Mastering A&P Chapter 6

Flashcard maker : Elizabeth Bates
What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?
increased osteoclast activity
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
inadequate calcification of bone
decreased osteoclast activity
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
Which of the following is a bone projection?
fossa
foramen
trochanter
sinus
groove
Trochanter
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.
diaphysis
metaphysis
articular cartilage
epiphysis
Diaphysis
Coxal bone = Ischial spine
mandible = ramus
vertebrae =facet
occipital bone =foramen
Femur= trochanter
A step in what bone forming process is shown in the figure? See A&P Photo
endochondral ossification
bone remodeling
bone fracture repair
intramembranous ossification
endochondral ossification
The indicated blood vessels and nerve are found within a ______.
See A&P photo
Central (Haversian) canal
Perforating (Volkmann’s) canal
marrow cavity
caniculus
Central (Haversian) canal
The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.
appositional growth
concentric growth
epiphyseal plate closure
closing of the epiphyseal plate
appositional growth
Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red
marrow cavities of certain bones.
True
False
True
What is osteoid?
the inorganic part of the matrix of bone
one of the cell types found in bone
the organic part of the matrix of bone
the outer surface of bone
the organic part of the matrix of bone
The osteon is ________.
a fibrous membrane that covers and protects bone
the structural unit of compact bone
the structural unit of spongy bone
a network of red marrow
the structural unit of compact bone
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake
of ________.
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
sodium, calcium, and vitamin E
vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride
potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What
is appositional growth?
the lengthening of hyaline cartilage
the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
along the edges only of existing osteons, making each osteon larger
growth at the epiphyseal plate
the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
along the edges only of existing osteons, making each osteon larger
Bones are classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective
in function.
True
False
False
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.
in a circular fashion
by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
from the edges inward
by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis
by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for
epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?
calcium
thyroid hormone
growth hormone
parathyroid hormone
growth hormone
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to
decrease blood calcium levels?
parathyroid
pineal gland
spleen
–> thyroid.
thyroid.
. The main role of the appendicular skeleton is to protect and support vital organs.
True
False
False
In adults, yellow marrow is located ________.
in the medullary cavity of long bones
primarily in flat bones
in the central canals of osteons
in the epiphyseal plates of long bones
in the medullary cavity of long bones
Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?
osteocyte
osteoblast
osteoclast
osteoclast
The above figure depicts which of the following bone-forming processes?
bone remodeling in response to changes in mechanical stress
bone repair at a site of fracture
endochondral ossification during bone formation and growth
intramembranous ossification during embryonic development
intramembranous ossification during embryonic development
The notable hardness of bone is attributed to ________.
–>the presence of inorganic hydroxyapatites
the presence of glycoproteins
the presence of collagen fibers
the presence of cartilage
the presence of proteoglycans
the presence of inorganic hydroxyapatites
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.
cartilage and compact bone
marrow and osteons
chondrocytes and osteocytes
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?
sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
amount of mineral salts in the bone
presence of osteoblasts in the bone
amount of mineral salt and protein in the bone
sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
What is the final stage in the healing of a bone fracture?
–> bone remodeling
formation of a hematoma
formation of a fibrocartilaginous callus
formation of a bony callus
bone remodeling
What bone-associated structure in panel C is indicated by the arrow?
osteon
epiphyseal plate
periosteum
trabeculae
trabeculae
What tissue forms the model for endochondral ossification?
fascia
membranes
bone
cartilage
cartilage
. Alice and James adopted a 3-year-old child from a developing country. They noticed that her legs were bowed and there were some deformities in her cranial and pelvic bones. They brought her to a physician for a diagnosis. What was the diagnosis, and what was the treatment for the disorder?
The child most likely has osteomalacia. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.
The child most likely has osteoporosis. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D, and performance of weight-bearing exercises.
The child most likely has Paget’s disease. Treatment includes drug therapy with administration of calcitonin and bisphosphonates.
–>The child most likely has rickets. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.
The child most likely has rickets. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.
Which hormone is produced in bone and regulates bone formation, but also protects against diabetes mellitus?
growth hormone
osteocalcin
calcitonin
leptin
osteocalcin
. The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________.
yellow marrow and spicules
blood vessels and nerve fibers
adipose tissue and nerve fibers
cartilage and interstitial lamellae
blood vessels and nerve fibers
During bone growth, which significant event occurs at the surface indicated by the letter C?
conversion of spongy bone to compact bone
–>
bone resorption
expansion of the articular cartilage
appositional growth
. The illustrated bone-forming process would be associated with which of the following bones?
humerus
femur
vertebrae
parietal
parietal
Which of the following is the major component of the part of the bone labeled E?
hyaline cartilage
osseous tissue
dense connective tissue
adipose tissue
adipose tissue
. Which of the following is UNLIKELY to affect bone remodeling?
mechanical stress
low blood Ca2+ concentration
parathyroid hormone
glucagon
glucagon
Chondrocytes- the cell responsible for the early stages of endochondral ossification.
Appositional Growth – The Growth pattern of bone in which matrix is laid down on the surface.
Diaphysis- The Area of long bones where cartilage are replaced by bone cells.
Epiphyseal line – the appearance of this structure signal the end of bone growth.
Epiphyseal plate- An Area where bone longitudinal growth takes place.
When should prevention of osteoporosis start?
The prevention of osteoporosis should begin with children while bones are still growing. Children should increase their bone mass to provide additional protection from osteoporosis in the future.
