MB2070 Final exam

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establish working units, character analysis, character matrix, identify synapomorphies, construct tree
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The steps in a typical cladistic analysis
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working unit
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The group of organisms that are different than other groups and can be looked at separately; a group with a particular unique trait(s)
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polarization; ancestral/derived
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what is a character analysis?
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0-present; 1850-1960, 1960s
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What are the years of the three phases of biogeography?
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biogeography
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the study of the geographical distributions of organisms, their habitats, and their historical and biological factors which produced them
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endemism
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native to and restricted to a particular geographic region
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Endemic center
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a region with a high proportion of endemics
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Taxon/taxa
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a taxonomic group of any rank, classificatory rank; any group that is considered sufficiently distinct to be treated as a separate unit
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species originates in a centre of origin of its own, it eventually migrates out of this area by dispersal, uses its own particular means of dispersal
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The 3 rules of the dispersalist school of thought of historical biogeography
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generalized tracks reflect a radically different Mesozoic geography, life and earth evolved together
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2 main principles of the panbiogeography school of thought
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doesn’t take into account phylogenetics or fossils
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What are the weaknesses of the panbiogeography school of thought?
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assumption free, relies on congruence
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What are the advantages to the panbiogeography school of thought?
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makes assumptions about how organisms move/disperse; assumes continents don’t move
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What are the weaknesses of the dispersalist school of thought?
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bullseye
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the dispersalist theory forms what type of pattern?
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panbiogeography, cladistics
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What are the two aspects of the vicariance school of thought
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area cladograms
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the basic methodology of vicariance biogeography
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includes time and confidence in group statuses, takes into account geologic events
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What are the advantages to the vicariance school of thought in historical biogeography?
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hard to test, patchy data
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What are the disadvantages in the vicariance school of thought?
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antitropicality
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biogeographic pattern in which taxa occur on either side of the tropics, but not inside
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congruence
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antitropicality is a type of _______
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introduction, removal, modification
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Sea level changes can influence species by the ____, _____, ____ of species
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diversification, decimation
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the cone of increasing diversity includes two processes:
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K/Pg
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Modern reefs are a feature of post _____ seas
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early diversification and subsequent stasis
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Intervals in speciation are characterized by….
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less seasonality, more carbonate, more oligotrophic, more extinctions
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The isthmus of Panama led to…
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division and decimation
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Consequences of the Gondwana breakup, the CA current, the TTE, the EPB, Isthmus of Panama, and Pleistocene Glaciations
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170-50 Ma
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years of the gondwanan fragmentation
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65 Ma
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Year of the K/T boundary
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30-25 Ma
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years of the Circum Antartic Current
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170-14 Ma
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years of the shrinking Tethys
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14 Ma
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Year of the TTE
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50+ Ma
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years of the East Pacific Barrier
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3.1 Ma
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year of the Isthmus of Panama
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5 Ma- 10,000 yr
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year of the Pio-PLeistocene extinctions
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5 Ma
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year of the red sea geologic event
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5 Ma
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year of the Mediterranean salinity crisis
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Miocene
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the period of great reef taxa expansion
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increase
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Reefs increase/decrease speciation rates
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increase
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reefs increase/decrease resistance to extinction
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accumulation, survival, origination, expansion
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the order of the IAA hotspot hypotheses in forming the IAA hotspot (oldest to newest)
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historical
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type of biogeography that explains the origins of patterns in species diversity and the origins of patterns of biogeographic distributions
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ecological
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the type of biogeography that explains the maintenance of patterns in species diversity and the maintenance of distributional limits
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ecological biogeography
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term that defines the role of ecology in the maintenance of biogeographic distributions
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can’t look at relationships among all species simultaneously, assumes independence
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problems with univariate statistics
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multivariate
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statistical analysis technique that allows us to present data so we can identify sites that are similar and those that are dissimilar
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dimensionality
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multivariate techniques reduce _____
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ordination; hypothesis testing
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PCA is used for _____, not _______
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dispersal
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the passive or active movement of individuals away from their natal area (area of birth)
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planktotrophic
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indirect dispersal produces _____ larvae
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small eggs, small larvae, high fecundity, long larval duration, long dispersal, high mortality, plankton feeding
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results of indirect dispersal
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lecithotrophic/brooded
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direct dispersal produces_____ larvae
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large eggs, large larvae, low fecundity, short larval duration, short dispersal, low mortality, non-feeding
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results of direct dispersal
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low and high
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planktotrophic dispersal is more common in high/low latitudes, and lecithotrophic dispersal is more common in high/low latitudes
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benign, favorable
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seawater is good for small organisms because it’s ….
