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Marriage and Family Module 11

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1. Between __________ percent of first marriages are likely to end in divorce. a. 5 to 10 b. 20 to 25 c. 40 to 50 d. 75 to 85
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c
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2. The crude divorce rate is a. the number of divorces per 1,000 population. b. the number of divorces per 1,000 married women over age 18. c. the number of divorces per year. d. the ratio of current marriages to current divorces.
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a
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3. Between 1960 and a peak in 1979, the refined divorce rate a. declined. b. stayed the same. c. increased slightly. d. more than doubled.
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d
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4.Divorces occur relatively early in marriage. The median length of a first marriage that ends in divorce is about _________ years. a. 2 b. 4 c. 6 d. 8
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b
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33.Custodial fathers receive about ___ percent of the child support amounts that custodial mothers receive. a. 96 b. 82 c. 74 d. 67
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b
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6. Most observers (though not all) conclude that the divorce rate ___________. a. is still on the rise b. has stabilized for the time being c. is beginning to decline d. has declined drastically in the last few years
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b
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7. Income loss has been found to __________ the likelihood of divorce. a. decrease b. have no effect on c. lessen d. increase
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d
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8. The text observes that although it may not affect marital quality, employment might nevertheless contribute to a divorce by giving an unhappily married woman the economic power, the increased independence, and the self-confidence to help her decide on divorce. This set of circumstances illustrates what is called the __________ effect. a. income b. divorce c. independence d. dependence
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c
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5. In which of the following race/ethnic categories are children least likely to be living in two-parent families? a. Asian b. Native American c. African American d. Hispanic
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c
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9.There are_____ social, moral, and legal constraints on divorce than in the past. a. far fewer b. slightly fewer c. slightly more d. far more
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a
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29.The ___________ perspective holds that conflict between parents is responsible for the lowered well-being of children of divorce. a. life stress b. economic hardship c. interparental conflict d. parental adjustment
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c
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14.There are a variety of demographic and behavioral factors that are related to divorce rates. Which of the following is NOT one of these? a. Young children tend to destabilize marriage. b. Remarried mates are more likely to divorce. c. Race and ethnicity are differentially associated with the chances of divorcing. d. Premarital pregnancy and childbearing increase the risk of divorce in a subsequent marriage.
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a
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13. __________ divorce laws, which exist in all fifty states, have eliminated legal concepts of guilt and are a symbolic representation of how our society now views divorce. a. Mutual b. No-fault c. Equal party d. No-custody
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b
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34. More than __________ of all divorces involve children under eighteen, and about 40 percent of children born to married parents will experience marital disruption. a. one-quarter b. one-third c. half d. two-thirds
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c
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12. Marriage was originally a social institution directed toward the practical purposes of economic support and responsible child rearing. Today, marriage tends to be viewed as a a. flexible agreement. b. contract. c. nadir of involvement. d. happy, emotionally supportive relationship.
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d
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16. In order to obtain a divorce when a couple has a covenant marriage, fault must be proven. Which of the following is NOT one of the examples given by the text as “fault,” or justification for divorce? a. adultery b. physical or sexual abuse c. imprisonment for a felony d. lack of domestic skills
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d
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17. Sociologist Andrew Cherlin suggests that the U.S.’s high divorce rates may be in part a reflection of a broad sense of ____ unique to American culture. a. “resentment” b. “restlessness” c. “dissatisfaction” d. “loveless”
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b
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22. Jack and Judy have worked out a divorce settlement through an alternative, non-adversarial means of dispute resolution, and with the assistance of a a. lawyer. b. mediator. c. judge. d. jury panel.
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a
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25. A divorce might evoke feelings of _____, at least at first. a. sexual confusion b. legal prowess c. elation d. psychic ability
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c
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20. In nearly____ percent of married couple families in the United States the main householder reported that the couple was “separated”. a. 5 b. 10 c. 15 d. 20
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a
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21. Improvements in unhappy marriages come about for various reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons cited in the text? a. the passage of time (children got older, job or other problems improved) b. hormonal changes (helped with moods and fighting) c. partners’ efforts to work on problems, make changes, and communicate better d. individual partners made personal changes (travel, work, hobbies, etc.)
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b
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26. A divorce might evoke feelings of _____, at least at first. a. sexual confusion b. legal prowess c. elation d. psychic ability
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c
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19.When studying couples on the verge of divorcing, it has been found that for those who remained married, two-thirds described themselves as “__________” five years later. a. very unhappy b. still on the verge of divorce c. struggling at times d. very happy
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d
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10. Today, the rural-urban distinction in divorce has a. completely disappeared. b. become significantly more pronounced, with the divorce rate higher in rural areas than in urban areas. c. become significantly more pronounced, with the divorce rate higher in urban areas than in rural areas. d. become impossible to measure.
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a
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11.______ have more negative attitudes toward divorce. a. Hispanics b. African-Americans c. Asian-Americans d. Native Americans
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a
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28. One study cited in the text looked at the general character of postdivorce extended-kin relationships. This investigation found that, in half the cases, the kinship system included __________ of divorce and of remarriage. a. relatives b. a typology c. stations d. ingredients
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a
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27.Children in high-conflict marriages a. fall into a deep denial of the situation. b. often request their parents divorce. c. seem to benefit from a divorce. d. always suffer from a divorce.
