Marriage and the Family Persuasive Essay

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Marriage
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Is a legally recognized union between two people, generally a man and a woman, in which they are united sexually, cooperate economically, and may give birth to, adopt, or rear children. This has changed considerably in our society.
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Monogamy
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only legal form of marriage in the United States. Is the practice of having only one spouse at one time.
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Polygamy
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The practice of having two or more wives. Preferred arrangement world wide. Allowed in many Modern Middle Eastern societies.
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Polyandry
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The practice of having two or more husbands, is quite rare.
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The rights and benefits of marriage
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– Right to enter into a premarital agreement – Income tax deductions, credits, rates exemption, and estimates – Legal status with partner’s children. – Partner medical decisions – Right to support from spouse – Right to inherit property – Payment of worker’s compensation benefits after death. – Public assistance from the Department of Human Services. – The right to a divorce. – Award of child custody in divorce proceedings. – Control, division, acquisition, and disposition of community property. – Division of property after dissolution of marriage. – Right to support after divorce.
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The census Bureau definition of family
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A group of two people or more (one of whom is the householder) related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together, all such people (including subfamily members) are considered as members of one family.
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Household
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A household consists of all the people who occupy a housing unit, whether or not related. Single people who live alone, roommates, lodgers, and live-in domestic service employees are all counted
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Affiliated kin
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unrelated individual who feel and are treated as if they were relatives.
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Nuclear family
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consisting of mother, father and children
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Traditional family
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middle class version of the nuclear family in which women’s primary roles are wife and mother and the men’s primary roles are husband and breadwinner.
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Functions of marriage and families
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– It provides a source of intimate relationships. – it acts as a unit of economic cooperation and consumption. – It may produce and socialize children. – It assigns social roles and status to individuals.
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Socialization
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The shaping of individual behavior to conform to social or cultural norms.
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Family of orientation
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is the family in which we grow up, the family that orient us to the world.
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Binuclear families
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Reflect those children whose parent separate and divorce. With parents maintaining two separate households and one or both possibly remarrying, children of divorce are members of two different, parentally based nuclear families.
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Family of procreation
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family formed through marriage and childbearing.
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Family of cohabitation
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To refer to the family formed thought living or cohabiting with another person, whether married or unmarried.
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Advantages to living in families
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– Families offer continuity as a result of emotional attachments, rights, and obligations. – Families offer close proximity. (cooperation and communication) – Families provide many economic benefits. (doing shores, buying a home together, etc.).
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Extended families
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Consist of not only the cohabiting couple and their children but also other relatives, especially in-laws, grandparents, aunts and uncles, and cousins.
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Kinship systems
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Is the social organization of the family. It is based on the reciprocal rights and obligations of the different family members.
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Conjugal relationships
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Families created through marriage, such as in-laws. Created by law through marriage.
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Consanguineous relationships
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Are created through biological (blood) ties, through birth.
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perspectives of conservatives regarding families
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Cultural values have shifted from individual self-sacrifice to personal self-fulfillment. as a result of this change, today’s families are weaker and less able to meet the needs of children, adults, or the wider society.
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Perspectives of liberals
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Tend to believe that the changes in family patterns are just changes and not familial decline. The liberal position portrays these changing family patterns as products and adaptations to wider social and economic changes rather that a shift in cultural values.
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Perspectives of Centrist
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Share aspects of both conservative and liberal positions. They believe that familial changes have had negative consequences, and like liberals they identify wider social changes as major determinant of the changes in family life, but they assert greater emphasis than liberal do on the importance of cultural values.
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Objectivity
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To suspend the beliefs, biases, or prejudices we have about a subject until we understand what is being said.
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Value judgment
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Usually include words that mean should and imply that our way is the correct way. Ex: \”everyone should get married.\”
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Bias
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Is a strong opinion that may create barriers to hearing anything contrary to our opinion.
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Stereotype
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Is a set of simplistic, rigidly held, and overgeneralized beliefs about the personal characteristics of a group of people.
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Egocentric fallacy
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Is the mistaken belief that everyone has the same experiences and values that we have and therefore should think as we do.
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Ethnocentric fallacy
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Is the belief that our ethnic group, nation, or culture is superior to others.
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Scientific method
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well-established procedures used to collect and analyze information about family experiences.
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Family researchers disciplines
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sociology, psychology, social work, communication and family studies.
