Market 12 (Perception) FINAL

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Perception
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the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli (sounds, colors, smells) into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world
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sensation
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the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli
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stimulus
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any input which affects your senses
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absolute threshold
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lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation (first experience)
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*sensory adaption
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concern that consumers will get so used to ad’s that they no longer \”see\” them (must change it up often)
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differential threshold
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Minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli (notice a small change)
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JND
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Just noticeable difference, relative to the intensity of the first stimulus
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Weber’s Law
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The stronger the initial stimulus, the harder the second stimuli is to notice
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*subliminal perception
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Stimuli that are too weak or too brief to be consciously seen or heard may be strong enough to be perceived by one or more receptor cells. (subconscious marketing)
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3 aspects of perception
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selection, organization, interpretation of stimuli
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Perceptual selection
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Consumers subconsciously are selective as to what they perceive Select stimuli based on: previous experiences and motives at the time
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Nature of the stimulus
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• Physical attributes of the product • Packaging • Brand name • Advertising
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Expectations
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people see what they expect to see, based on familiarity, preconceived
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Motives
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people tend to achieve things they need/want
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selective exposure
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Consumers seek out messages which are pleasant, they can sympathize, reassure them
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*selective attention
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Heightened awareness when stimuli meets their needs; consumers are attracted to different messages
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*perceptual defense
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Screening out of stimuli which are threatening
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*perceptual blocking
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Consumers avoid being bombarded by tuning out
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figure-and-ground
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concentrate on the product, not the background, ground is usually hazy, figure is the noticed stimuli (have to know which is the figure and which is the ground)
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grouping
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people group stimuli to form a unified impression or concept, grouping helps memory and recall
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closure
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people need closure to form a complete picture, often fill in missing pieces
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perceptual distortion
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categories that confuse consumers stimuli
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physical appearance
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(models represent target market), Attractive models are more persuasive
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stereotypes
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people hold meanings related to stimuli, influence how stimuli are perceived
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first impressions
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first impressions are lasting
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jumping to conclusions
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important to put persuasive arguments first in advertising; people tend to jump to conclusions first
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**\”halo\” effect
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consumers perceive and evaluate multiple objects based on just one dimension (ex. a product line evaluated by a brand name or spokesperson, Ralph Lauren)
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positioning
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image a product has in the mind of the consumer; effective positioning holds a unique position in the mind of the consumer
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Umbrella positioning
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creating an overall image of the company around which a lot of products can be featured individually ex. Apple’s innovative and minimalist design
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Positioning against the competition
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ex. Verizon often calls out Tmobile and other companies in the advertisements showing they have better coverage than competitors
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Positioning based on a specific benefits
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position brand in consumer mind based on key benefit ex. Bounty paper towels slogan \”the quicker picker upper\”
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Finding an \”unowned\” position
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creative positioning, niche not targeted by other companies; ex. Palmolive’s claim \”tough on grease, soft on hands\”
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Filling several positions
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don’t have to pick one, use multiple ex. Crest offers toothpaste for whitening, sensitive teeth, multi care, cavity protection, etc.
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intrinsic perceived quality
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physical characteristics of the product itself (color, flavor, aroma, size, performance)
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extrinsic perceived quality
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pricing, packaging, advertising, peer pressure
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Reference prices
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any price used as a basis for comparison in judging another price (internal- strongest, from consumer memory; external- advertised)
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Acquisition utility
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The consumer’s perceived economic gain or loss associated with the purchase; a function of product utility and purchase price
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Transaction utility
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the perceived pleasure or displeasure associated with the financial aspect of the purchase, determined by the difference between the internal reference price and the purchase price
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Price Penetration
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lead with PRICE, sell as much as possible of the product
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Price Skimming
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lead with product, (tell you all the benefits and attributes of the product, by the way this is the cost) talk about value and benefits, not price
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6 ways consumers handle risk?
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Seek information, stay brand loyal, select by brand image (well known name), rely on store image, buy most expensive model, seek reassurance

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