marketing research test 2

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primary data
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information that is developed or gathered by the researcher specifically for the research project at hand
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secondary data
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have been previously gathered by someone other than the researcher and or for some other purposes than the research project at hand
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uses of secondary data
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economic trend forecasting corporate intelligence international data public opinion historical data
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internal secondary data
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data that has been collected within the firm -sales records -purchase requisitions -invoices
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database
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collection of data and information describing items of interest
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record
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each unit of information in a database -customer
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field
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subcomponents of information, make up records -name, address, email
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database marketing
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process of building, maintaining and using customer (internal) and other (internal) databases (products, suppliers, and resellers) to contract, transact, and build customer relationships
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internal databases
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databases consisting of information gathered by a company typically during the normal course of business transactions -use to develop CRM
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data mining
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software that helps managers make sense out of seemingly senseless masses of information contained in databases
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micromarketing
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employs a differentiated marketing mix for specific customer segments, sometimes fine tuned for the individual shopper -made possible by databases and data mining
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5 uses for databases
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1. identify prospects 2. which customer should receive a particular offer 3. deepen customer loyalty 4. reactivate customer purchases 5. avoid serious customer mistakes
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external secondary data
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obtained from outside the firm 1. published 2. syndicated services data 3. databases
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advantages of secondary data
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-obtained quickly -inexpensive -readily available -enhance primary data -can achieve research objective alone
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interpreting secondary data
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1. the source of the research and of the funding- who paid for it 2. the researches who had contact with the participants 3. the individuals or objects studied and how they were selected 4. the exact nature of the measurements made of questions asked 5. the setting in which the measurements were taken 6. the extraneous differences between groups and compared 7. the magnitude of any claimed differences
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disadvantages of secondary data
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-incompatible reporting units -measurements don’t match -class definitions are not usable -data are outdated
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evaluating secondary data
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what was the purpose of the study? who collected the information? what information was collected? how was the information obtained? how consistent is the information with other information?
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published sources
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sources of information that are prepared for public distribution and are normally found in libraries or through other entities such as trade association, professional organizations and companies -books, newsletters, white papers
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packaged information
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type of secondary data in which the data collected and or the process of collecting the data are prepackaged for all users -the way they collect is standardized 1. syndicated data 2. packaged services
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syndicated services data
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all data provided to clients are standardized, made available to all subscribers regardless of who you are
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advantages of syndicated data
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-shared cost -high quality data -data are normally collected and disseminated very quickly
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disadvantages of syndicated data
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buyers have little control over what information is collected firms often must commit to long-term contracts (2yr) no strategic information advantage in purchasing syndicated data because everyone gets the exact same thing. So why purchase? If you don’t purchase, you’re are at a disadvantage
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packaged services
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prepackaged marketing research PROCESS that is used to generate information for a particular user -data will differ for each client
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advantages of packaged services
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-using the experience of the firm offering the service -reduced cost because this is all they do, like an assembly line -lot of different types -speed of conducting the service
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disadvantages of packaged services
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-inability to customize services -service firm not being knowledgeable of the client’s industry
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application of packaged information
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-measuring consumer attitudes and opinions -market segmentation -monitoring media usage and promotion effectiveness – market tracking studies
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tracking studies
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longitudinal studies that monitor a variable such as sales or market shares over time
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quantitative research
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research involving the administration of a set of structured questions with predetermined response options to a large number of respondents
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qualitatiave research
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collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say
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pluralistic research
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combination of qualitative and quantitate research with the aim of gaining advantages of both -qualitative then quantitative
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observation methods
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techniques in which the researcher relies on his or her powers of observation to obtain information 1. direct vs indirect 2. covert vs overt 3. structured vs unstructured 4. in situ vs invented
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direct observation
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observing behavior as it occurs ex: squeezing tomatoes in grocery store
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indirect observation
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observing the effects or results of the behavior rather than the behavior itself 1. archives 2. physical traces
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archives
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secondary sources, such as historical records, that can be applied to the current problem
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physical traces
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tangible evidence of some past event -garbology
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covert observation
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subject is unaware that he or she is being observed -mystery shopper -one way mirrors -hidden cameras
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overt observation
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when the respondent knows he or she is being observed -lab settings, recordings of sales calls
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structured observation