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area, location (heterogeneity)
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marine latitudinal patterns of biogeography are maintained mainly by…
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area, location, productivity
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terrestrial latitudinal patterns of biogeography are maintained mainly by…
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metapopulations
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collections of neighborhoods connected through dispersal or migration
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colonization/extinction of local populations, evolutionary divergence (genetic drift, local adaptations)
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processes of metapopulations
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ecological neighborhoods, metapopulations, macroevolution
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3 scales of ecological patterns
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speciation, extinction
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processes of macroevolution
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can cause differential speciation/extinction
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role of species interactions in macroevolution
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growth, fecunity, mortality
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processes of ecological neighborhoods
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can’t visualize data, need to extract the important information about the sites, need to know which species were responsible for the similarities/differences
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the problems with multivariate techniques
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ordination
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mapping or visualizing data with PCA
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variance
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PCA identifies ______
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independent
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In PCA, the different axes data are completely______
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dispersal strategy, food resource maximization, predation avoidance, maximizes changes of finding suitable habitat, non-adaptive consequences of historical development
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What are the theories for the benefits of a dispersive larval stage?
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decreased dispersal, greater genetic subdivision of populations, more speciation, more extinction, adaptation to more local conditions
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What are the theories for the benefits of a non-dispersive larval stage?
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traditional competition, history and climate, productivity, spatial heterogeneity, predation, environmental stability and harshness, lottery, intermediate disturbance, latitude-area, Rapoport’s rule, mid-domain effect, available habitat
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theories to explain the latitudinal gradients in species diversity
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restrict/expand distributions, change abundance patterns, impose selection pressures
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the roles of species interactions in metapopulation processes
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balanoids outcompete chthamaloids/coronuloids, competition reduces other barnacles’ abundances where balanoids occur, balanoids restrict ecological distribution of potential competitors, balanoid diversification causing evolutionary decline in their competitors
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the 4 components of the competitive displacement hypothesis for Acorn Barnacles
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species richness, endemics, habitat/species loss (biodiversity)
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hotspot indicators
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large benthic foraminifera, corals, fishes
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the fossilized organisms that show hopping hotspots
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Tethys
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the first tropical hotspot
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dried up and formed mountains in its place (Himalayas)
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how did the Tethys disappear?
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ecosystem stability, functional redundancy, response diversity, resilience
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What are the roles of biodiversity?
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genetic similarity across wide expanses; assumed larvae were like coconuts
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evidence and problems for the open (larval dispersal) population model
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endemics and genetic differences between populations in an open system
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evidence and for the closed (self-recruitment) population model
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hydrological factors, ocean currents, geology (Himalayas)
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barriers to dispersal
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habitat, thermal limits (environmental), population limitation
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possible barriers to establishment
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Traditional Competition
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The biodiversity model claiming that competition is more intense in the tropics, so tropical species fill more narrow niches (more species per resource)
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History & Climate
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The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics are more favorable because there are fewer climatic disasters
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Productivity
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The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics have higher productivity (due to precipitation)
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Spatial Heterogeneity
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The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics is more spatially complex t, so it has more habitats to accommodate for more species
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Predation
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The biodiversity model claiming that predation is higher in the tropics, which reduces competition and prevents exclusion
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Environmental Stability & Harshness
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The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics are less physiologically stressful than temperate/polar regions
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Lottery
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The biodiversity model claiming that no single species has a competitive edge over another, and this unpredictability maintains local diversity
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Intermediate Disturbance
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The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics typically have intermediate disturbances, which temperate/polar regions have high/many and low/few disturbances
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Latitude-Area
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The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics have a larger total area, which allows for larger populations and lower extinction rates. The number of species per unit area is the same though
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Rapoport’s Rule
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The biodiversity model claiming that tropical species have more narrow latitudinal ranges, so the tropics is made up of many small ranges rather than a few large ranges
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Mid-Domain Effect
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The biodiversity model claiming that the center (equator) of a region (Earth) will statistically have the most species
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Available Habitat
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The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics have higher habitat availability
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apomorphies
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derived character states
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plesiomorphies
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ancestral character states
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Symplesiomorphies, autapomorphies
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Types of character states that are non-informative in a cladistic analysis
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Synapomorphies
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Type of character state that is informative in a cladistic analysis
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homologous
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structural resemblance and a common ancestor
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homoplasy
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structural resemblance but no common ancestor
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Principle of Parsimony
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the principle used to construct cladograms
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reversal
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the loss or reappearance of ancestral characters

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