The prevention of osteoporosis should start in early old age, to prevent a decrease in bone density in the future.
The prevention of osteoporosis should start in middle age, to counter the gradual loss of bone density as we get old.
The prevention of osteoporosis should begin young adults, to increase the bone mass to provide additional protection from osteoporosis.
The prevention of osteoporosis should begin with children while bones are still growing. Children should increase their bone mass to provide additional protection from osteoporosis in the future.
SEE A&P photo
Osteocytes are connected to each other through which structure?
canaliculi
Volksmann’s canal
Haversian canal
lacuna
canaliculi
During bone growth, which event is most significant at the surface indicated by the letter B?
Calcification of the cartilage matrix leads to its deterioration and replacement by bone.
calcification of the cartilage matrix
conversion of bone into cartilage
cell division of chondrocytes
formation of compact bone.
calcification of the cartilage matrix
What causes osteoporosis?
Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries.
heritage such as African or Mediterranean
abnormal PTH receptors
poor posture
Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries.
Which of the labeled parts of the bone is composed primarily of compact bone?
E
. The structural unit of cancellous bone tissue is called ________.
lamellar bone
osseous lamellae
osteons
trabeculae
trabeculae
For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?
A medullary cavity forms.
The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate.
An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.
A bone collar forms around the cartilage model.
An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.
Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates an armlike bar of bone?
epicondyle
foramen
ramus
meatus
fossa
ramus
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is of greatest importance for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
prolactin
thyroid hormone
somatomedins
growth hormone
growth hormone
The epiphyseal plate is ________.
where yellow bone marrow is produced
the long axis of a bone
the site of red bone marrow production
where long bone lengthening occurs
where long bone lengthening occurs
Choose the CORRECT pairing.
–> paget’s disease: excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption
rickets: deficiency of vitamin A
osteomalacia: excessive mineralization of the bone
osteoporosis: increased bone density
paget’s disease: excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption
Which type of cartilage covers and protects the ends of bones at freely moveable joints?
elastic cartilage
–> hyaline cartilage
fibrocartilage
both hyaline and elastic cartilage
hyaline cartilage
The arrow in the figure is pointing to which of the following structures? SEE A&P Photo
articular cartilage
a secondary ossification center
the epiphyseal plate
a primary ossification center
the epiphyseal plate
What indicates that a long bone has reached its adult length?
the presence of osteons
the presence of osteoblasts
–> closure of the epiphyseal plate
the presence of hyaline cartilage on the ends of the bone
closure of the epiphyseal plate
SEE A&P photo
Endosteum- The lining of the marrow cavity.
Osteoclasts- cells that dissolve the bony matrix
Lamellae -Layers of bone matrix
Canaliculi Small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone
Osteoblasts- Cells that can build bony matrix
Hematopoiesis is a term for which of the following physiological processes?
bone formation during growth
release of minerals into the blood
–> blood cell formation
energy storage in fat tissue
blood cell formation
During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is ________.
the thyroid hormones
estrogen
–> growth hormone
testosterone
growth hormone
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.
elastic tissue
blood-forming cells
Sharpey’s fibers
fat
Fat
Which of the following is stored in bones?
calcitonin
glycogen
phosphate
vitamin C
iodine
phosphate
The axial skeleton includes the ________.
hip bones
bones of the arms
bones of the legs
ribs
ribs
.Mrs. Mulligan goes to her dentist and, after having a couple of cavities filled, her dentist strongly suggests that she reduce her intake of sodas and increase her intake of calcium phosphates in the foods she eats. Why?
Sodas contain lots of sugar that can dissolve the calcium carbonate in bone and teeth.
Sodas are strong acids that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.
Sodas are carbonated, and the increased carbon dioxide can dissolve the calcium carbonate in bone and teeth.
Sodas are strong bases that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.
Sodas contain lots of sugar that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.
Sodas are strong acids that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.
The indicated osteocyte is located within layers of bony matrix termed ______
lamellae
canaliculi
periosteum
lacuna
lamellae
Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.
is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation
is produced by secondary ossification centers
involves medullary cavity formation
takes twice as long as diaphysis ossification
is produced by secondary ossification centers
Flat bones consist of compact bone sandwiched between spongy bone.
True
False
False
Hypercalcemia can be caused by_________.
insufficient vitamin D levels in the body
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone
reduced parafollicular cell activity
All of the listed responses are correct.
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone
Wolff’s law is concerned with ________.
the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts
vertical growth of bones being dependent on age
the function of bone being dependent on shape
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
fibrocartilage
–> hyaline cartilage
elastic connective tissue
dense fibrous connective tissue
hyaline cartilage
In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?
overproduction of thyroid hormone
osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity
elevated levels of sex hormones
elevated levels of sex hormones
Greenstick- An incomplete fracture or craking of the bone without actual separation of the parts. Common in children.
Comminuted bone fragments into may pieces
Spiral- Common sports fracture resulting from a twisting force.
Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?
linear fracture: the break is perpendicular to the bone’s long axis
incomplete fracture: the bone is broken through
compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin
nondisplaced fracture: the fractured bone ends are misaligned
compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin
In which of the labeled parts of the adult long bone would hematopoietic tissue be located?
A
B
C
D
E
E
What event precedes the step in the bone-forming process shown in the figure?
formation of a secondary ossification center
ossification within a fibrous membrane
formation of the epiphyseal plate
calcification of the cartilage matrix
calcification of the cartilage matrix
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
compact bone
spongy bone
trabecular bone
irregular bone
compact bone

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