Management Information Systems Exam 1 terms Study Guide

raw facts

collection of facts organized in such a way that they have value beyond the facts themselves

What is the value of information?
its directly linked to how it helps deciison makers achieve their organization’s goals

What is an Information System?
A set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, store, and disseminate data and information and provide feedback to meet an objective (THIS PROCESS COULD BE MANUAL OR COMPUTERIZED)

computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities

computer programs that govern the operation of the computer

an organized collection of facts and information, typically consisting of two or more related data files

the electronic transmission of signals for communications which enables organizations to carry out their processes and tasks

the most important element in most CBIS; includes people who manage, run, program, and maintain the system

includes the strategies, policies, methods and rules for using the CBIS; procedures for operations, maintenance, security

What is systems development?
The activity of creating new business systems or modifying existing business systems using internal or external resources

What are the 5 Systems Development Stages?
Investigation, Analysis, Design, Implementation, Maintenance & review IADIM

a formal collection of people and other resources established to accomplish a set of goals

value chain
a series of activities that includes inbound logistics, warehouse & storage, production, finished product storage, outboun logistics, marketing & sales, and customer service

organizational culture
major understandings and assumptions of a business or other organization

organizational change
how organizations plan for, implement, and handle change

technology diffusion
a measure of how widely technology is spread throughout an organization

technology infusion
is the exten to which technology permeates an area or department

technology acceptance model TAM
specifies the factors that can lead to higher acceptance and usage of technology in an organization

competitive advantage
a significant and (ideally) long-term benefit to a company over its competition

Factors that lead firms to seek competitive advantage
rivalry among existing competitors, threats of new entrants, threat of substitute produts and services, bargaining power of customers, bargaining power of suppliers (cost efficiency is generally not a motive for seeking competitive advantage)

three stages in the use of “IS”
cost reduction and productivity, competitive advantage, and performance based management

Performance is used to evaluate the contributions (value & cost) of the IS (six phases)
Productivity= (Output/Input) * 100 OI
Return on Investment (ROI)
Earnings growth
Market Share
Customer Awareness and satisfaction
Total Cost of Ownership

Roles, Functions, and careers in “IS”
Executive management, Operationss, Systems Development, Support

A computer is a device that
Accepts input, Processes data, Stores data,Produces output

A computer system includes
Hardware—the physical components
Software—the programs or lists of instructions

Architecture or configuration means
is the design of the computer (what the computer consists of)

is the technical detail about each component (how fast is the printer)

Types of computers
Portable (Laptop, Notebook, Tablet)
Thin Client

Input devices
Other Pointing Devices
Wireless pointer
Touch pad
Track ball
Digital Camera
Touch sensitive screens
Bar-Code Scanners
Optical Data Readers
Point-of-Sale (POS) Devices
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Devices

Hardware (types)
Input devices
Output devices
Processing hardware
Storage devices

Hardware (output)

Screen Size
Dot Pitch

Dot Matrix

Eight bits is a byte. Each byte represents a unique character.
How many are there?
Kilobyte (KB) is about one thousand bytes
Megabyte (MB) is about one million bytes
Gigabyte (GB) is about one billion bytes
Terabyte (TB) is about one trillion bytes

What are the two most important components of personal computer hardware?
Microprocessor (CPU) and the memory *both directly affect the price and performance

What is the microprocessor or CPU
is an integrated circuit or chip on the main circuit board inside the computer. It is made up of:
Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)
Control unit

Its speed is determined by:
Clock Speed/Machine cycle
Word size or Wordlength
Physical characteristics (distance and resistance

Random Access Memory) is temporary memory that is constantly changing while the computer is on.

Read-Only Memory) is the permanent storage location for a set of instructions the computer uses.

Types of processing
Multicore microprocessor – combines two or more independent processors into a single computer so they can share the workload

Parallel processing – A form of multiprocessing that speeds processing by linking several processors to operate at the same time, or in parallel.

Grid computing – use a collection of computers often owned by multiple organizations, to work in a coordinated manner

Storage Access Methods
Sequential Access – The retrieval method in which data must be accessed in the order in which it is stored. (tape drives)

Direct Access – The retrieval method in which data can be retrieved without the need to read and discard other data.

SAN (Storage Area Networks)
The technology that provides high-speed connections between data-storage devices and computers over a network

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
A method of storing data that generates extra bits of data from existing data, allowing the system to create a “reconstruction map” so that if a hard drive fails, the system can rebuild lost data.

What is software?
is the instructions and data that direct the computer to accomplish the task. It can refer to a single program or a package

System software
helps the computer carry out it s basic operating tasks.

Application software
helps the user carry out a variety of tasks.

Systems Software Operating Systems
Perform common computer hardware functions
Provide a user interface
Manage system memory
Manage processing tasks
Provide networking capability
Control access to system resources
Manage files

Application software examples
Personal Productivity Applications
Workgroup Applications
Enterprise Applications

Database Heirarchy from biggest to smallest
Database, files, records, fields, character

Data Modeling Key Considerations
Content – What data should be collected, and at what cost?
Access – What data should be provided to which users and when?
Logical structure – How should data be arranged so it makes sense to a given user?
Physical organization – Where should data be physically located?

Manipulating Data
Selecting – data manipulation that eliminates rows according to certain criteria
Projecting – data manipulation that eliminates columns in a table
Joining – data manipulation that combines two or more tables

Database Management Systems
A group of programs that manipulate the database and provide an interface between the database and its users and other application programs.

What is a DBA (database administration)
the role of the database administrator (DBA) is to plan, design, create, operate, secure, monitor, and maintain databases

Selecting a DBMS
Number of Users

Data Warehouse
a database that collects business information from many sources in the enterprise, covering all aspects of the company’s processes, products, and customers.

Data Mart
a subset of a data warehouse

Data Mining
an information analysis tool that involves the automated discovery of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse. Bottom-up approach

Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
the software that allows users to explore data from a number of different perspectives. Top-down approach.

Business Intelligience
Gathering enough of the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive impact on business strategy, tactics, or operations

Competitive intelligience
a continuous process involving the legal and ethical collection of information about competitors, its analysis, and controlled dissemination of information to decision makers

the steps an organization takes to protect information sought by “hostile” intelligence gatherers

Knowledge Management
the process of capturing a company’s collective expertise wherever it resides, and distributing it wherever it can help produce the biggest payoff

Character Level Formats
Font size (point size)
Font color
Bold Italicize Underline Strikethrough Superscript/ subscript

Paragraph Level Format
Left, Double, First, or hanging indent
Line Spacing

Document level formats
Margins, paper size, paper orientation, vertical alignment

Field (equals what?)
describes the entity; an attribute or characteristic of the entity (equals column)

Record (equals what?)
description of each entity; set of related field values
(equals row)

collection of fields and group of related records

collection of related tables and other objects

What are two parts of a table?
1) Structure 2) Data

Primary Key
in the main table
field value must be unique
field value is required

Foreign Key
in the related table
field value is not necessarily unique
field value is required