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Concepts
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Are abstract ideas that we use to represent the concrete reality in which we are interested. Ex: nuclear families, monogamy, and socialization.
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Operationalization
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The identification and or development of research strategies to observe or measure concepts.
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Deductive research
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The key concepts are turned into variables (dependent and independent), concepts that can vary in some meaningful way. Ex: marital status.
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Inductive research
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Is not hypothesis-testing, instead, it begins with a topic of interest to researches (e.g., what happens when couples reverse traditional roles). As data is gathered either by observations or interviews they refine concepts or make generalizations and build a theory based on the data collected.
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Grounded theory
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Theory that emerges in inductive research. is grounded or rooted in observations of specific, concrete details.
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Macro-level theories
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Focus on the family as a social institution (organized pattern of statuses and structures, roles, and rules by which a society attempts to meet certain of its most basic needs. – Family ecology theory – Structural functionalism – Conflict theory – Feminist
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Family ecology theory
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How families are influenced by and in turn influence the wider environment. The core concepts include the environment and adaptation. The environment to which individuals adapt as they develop consist of four levels: 1. microsystem- most immediate influences with which individuals have frequent contact (families, peers, schools, neighborhoods) 2. mesosystem- interconnections between microsystems (school and home experiences) 3. exosystem- setting which individuals doesn’t actively participate (parent’s work experiences, salaries, and schedules) 4. macrosystem- broadiest level, encompassing laws, customs, attitudes and belief systems of the wider society.
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Structural functionalism
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Explains how society works, how families work, and how families relate to the larger society and to their own members. Looks at three aspects: 1. what functions the family as an institution serves for society. 2. what functional requirements family members perform for the family 3. what need the family meets for its individual members.
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Conflict theory
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Holds that life involves discord and competition. Conflict theorist see society not as basically cooperative but as divided, with individuals and groups in conflict with one another over society scarce resources (wealth, income, prestige, or power). Conflict theory directs attention to how the wider gender, racial, and economic inequalities that result in society influence families.
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Feminist Perspectives
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focus on women’s family experiences, family diversity, and gender-based imbalances of power. Feminists critically examine the ways in which family experience is shaped by gender. They maintain that family and gender roles have been constructed by society and that men have created gender roles to maintain power over women. Their goals is to accomplish changes and create conditions \”good for women\” in our society.
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Micro-level theories
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Emphasize what happens within families, looking at everyday behavior, interaction between family members, patterns of communication, and so on. Rather than attempting to analyze \”the family\”, they are more useful for examining what happens between individuals in \”families\” that accounts for the relationships we form and maintain. Microlevel theories focus their attention at how and why members of families interact, communicate, make decisions, divide responsibilities, and raise children.
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Symbolic interaction theory
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Looks at how people interact with one another. Such interactions are conducted through symbols, words, or gestures that stand for something else. Our interactions are partly structured by social roles (mother, father, siblings). They study how one’s sense of self is maintained in the process of acquiring these roles.
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Social exchange theory
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According to this theory we measure our actions and relationships on a cost-benefit basis, seeking to maximize rewards and minimize costs by employing our resources to gain the most favorable outcome. Ex: what are you getting out of the relationship? love, companionship, power, high social status.
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Equity
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Exchanges that occur between people that have to be fair, to be balanced. Ex: you do the dishes and I’ll take care of the kids. – cooperative exchanges: both husband and wife try to maximize their \”joint profit\” – Competitive relationship: each spouse is trying to maximize individual profit.
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Family development theory
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this theory looks at the changes in the family that typically commence in the formation of the premarital relationship, proceed through marriage, and continue through subsequent sequential stages.
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Normative age-graded influences
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Biological or social influences that are clearly correlated with age, such as the biological processes of physical maturation, puberty, and menopause or typical events such as the beginning of school, death of parents, and the advent of retirement, are all linked to age.
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Normative history-graded influences
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come from historical facts that are common to a particular generation, such as the political and economic influences of wars and economic depressions, and that are similar for individuals in a particular age group.
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Family systems theory
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Combines two of the previous sociological theories, structural functionalism and symbolic interaction to form a more psychological even therapeutic theory. Views families as subsystems where each carries out certain functions. Just as symbolic theories it also consist of interactions between family members.
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Survey research
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uses questionaries or interviews, is the most important data-gathering technique in marriage and family studies. Surveys are conducted in person, over telephone or writing.
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Time use surveys
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Also known as the time use diary method. people record their activities at designated points in time (specific hour of the day) or report how much time its spent in activities of interest to the researcher.