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researcher identifies beforehand which behaviors are going to be observed and recorded and all other behaviors are “ignored”
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unstructured observation
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places no restrictions on what the observer records, used in exploratory research
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in situ observation
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the researcher observes the behavior exactly as it happens -mystery shopping
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invented observation
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occurs when the researcher creates the situation
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appropriate conditions for observation
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1. short time interval 2. public behavior 3. faulty recall
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advantages of observational data
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-Insight to actual, not reported behaviors -No chance for recall error -Better accuracy -Lower cost
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disadvantages of observational data
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-Small number of subjects (not reality) -Subjective interpretations -Inability to pry beneath the surface behavior observed -Motivations, attitudes, and other internal conditions are unobserved, we wont know why
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mystery shopper
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people who pose as consumers and shop at a company’s own stores or those of its competitors to collect data about customer employee interactions and to gather observational data
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levels of mystery shopping
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level 1- simplest. Phone call. Call location and evaluate level of customer service over phone following scripted conversation level 2- visit establishment, make a small purchase evaluate transaction and image of facility, little or no customer employee interaction required. Did they say your name level 3- visits establishment with a script, no purchase is involved, discussing phone packages level 4- bank loan or buying house, most complicated
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focus group
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small groups of people brought together and guided by a moderator through an unstructured, spontaneous discussion for the purpose of gaining information relevant to the research problem
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advantages of focus groups
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-they generate fresh ideas -they allow clients to observe their participants -versatility, wide variety of issues -ability to tap special respondents
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disadvantages of focus groups
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-representative of the population? -Subjective interpretation -Dependence on the moderator -High cost per participant
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traditional focus groups
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select 6-12 people who interact in a dedicated room, with a one way mirror for client viewing, for about two hours
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contemporary focus groups
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online focus group and the client can observe activity from any remote location
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moderators
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guide focus group participants; responsible for creating an atmosphere that is conductive to openness, yet they must make certain the participants do not stray too far from the central focus of the study
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good moderator characteristics
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• open minded • energetic • involved • prepared • experienced • enthusiastic
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online focus group
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form of a contemporary focus group in which respondents communicate via an internet forum which clients can observe
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advantages of online focus groups
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-no physical set up necessary- -transcripts are captured on file in real time -participants can be widely separated in geographical areas -participants are comfortable in home, more likely to open up -moderator can exchange private messages with individual participants
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disadvantages of online focus groups
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-no facial expressions or body language -participants cant physically inspect products or taste food items -participants can lose interest or become distracted
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when should focus groups be used
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when the research objective is to explore or describe rather than predict
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objective of focus groups
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1. generate ideas 2. understand consumer vocabulary 3. reveal consumer needs, motives, perceptions, attitudes about a product 4. understand findings from a quantitative studies
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in depth interview
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set of probing questions posed one on one to a subject by a trained interviewer to gain an idea of what the subject thinks about something or why he or she behaves in a certain way -one person in depth for a long period of time
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advantages to in depth interviews
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-ability to probe by asking additional questions -generate deep responses -great insight on consumer behavior
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disadvantages to in depth interviews
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-lack of structure in the process -varied results to give insight
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laddering
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technique used in in depth interviews in an attempt to discover how product attributes are associated with desired consumer values -trying to establish links leading from product attributes to values
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protocol analysis
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involves placing a person in a decision making situation and asking him or her to verbalize everything he or she considers when making a decision
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projective techniques
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involve situations in which participants are placed in (projected into) simulated activities in hopes that they will divulge things about themselves that they might not reveal under direct questioning; good for situations where respondent might be hesitant–tipping, socially undesirable behaviors
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word association test
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involves reading words to a respondent who then answers with the first word that comes to his or her mind
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sentence completion test
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respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them in their own words
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picture test
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“thematic apperception test” a picture is provided to participants, who are instructed to describe their reactions by writing a short story about the picture
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cartoon or balloon test
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a line drawing with an empty balloon about the head of one of the actors is provided to subjects who are instructed to write in the balloon what the actor is saying or thinking
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role playing
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participants are asked to pretend they are a third person and to describe how they would act in a certain situation or to a specific statement
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ethnographic research
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detailed, descriptive study of a group and its behavior, characteristics, culture and so on
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physiological measurements
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involves studying an individuals involuntary responses to marketing stimuli via equipment that monitors eye dilation, respiration etc -unnatural and subjects may be nervous
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pupilometer
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device that attaches to a persons head, a persons pupil enlarges more with an interesting than when an uninteresting one is viewed
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eye tracking
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measures where the eye is looking, what is catching the consumers eye?