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c
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30.Most research presents a consistent picture of post-divorce __________ for women. a. economic decline b. occupational opportunity c. career enhancement d. economic improvement
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a
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23. Because mothers retain custody in the preponderance of divorce cases, and because women are economically disadvantaged in employment, fathers are the most likely to a. suffer economically. b. experience frustration. c. pay child support. d. be granted an entitlement.
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c
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32.Most research presents a consistent picture of post-divorce __________ for women. a. economic decline b. occupational opportunity c. career enhancement d. economic improvement
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a
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15. According to the most systematic investigation, marital complaints made by both men and women are usually about a. not enough sex. b. not enough money. c. deficiencies in the emotional quality of the marriage. d. infidelity.
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c
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18. The text points out that children, fear of losing the child, religion, and a lack of financial resources are sometimes perceived by spouses as __________ divorce. a. barriers to b. preludes to c. concomitants of d. consequences of
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a
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44.Today, mothers receive sole physical custody of their children about ___ percent of the time. a. 20 b. 40 c. 60 d. 80
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d
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24. Hetherington maintains that __________ percent of those who obtain a divorce have a “good enough” post-divorce adjustment. a. 10 b. 20 c. 30 d. 70
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d
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54.The good divorce does not end a family but instead produces a __________—two households, one family. a. second option b. split home c. double home front d. binuclear family
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d
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49. On average, in comparison with their counterparts from stable households, adult children of divorced parents a. acquire more education. b. marry later in life. c. are less likely to cohabit. d. have weaker ties to their divorced parents.
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d
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37. In Amato’s typology, the __________ perspective assumes that, just as divorce is known to be an emotionally challenging life event for adults, it must also be so for children. a. interparental conflict b. life stress c. parental adjustment d. economic hardship
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a
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38. In Amato’s typology, the __________ perspective stresses the quality of parenting in terms of children’s adjustment to divorce. a. economic hardship b. parental loss c. interparental conflict d. parental adjustment
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d
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39.In Amato’s typology, the __________ perspective holds that conflict between parents prior to, during, and after the divorce is responsible for the lowered well-being of children of divorce. a. interparental conflict b. parental adjustment c. economic hardship d. life stress
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a
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40. In looking at outcomes for divorced parents, Hetherington found that __________ percent of children were “coping reasonably well.” a. 75-80 b. 50-60 c. 30-50 d. 10-25
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c
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31.The _______ perspective assumes that a family with both parents living in the same household is the optimal environment for children’s development. a. rehabilitative alimony b. child support c. parental loss d. parental compensation
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c
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41. Emerging developmental theories of childhood well-being provided support to a presumption that when divorce occurs, mother custody was always in the child’s best interest. This point of view came to be known as the so-called “__________” doctrine. a. best interests of the child b. primary caretaker c. tender years d. lonely hearts
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c
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42._____ custody refers to who has the right to make decisions with respect to a child’s upbringing. a. Physical b. Power c. Legal d. Joint
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c
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45. In the __________ custody variation in joint custody agreements, both parents have the right to participate in important decisions and retain a symbolically important legal authority, with physical custody (that is, residential care of the child) going to just one parent. a. modified egalitarian b. joint legal c. joint legal and physical d. semi-combined
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b
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35. While studying children’s postdivorce adjustment, psychologist Judith Wallerstein was surprised at their later educational downward mobility. __________ percent of the study children were likely to receive less education than their fathers. a. 60 b. 50 c. 40 d. 30
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a
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46. Over the past decade, there has been a _____ in fathers who have joint physical custody. a. slight increase b. dramatic increase c. dramatic decrease d. slight decrease
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b
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47. Split custody, in which each parent has physical custody of at least one child, remains uncommon and only occurs in about ___ percent of divorce cases. a. 2 to 4 b. 6 to 8 c. 10 to 12 d. 14 to 16
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a
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36. Wallerstein found that __________ of the children in her study had experienced a second divorce of one or both parents. a. one-quarter b. one-third c. half d. more than half
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c
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43. As part of a patriarchal legal system, fathers were ______ until the mid-nineteenth century. a. automatically denied custody b. automatically given custody c. forced into joint custody arrangements d. not granted legal divorce
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b
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48. Studies have found _____ in well-being between children living with only their fathers (apart from their mothers) versus only with their mothers. a. significant differences b. few or no differences c. a moderate amount of differences d. none of the above
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b
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51. According to the most recent data available, there are approximately ____ noncustodial mothers in the United States. a. 50,000 b. 500,000 c. one million d. two million
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d
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52. _____ is a “team” approach to raising children after divorce. a. Co-parenting b. Family Wizardry c. Tag-teaming d. Parent rotation
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a
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53. In Ahrons’ post-divorce relationship typology, “__________” were friends who called each other often and brought their common children and new family ties together on holidays or for outings or other activities. a. cooperative colleagues b. angry associates c. perfect pals d. fiery foes
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c
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50. About _____ of children with a nonresident father have no contact with him. a. a tenth b. a quarter c. a third d. a half
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c