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Secondary analysis or existing survey data
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Researcher turn to many available survey data sets conducted instead of doing their own research study due to associated costs.
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Clinical research
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Involves in-depth examination of a person or a small group of people who come to a psychiatrist, psychologist or social worker with psychological or relationship problems.
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Case-study method
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Consist of a series of individual interviews. Its the most traditional approach of all clinical research.
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Observational research
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Study behavior through direct observations remaining as unobtrusive as possible. For example, to measure power in a relationship a researcher may sit in a home and videotape exchanges between a husband and a wife or bring couples into a lab situation.
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Experimental research
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Researches isolate a single factor under controlled circumstances to determine its influence. Researches are able to control their experiments by using variables. Independent variables: factors manipulated or exchange by the researcher. Dependent variables: factors affected by changes in the independent variable.
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Applied family research
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Its less concerned with formulating theories, generating concepts or testing hypothesis. Data gathered in an effort to solve problems, evaluate policies or programs, or estimate the outcome of some proposed future change in policy. For example it might study the effectiveness of mandatory arrest policy in reducing domestic violence.
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Native American Families
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Many groups were patrilineal (rights and property descended from the father). There was a high child mortality rate. Mothers breast fed their infants and abstained from sexual intercourse during breast-feeding period. Children were rarely physically disciplined, they were praised for good behavior and publicly shamed when bad. Children began working at early age. Girls underwent puberty ceremonies. Marriage took place between ages 12-15 for girls and 15-20 for boys. Many groups were monogamous except when wives were pregnant or breastfeeding men were able to have sexual relationships with other women outside of marriage.
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Colonial families
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The European colonist who came to America attempted to replicate their familial family system influenced by Christianity. Emphasized patriarchy (rule by father or eldest male). The family planted and harvested food, made clothes, provided shelter, and cared for necessities of life. They reared children as a units and thought children how to read, write and arithmetic. Parents often selected children’s mates or have a right to refuse their choices of mates. Love came after marriage. premarital intercourse was prohibited. Colonial women had approximately 6 children. Wives were economically dependent on their husbands. Children were believed to be evil by nature.
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African American Families
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Slaves were legally prohibited from marrying, but they created their own marriages. Children were separated from parents because of a sale, repayment of a debt or transfer of one property to another. Casual sexual relationships were discourage by the slave culture. kids were named after the parents or relatives to maintain their identity.
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Division of labor
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In the 19th century men began working outside the home in factories or offices for wages. Men were the breadwinner. their work was given higher status than women’s domestic work.
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Families of the mid 19th century
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Wives stay home and were protected and supported by their husbands. Women were able to choose who they marry. Marriages became love-based. Dramatic decline in fertility, women reduced their childbearing as they controlled the frequency of intercourse. Children were viewed as born in total innocences and protected from the evils of the world. Children’s education became the responsibility of schools.
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The slave family
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Slave marriages were not recognized as legal. Separation of families was common. Slaves worked for their masters and not themselves, so men could not provide for their families. Slave women worked in the fields and when pregnant, her owner determined her prenatal care and relation to their infant after birth. Slave children were usually underfed, undernourished and without adequate clothing, they were also forced into physical labor as young as 5 or 6 years of age. Rates of illness, infant and childhood death were high. In 1865 with the ratification the the 13th amendment slavery was outlawed.
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The new companionate Family
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In the 20th century new ideal of family rejected the old family based form on male authority and sexual repression. 1. men and women were to share household decision making and tasks. 2. Marriages were expected to provide romance, sexual fulfillment and emotional growth. 3. Wives were no longer expected to be guardians of virtue and sexual restraint. 4. children were no longer to be protected from the world but were to be given greater freedom to explore and experience the world.
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Families during the depression and world wars
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Economic crisis left men unable to provide due to unemployment. Many men committed suicide due to economic failure. Gender roles had to be altered women work outside the home and men did the household work.
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Families of the 1950s
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time of youthful marriages and increase in birthrates, stable and low divorce rates and economic growth. Many people were able to buy homes in one salary. Families were back to traditional roles with men in the world and women in the home. Women sacrificed opportunities of career advancement to ensure their husband’s success and the well-being of their children.
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Families now
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Increasing divorce rates and dramatic increase in cohabitation with increasing births outside of marriage and single-parent families and blended families (containing either a stepparent, a step-sibling or half sibling).