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galvanometer
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device that determines excitement levels by measuring electrical activity in respondents skin
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neuroimaging
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viewing brain activity, helps better understand consumers unconscious activity when they are being tested
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survey
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interviews with a large number of respondents using a predesigned questionnaire
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advantages of surveys
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1. standardizations 2. ease of administration 3. ability to tap the unseen (follow up questions) 4. sustainable for statistical analysis 5. sensitivity to subgroup differences
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person administered survey
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an interviewer reads the questions, either face to face or over the telephone, to the respondent and records his or her answers without the use of a computer
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advantages of person administered survey
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1.offer feedback 2. rapport 3. quality control 4. adaptability
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disadvantages of person administered survey
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1. humans make errors 2. slow speed 3. high cost 4. fear or interview evaluation
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interview evaluation
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occurs when the interviewers presence creates anxieties in respondents that may cause them to alter their normal responses
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computer assisted surveys
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interviewer verbalizes the questions while relying to some degree computer technology to facilitate the interview work -computer shows the questions, allows storage, video to demo product feature
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advantages of computer assisted surveys
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1. speed 2. relatively error free 3. use of pics, videos and graphics 4. quick capture of data
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disadvantages of computer assisted surveys
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1. technical skills may be required 2. setup costs can be high
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person administered/computer assisted (if used to facilitate)
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1. in home survey 2. mall intercept survey 3. in office survey 4. telephone survey
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in home survey
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used when the survey requires respondents to see, read, touch, use, or interact with a product prototype and when the researcher believes the security and comfort or respondents homes are important in affecting the quality of the data collected
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in home survey advantages
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• go in depth • privacy of home, feeling comfortable • can run up to 2 hours and get more details
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in home survey disadvantages
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• cost per interview can be high • underrepresent certain portions of populations-people who aren’t home during the day (working populations) • interview evaluations apprehension: chance response because they are worried about what someone will think of them -interviewer must travel to respondents home
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mall intercept survey
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respondent is encountered while visiting a shopping mall
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mall intercept advantages
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-fast and convenient -good for product demos
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mall intercept disadvantages
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-only get people who are going to the mall -not a comfortable environment
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in office surveys
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take place in person while the respondent is in their office
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in office advantage
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-useful for interviewing busy executives –
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in office disadvantages
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-very expensive -need a good interviewer
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wide area telecommunications service
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purchase from the phone company, can call anyone anywhere for one rate WATS
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random digit dialing
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put in first 6 digits of phone number and computer fills in the rest and calls someone
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central telephone interview advantages
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-one location, manager is watching over everyone on the phone -quality control -can tell if someone didn’t answer the question and can fix it, can alter throughout the survey -fast turn around -reasonable cost -may be willing to share more info
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central telephone interview disadvantages
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-restricted to phone, cant show product -declining response rate -limited in quantity and type of into they can obtain
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computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI)
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each interviewer has hands free headset and is seated in front of computer screen driven by company’s computer system. interviewer reads the question on the screen and enters respondents answers directly into program
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CATI advantages
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-Computer controls survey in front of human -Quality control, if you put in a wrong answer choice, cant continue until its right
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CATI disadvantage
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-high cost
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self administered survey
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respondent completes survey on their own with no agent (human or computer) administering the interview -paper and pencil survey, on someone’s own time 1. group self administered survey 2. drop off survey 3. mail survey
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advantages of self administered survey
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1. reduced cost 2. respondent control 3. no interviewer evaluation apprehension
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disadvantages of self administered survey
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1. respondent control 2. lack of monitoring 3. high questionnaire requirements
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group self administered survey
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administering a questionnaire to respondents in groups rather than individually for convenience and to gain economies of scale
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group survey advantages
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-Inexpensive -Takes away apprehension -No interviewer evaluation apprehension
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group survey disadvantage
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how do you find groups for a survey
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drop off survey
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survey representative approaches a prospective respondent, introduces the general purpose of the survey, and leaves it with the respondent to fill out on their own
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drop off survey advantages
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-cost of interviewer eliminated -appropriate for local market surveys -quick turn around -high response rates -minimal interview influence on answers -inexpensive -good control over how respondents are selected
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drop off survey disadvantage
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not acceptable for large scale national survey
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mail survey
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one in which the questions are mailed to prospective respondents who are asked to fill them out and return them to the researcher by mail
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mail survey advantages
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-economical method -good listing companies exist
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mail survey disadvantages
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-low response rate -self selection bias (only those interested respond) -slow
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computer administered survey
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a computer plays an integral role in posing the questions and recording respondents’ answers 1. fully automated survey 2. online survey
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advantages of computer administrated surveys
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1. breadth of user friendly features 2. relatively inexpensive 3. reduction of interviewer evaluation concern in respondents
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disadvantage of computer administrated survey
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requires computer literate respondents requires internet connected respondents
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fully automated survey
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survey administered by a computer but not online -completely automated telephone survey computer dials a phone number and a recording does the survey
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online interviews
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internet based questionnaire in which respondent answers questions online
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online interview advantages
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-Becoming primary -Survey monkey -Ease of creating and posting -Fast turn around -can do more often, continuous
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disadvantages of online interviews
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-low response rate -people who respond have strong opinions, missing middle
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hybrid surveys
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use multiple data collection modes becoming increasingly popular
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advantage of hybrid survey
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multiple avenues to achieve date collection goal
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disadvantages of hybrid survey
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1. the survey mode may affect responses 2. additional complexity
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what method do i use?
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1. how much time do i have 2.how much money do i have 3.type of respondent interaction required 4. what is the incidence rate 5. cultural/infrastructure considerations
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incidence rate
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percentage of population that possesses some characteristic necessary to be included in the survey
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advantages of social media & surveys
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-Assists with soliciting attention from the public – keeping costs low -Many social media sites allow automated surveys and have tools for this -Allow use of electronic coupons for incentives -low costs, fast results,
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social media survey disadvantages
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-non users of social media -low response rate -confidentiality issues
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7 rules for observational research
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1. look for the ordinary, not the extraordinary 2. nothing people do is “natural” 3. be the master of the obvious 4. don’t fear the details 5. identify the whole activity 6. most obvious things are in hindsight 7. marry observation with traditional qualitative

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