive amount of tissue fluid. Results from increased permeability of capillary walls, increased capillary pressure due to venous obstruction or heart failure, lymphatic obstruction, disturbances in renal function, reduction of plasma proteins, inflammatory condition, fluid and electrolyte disturbances, etc.

Hemophilia:
a hereditary blood condition marked by prolonged coagulation time with consequent failure of blood to clot and abnormal bleeding.

Infectious mononucleosis
acute infectious disease that affects primarily lymphoid tissue. May be caused by Epstein-Barr virus however can be caused by other viruses. Symptoms: incubation period of 4-7 weeks, flu-like, fever, sore throat, fatigue, enlarged and tender lymph nodes, enlarged spleen and increase in the number of atypical or abnormal mononuclear leukocytes in the blood (having one nucleus). Recovery ensures a lasting immunity.

Leukemia
a malignancy of the blood forming cells of the bone marrow. Malignant cells replace healthy bone marrow cells. Most common in adults is acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Survival rate is poor. Death within one year.

Hodgkin’s disease
malignant disease that affects the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes enlarge. The spleen, GI tract, or bone marrow may be involved.

Kaposi’s Sarcoma:
malignancy associated with AIDS. The tumors metastasize to various organs. Tumors start as blue-red skin nodules starting at the feet and ankles and spread up the legs and then appear on the hands and arms.

aden/o
gland

aggluntin/o
clumping. gluing

bas/o
base

blast/o
embryonic cell

chrom/o
color

eosin/o
dawn (rose-colored)

granul/o
granule

eythr/o
red

hemat/o
blood

hem/o
blood

immun/o
immune, immunity, safe

kary/o
nucleus

nucle/o
nucleus

kary/o
nucleus

leuk/o
white

lymphaden/o:
lymph gland (node)

lymph/o
lymph

lymphangi/o:
lymph vessel

morph/o:
form, shape, structure

myel/o
bone marrow, spinal cord

neutr/o
neutral, neither

phag/o
swallowing,eatting

plas/o
formation, growth

poikil/o:
varied, irregular

reticul/o
net, mesh

ser/o
serum

sider/o
iron

splen/o
spleen

thromb/o
blood clot

thym/o
thymus gland

xen/o
foreign strange

-blast
embryonic cell

-emia
blood

-globin
protien

-graft
transplantation

-osis
abnormal condition,increase

-penia
decrease, deficiency

-phil
attraction for

-phoresis
carrying, transmission

-phylaxis
protection

-poiesis
formation, production

-stasis
standing still

a-
without, not

allo-
other, differing from the normal

aniso-:
unequal, dissimilar

iso-
same. equal

macro-
large

mirco-
small

mono-
one

poly-
many, much

ana/phylaxis:
against, up, back/ protection

immuno/patho/logy
immune, immunity, safe/ disease/ study of

bacter/emia
bacteria/ blood condition

hemat/oma
blood/ tumor
hemo/lysis: blood/ separation, destruction, loosening

lymph/adeno/pathy
lymph/ gland/ disease

sero/logy:
serum/ study of

erythro/cyte
red/ cell

lymph/angio/graphy:
lymph/ vessel/ process of recording

lymph/angi/ectomy
lymph/ vessel/ excision

Agglutination
agglutin/ation ( a glooti-na-shun) clumping,gluing/process of : process of clumping

Amorphic:
a/morph/ic (An-morphic) without,not/forming shape,structure/pertaining too : without a (definite) form

Erythrocyte
erythr/o/cyte ( eurthro-sight) red/cell : red cell

Hematoma
Hemat/oma (hema-tom-a) : blood/tumor : blood tumor

Hemophobia
hem/o/phobis (hema-phobia) blood/fear : fear of blood

Immunology
Immun/o/logy (immune-ology) immune,immunity,safe/ study of : study of immunity

Lymphadenopathy
lymphaden/o/pathy ( lymph-aden-O–pathy) lymph gland (node)/ disease : disease of the lymph nodes

Lymphangioma:
lymphangi/oma (lymph-angea-oma) lymph vessel/tumor : tumor (composed of lymph vessels

Lymphoid:
lymph/ (lymph-oid) lymph/resembling :resembling lymph

Macrocyte
Macro/cyte (Macrow-sight) large/cell: Large (red) cell

Microcyte
Mirco/cyte ( Microw-sight) small/cell: small (red) cell

Mononuclear
Mono/nucle/ar (mono-nucle-ar) one/ nucleus/pertaining too : pertaining to single nucleus.

Mononucleosis
Mono/nucle/o/sis (Mono-nucli-osis) one/nucleus/ abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells) : abnormal increase of mononuclear

Morphology
Morph/o/logy (morpho-ology) form,shape,structure/study of : study of form,shape and structure

Polymorphic:
Poly/morph/ic (poly-morphic) many.much/ form,shape,structure/ pertaining too : pertaining to many forms or shapes

Serology:
Ser/o/logy (ser-ology) serum /study of : study of serum

Sideropenia
Sider/o/penia (sidero-penia) iron/decrease,deficiency : deficiency of iron

Splenorrhagia:
Splen/o/rrhagia (spleen-O-rrahgia) spleen/bursting forth : bursting forth of the spleen.

Thymopathy:
thym/o/pathy (thy-moe-pathy) thymus gland/disease : disease of the thymus gland

Thrombosis
thromb/o/sis ( thromb-O-sis) blood clot/abnormal condition;increase
9used primarily with blood cells) : abnormal condtion of a blood clot

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