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Familism
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In which individual self-interest was expected to be subordinated to family well-being.
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Individualism
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marriage and families are sacrificed for individual happiness and personal fulfillment
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Social class
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A category of people who share a common economic position in the stratifies (unequal) society in which we live.
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Fictive kin ties
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refer to the extension of kinship-like status to neighbors and friends, thus symbolizing both and intensity of commitment and a willingness to help one another meet the needs of daily life.
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Social mobility
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Movement up or down the social class ladder.
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Structural mobility
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Refers to when large segment of a population experience upward or downward mobility resulting from changes in the society and economy. Ex: widespread job losses, increase in home foreclosures, crises on Wall Street, and failure of many big employers.
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Race/Racial group
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is a group of people, such as whites, blacks, and Asians, classified according to their phenotype (physical characteristics).
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Ethnic group
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Is a set of people distinct from other groups because of cultural characteristics, such as language, religion, and customs. These characteristics are shared from one generation to another and might shape how each person thinks and acts- both inside and outside families.
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Minority group
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depending on social experience, not numerical size. Minority groups are so designated because of their status (position in the social hierarchy), which places them at an economic, social, and political disadvantage.
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Gender
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Not same as your sex. It refers to everything else, such as how one sees oneself, the expectations one forms of others based on their being females or males, the roles one plays in households and families, and the opportunities one has in the wider world of education, work, and politics.
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Gender stratification
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Inequalities between females and males. such sat patriarchies, in which males dominate political and economic institutions and exercise power in interpersonal relationships.
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Matriarchies
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societies where women rule over men and where men are denied the right to political office or are excluded from participating in the most significant religious rituals- have not been documented.
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Gender identity
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the psychological sense of whether one is male or female.
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Transgendered
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Is a broad category that includes those who alter their social but not necessarily their physical characteristics, presenting themselves as the opposite sex. Includes transvestites, or cross-dressers, who wear clothes of the opposite sex, as well as intersexed (born with reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn’t fit the typical definitions of male or female).
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Gender roles
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The culturally assigned role that a person is expected to perform based on male or female gender.
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Gender stereotype
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Is a rigidly held and oversimplified belief that all males and females, as a result of their sex, possess distinct psychological and behavioral traits.
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Androgyny
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Is a combination of masculine and feminine characteristics.
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Gender attribution
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is the \”methodical procedures through which we come to identify others as unambiguously male or female\”.
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Gender Theory
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Asserts that society may be best understood by how it is organized according to gender, and that social relationships are based on the socially perceived differences between females and males that are used to justify unequal power relationships. 1. specific behaviors (nurturing or aggression). 2. division of labor. 3. Different institutions bestow advantages on men. (women receiving less pay for same work as men).
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Gender Socialization
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1. Social learning theory: attitudes and behaviors are learned as a result of social interactions, consequences control behaviors, For example, girls are rewarded for playing with dolls. We also learn gender roles by imitation or modeling. 2. Cognitive development theory: States that we learn differently according to our age. By age 2 children are able to identify themselves as males or females.
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How parents shape gender differences
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1. Manipulation: parents treat daughters more gently and sons roughly. 2. Channeling: children are directed toward specific objects and activities and away from others. Ex: toys are marketed as gender teams. 3. Verbal appellation: parent use different words with boys and with girls to describe the same behavior. 4. Activity exposure: Boys are discourage from imitating their mother activities while girls are encourage to imitate mom.
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Intensive mothering ideology
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The belief that children need full-time, unconditional attention from mothers to develop into healthy, well adjusted people.
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Postgender relationships
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relationships lived outside the constraints of gender expectations.
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Styles of love
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1. Eros: Romantic or passionate love. Attached to beauty. 2. Ludus: Playful or game-playing love. \”nothing serious\”, casual encounters. 3. Storge: Love between companions. \”it usually begins as a friendship and then gradually deepens into love\”. 4. Mania: \”madness\”, obsessive love, combination of lupus and eros. Intense love-hate relationship. 5. Agape: combination of eros and storge: Love that is chaste, patient, selfless, and undemanding. ex: missionaries. 6. pragma: combination of storage and lupus. Logical in their approach toward looking for somebody that meets their needs and with interest comparable to owns.
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Types of love
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Passionate love: is an intense longing for union with another. Companionate love: refers to the warm and tender affection we feel for close others. It includes friendship, shared interest and activities, and companionship.
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Attachement theory of love
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maintains that the degree and quality of attachments one experiences in early life influences one’s later relationships. 1. secure: infant feels secure when mother is out of sight, they know that mothers will offer protection and care. Secure adults are comfortable depending on others and having others depend on them. Love experiences tend to be happy, friendly and trusting. 2. Anxious or ambivalent: Infant shows separation anxiety when mother leaves, feels insecurity from mime being inconsistently available. Adults feel that others with not get as close as they want. They feel unworthy of love and worry that partners don’t love them or will leave them. 3. Avoidant attachement: Infant senses the mother’s detachment and rejection, infant shows avoidance behaviors with mothers as a defense. Adults feel discomfort in being close to others. They are fearful of becoming depending and avoid pain from eventual rejection. Distance is maintained and intimacy avoided.
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The halo effect
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Individuals then to infer qualities in others based on looks. Is the assumption that good-looking people possess more desirable social characteristics than unattractive people.
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Jealousy
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Is an aversive response that occurs because of a partner’s real, imagined, or likely involvement with a third person.
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Suspicious jealousy
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generally occurs in the early stages of a relationship. Is jealousy that occurs when there is either no reason to be suspicious or only ambiguous evidence to suspect that a partner is involved with another.
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Reactive jealousy
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Occurs when a partner reveals a current past, or anticipated relationship with another person.
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Sexual scripts
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consist of expectations of how to behave sexually as a female or male and as a heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian, or gay male. A sexual script enables each individual to organize sexual situations and interpret emotions and sensations as sexually meaningful.
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Traditional sexual scripts
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Cast men as the initiators of sexual encounters. Men are expected to be assertive, confident and knowledgeable about sexual matters, how to please their partners. female scripts prescribes females a more passive role in sexual relations. Females are expected to wait for and comply with the males’ initiation of sexual activity and to be pleased with how each sexual encounter progresses, to keep her image of sexual innocence and remain pure. A woman does not tell a men what she wants.
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contemporary sexual scripts
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– Sexual expression is positive. – Sexual activities are a mutual exchange of erotic pleasure. – Sexuality equally involves both partners. – Legitimate sexual activities are not limited to sexual intercourse. – Either partner may initiate sexual activities. – Both partners have a right to experience orgasm. – Nonmarital sex is acceptable. – homosexual relationships are open, accepted or tolerated.
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Identifying oneself as gay or lesbian
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usually in late childhood or early adolescence. first stage is often marked by fear, confusion, denial. In the 2nd stage the person recognizes the attraction, love and desire as homoerotic. The 3rd stage includes the person’s self-definition as lesbian or gay.
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antigay prejudice and discrimination
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– antigay prejudice: strong dislike, fear or hatred of lesbians and gay men because of their sexuality. – Homophobia: irrational or phobic fear of gay people. – Heterosexism: discrimination in favor of heterosexuals. – Sexual stigma: society’s negative regard for any nonheterosexual behavior, identity, relationship, or community. – Enacted stigma: criminal victimization, harrasment and threats, and discrimination. – felt stigma: feeling that one is thought to be less of a person, belief that openly gay people would not be hired for a job.
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nonverbal communication
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conveys the feelings and attitudes of the speaker (friendly, neutral, or hostile) and indicates how the words are to be interpreted (as a joke, or command).
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Functions of nonverbal communication
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1. conveying interpersonal attitudes: holding hands suggest intimacy. sitting across each other, not looking at each other suggest discomfort. 2. Expressing emotions: through smiles, frowns, thigh jaws, lets our partners know how we are feeling. 3. Handling the ongoing interaction: posture and eye contact, indicate our interest and attention.
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Contempt
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A feeling that the target of the expression is undesirable, can be display verbally as well though insults, sarcasm, and mockery.
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\”Four horseman of the apocalypse\”
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spelling for potential divorce criticism, defensiveness, stonewalling, or avoiding.
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Gender differences in communication
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Women smile more, express emotion through facial expression, control less space, mantain more eye contact. women use more qualifiers and more intensifiers. Men tend to display a more relaxed posture, and hand touch when talking to women. Their speech contains fewer words, use more profanity. men interrupt more when talking to women and disclose less personal information.
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Gender differences in partner communication
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wives send clearer messages, often more sensitive and reply to both positive and negative messages. as husbands may not reply at all or send neutral messages harder for wives to decode. Wives set the emotional tone of an argument and escalate conflict with verbal and nonverbal messages. wives use emotional appeals more than husbands, who tend to reason and seek conciliation.
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Demand-withdraw communication
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A pattern in which one person makes an effort to engage the other in a discussion of some issue and the other partner withdraws by either leaving the discussion, failing to reply or changing the subject. In heterosexual couples women more often demand and men withdraw. This style of communication is common among couples, but it is considered ineffective, and even dysfunctional in pursuing the resolution of a disagreement.
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Waller’s principle of least interest
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this term describes the situation in which the partner with the least interest in continuing a relationship enjoys the most power in it.
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Basic conflicts
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revolve around carrying out marital roles and functions of marriage and the family, such as providing companionship, working, and rearing children. ex: the husband converts to a religion that prohibits sex.
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nonbasic conflicts
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Do not strike at the heart of the relationship. Ex: the husband wants to change jobs and move to a different city, but the wife may not want to. (husband is not rejecting his role as a provider). resolution is possible.
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Marital heterogamy
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Marriage between two people from different backgrounds and/or with different demographic characteristics.
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Conflict management styles
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1. Competing: assertive and uncooperative, \”forcing behavior and win-lose argument\”. 2. Collaborating: assertive and cooperative, couples confront disagreements and engage in problem solving to uncover solutions. 3. compromising: assertive and cooperative, couples seek middle ground. 4. Avoiding: unassertive and uncooperative, refusing to take a position in disagreements. 5. Accommodating: unassertive and cooperative, one person attempts to soothe the other person to restore harmony.
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Consequences of conflict
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– Mental health: depression, eating disorders, physical and mental abuse, alcohol problems, anxiety. – physical health: cardiovascular disease (increase in BP and HR), physical pain, increase asthma symptoms.
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Conflict resolution
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– Agreement as a gift. – bargaining- making compromises. – coexistence: \”learn to live with it\” – forgiveness
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Marriage debate
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Ongoing controversy and debate, whether marriage is or isn’t endangered or whether it has retained or lost its appeal and it meaning as a major life goal to which people aspire.
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Retreat from marriage
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evident as older age in first marriage, more people never marrying, high increases in cohabitation and non marital birth, and continued high divorce rates. Appears to be associated with increase employment for women, smaller gender wage gaps in earnings, and persistent economic inequality between racial groups.
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Individualized marriage
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Emphasize personal fulfillment and personal growth in marriage and expect that our spouses will facilitate such growth and be sources of unprecedented support. In individualized marriage emphasis is placed on self-development, flexible and negotiable roles, and openness and communication in problem solving.
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Defense of marriage act
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1996, This act denied federal recognition to same-sex couples and gave states the right to legally ignore gay or lesbian marriages.
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Endogamy
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Is the practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group, rejecting others on such basis as being unsuitable for marriage or for other close personal relationship.
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Exogamy
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Is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social group. biological exogamy: marriage on non-blood related beings, regulated by forms of incest. Cultural exogamy : is the marrying outside of a specific cultural group. Dual exogamy: in which two groups engage in continual wife exchange.
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Homogamy
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The tendency to choose a mate whose personal or group characteristics are similar to ours. Also known as positive assortative mating. The most important elements of homogamy are race, ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, age, and personal characteristics.
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Heterogamy
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refers to the tendency to choose a mate whose personal or group characteristics differ from ours.
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Marriage squeeze
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Refers to the gender imbalance reflected in the ratio of available unmarried women and men. Because of this imbalance, members of one gender tend to be \”squeezed\” out of the marriage market.
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Mating gradient
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The tendency for women to marry men of higher status. Although we tend to marry those with the same socioeconomic status and cultural background, men tend to marry women slightly below them in age, education and so on.
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Complementary needs theory
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the belief that people select spouses whose needs are different from their own.
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Value theory or role theory
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theory that we choose spouses who feels and thinks like we do. \”birds of a feather flock together\”.
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Parental image theory
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Suggest the we seek partners similar to our opposite-sex parent.
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Stimulus-value-role theory
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A 3 stage theory of romantic development proposed by Bernard Murstein to depict what happens between that \”magic moment\” with its mysterious chemistry of attraction and the decision to maintain a long term relationship such as marriage. 1. stimulus stage: each person is drawn or attracted to the other before any actual interaction. 2. value stage: partners weigh each other’s basic values and compatibility. 3. role stage: each person’s analyzes the other’s behaviors, or how the person fulfills his or her roles as lover, companion, friend, and worker and potential spouse and parents.
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Marital commitments
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– personal: one wishes to stay married, affected by strongly attraction to spouse and the relationship. Product of love. – moral: being \”morally obligated\” to a relationship. Our attitudes towards marriage and divorce. – structural: difficulty perceived in ending a exiting a relationship and feeling that we have made unretrievable investments in the relationship and leaving would mean that we have wasted our time and opportunities. Is a product of social pressure, fear of termination procedures, and feeling of sacrifices made that can’t be recover.
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parenthood and marriage
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-Presence of children appears to decrease marital satisfaction and increase conflict. – decline in independence and shared leisure activities. – increase traditionalization of the division of responsibilities between spouses.
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widowhood
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– decline in income. – men are more likely to date that are widow women. – experience of grief, anger, distress, and loneliness. – physical health appears to be tied closely to the emotional stress.
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Types of marriage
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– conflict-habituated: tension, arguing and conflict permeate the relationship. – passive-congenial: begins with emotional \”spark\”. they may be marriages of convenience that satisfy practical needs on both spouses’ lives. – devitalized: begin with high levels of emotional intensity that dwindles over time. – Vital: they begin and continue with high levels of emotional intensity. – total: spouses appear to share everything.
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Cultural lag
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Is the outcome of rapid social change, when part of the culture (e.g. technology) changes more rapidly than another part (e.g. behavior).
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singlism
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refers to the stereotyping and discrimination directed at the unmarried.
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matrimania
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Is the glorification and hyping of marriage.
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Effect of cohabitation on later marriage
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– more negative marital communication – lower levels of satisfaction with marriage. – lower levels of male commitment to one’s spouse. – Gradual \”erosion\” of the value of marriage and child rearing. – greater likelihood of divorce.
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Serial cohabitation
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individual have cohabited with more than one partner.
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Teen mothers
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Risk of anemia, pregnancy-related hypertension, preeclampsia, and low birth weight babies. Worsened educational outcomes. Children born to teen mothers are more likely to be delinquent, experience depression, poor school performance, dropping out of school, higher incarceration rates, and becoming teen parents themselves.
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Older mothers
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Over 35, have higher risk of hypertension, fetal mortality, miscarriage, c-section deliveries. Babies of older mothers are at greater risk of birth defects. Mother’s decline of physical energy. 1 in every 6 births.
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Infant mortality
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5.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2012. Poverty related conditions, infectious diseases, accidents, or SIDS (baby is healthy and dies suddenly while sleeping).
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Child rearing styles
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Authoritarian: require absolute obedience, physical force is use. when question by the child may say \”because I said so\”. Permissive: are very lenient, show more responsiveness and less demanding behavior towards the child. The child’s freedom of expression and autonomy are valued. Authoritative: Rely on positive reinforcement and infrequent use of punishment. Uninvolved: neither responsive to child needs nor demanding. Child may suffer academic performance, social competence, psychosocial development and behavioral problems.
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Parentified children
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Children forced to become caregivers for their parents well before adulthood.
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Bifurcation of work
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refers to the fact that although many feel overworked, others are underemployed or lacking work.
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work-to-family spillover
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is the effect that employment has on the time, energy, and psychological well-being of workers and their families at home.
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Family-to-work spillover
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Is when the demands from home life reduce the time and energy available to succeed at work.
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Role strain
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refers to the difficulties that individuals have in carrying out the multiple responsibilities attached to a particular role.
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Role overload
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Occurs when the total prescribed activities for one or more roles are greater than the individual can handle.
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Crossover
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Refers to when one’s feelings about work affect one’s spouse’s or partner’s feelings.
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Shift couples
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Have constructed household arrangements in which the parents work opposite, mostly non overlapping shifts and thus take turns working outside the home and caring for children. They adopted equality and fairness into domestic responsibilities division. Male participation in child care and housework is higher than most typical dual earners.
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peer marriages
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(or postgender marriages) take fairness and sharing to heart, take on the model of dual earners, shift arrangements might be the result of choice, necessity or circumstance. They emerge from egalitarian values. Their relationship is based on principles of deep friendship, fairness, and sharing.
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Fathers at home
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– Most men state reasons for being at home due to disability, unemployment, retirement, or school. – Money is saved in childcare. – Men experience social isolation as they lose the primary source of social interaction- the workplace. – Fathers get to spend more time with their children, creating stronger attachments. – Men abilities to provide care are strengthen.
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Sexual harassment
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– The abuse of power for sexual ends, and the creation of a hostile environment. In abuse of power, sexual harassment consist of unwelcome sexual advances, request for sexual favors, or other verbal of physical conduct of sexual nature as a condition of instruction or employment. In a hostile environment, someone acts in sexual ways to interfere with a person’s performance by creating a hostile of offensive learning work environment. Sexual harassment is illegal. – Half of employed women are harassed during their working years.
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Violence
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\”An act carried out with the intention or perceived intention of causing physical pain or injury to another person.\” – 1 out of 4 women will likely experience domestic violence in her lifetime. – Teens and young women experience the highest rate of relationship violence.
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Types of intimate violence
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– Situational couple violence: erupts during an argument when one partner strikes the other in the heat of the moment. can be mutual. – Intimate terrorism: one partner dominates and controls the other. – Violent resistance: violence used to resist intimate terrorism. \”self-defensive\” – Mutual violent control: both partners are violently trying to control each other.
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Individualistic theory on violence
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Abuser’s violence is related to a personality disorder, mental or emotional illness, or alcohol or drug misuse. this theory is appealing to abusers and society as implies that perpetrators are not really responsible for their behavior.
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Ecological model on violence
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– Uses a system perspective to explore child abuse. – Under this model, children who don’t match well with their parents (emotional or developmental disabilities), and families under stress (unemployment or poor health) and that have little community support (child care or medical care), are at increased risk for child abuse.
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Feminist model on violence
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Stresses the role of gender inequalities, such as traditional roles placing women as subordinates and supporting male dominance. only explains male-on-female violence and not mothers to children or lesbians violence.
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Social stress and social learning models
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– Related to ecological and feminist models as they view violence as origination in the social structure. – Holds that people learn to be violent from society and their families. – Resource model: According to Goode, the person with the most resources is the least likely to resort to overt force. This explains how a men with low income and little education will use violence to maintain his dominant position.
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Exchange-Social control model
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– Holds that in our interactions, we constantly weigh the perceived rewards against the costs. \”people hit and abuse family members because they can.\” the reward of using violence might be getting their way.
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Gender symmetry
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Refers to the survey data findings of similarity in both expressing and experiencing violence between the genders. However, the context and consequences of partner violence are not the same for men and women.
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Emotional/psychological abuse
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– Women are more likely than men to have been calling names, been insulted, humiliated, or feel endangered by a partner’s display of anger. – In addition women are more likely to had physical threats made against them, partners preventing them to talk to friends or family, destroying things of importance to them, and preventing them from leaving the house. Men also experience this in a lower percentage.
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Rape
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\”unwanted sexual penetration, perpetrated by force, threat of harm or when a victim is intoxicated.\” It may involve vaginal, oral, or anal penetration and the insertion of objects other than the penis.
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Marital rape
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– Became illegal in all 50 states. – In several states, wife rape is illegal only if the couple has separated.
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Dating violence
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– precipitated by jealousy or rejection, or center around issues of control. – victims are at risk for injury, attempted suicide, binge drinking, physical fights, they also have higher rates of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use, engage in unhealthy safe practices.
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Child maltreatment
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Neglect: failing to meet a child’s basic needs. Physical abuse: hitting, kicking, shaking, burning a child, resulting on child injury or dying. Sexual abuse: fondling, raping, or exposing the child to other sexual activities. Emotional abuse: name calling, threatening, withholding of affection, and shaming.
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Parricide
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the murder of a parent by a child.
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Elder abuse
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neglect: failing to provide sufficient food, clothing, housing, medical care. Sexual: unwanted sexual contact as well as forced viewing of pornography. Financial: Deceiving an elder into signing wills, contracts, or other documents, or taking control of an elders financial decisions and money. Physical: physical contact intended to cause pain or injury. verbal: name-calling, embarrassing or scaring a victim.
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Fault-based divorce
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one spouse files for divorce, alleging that his or her spouse is responsible for the failed marriage through such actions as adultery, cruel and inhuman treatment, mental cruelty, habitual drunkness, and desertion.
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No-fault divorce
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The couple can divorce without either having to accuse the other or prove the other responsible for the failure of their marriage. They can simply claim that irreconcilable differences make it impossible for them to continue as married.
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Marriage Annulment
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Is granted when it is determined that the marriage never met the legal requirements of marriage. Ex: married under age, entered marriage while already married, or married incestuously.

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