Lit. Analysis: Poetry Midterm Unit

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Villanelle
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19 Lines, 5 Stanzas (4 of 3, 1 of 4), 1st line of 1st Stanza repeated as last line of 2nd and 4th, as well as in refrain. ABA scheme.
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Ernest Dowson: Villanelle of His Lady’s Treasures
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\”I took her dainty eyes, as well\”
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Edwin Robinson: House on a Hill
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\”They are all gone away\”
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Theodore Roethke: The Waking
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\”I wake to sleep, and take my waking slow\”
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Elizabeth Bishop: One Art
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\”The art of losing isn’t hard to master\”
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Dylan Thomas: Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night
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\”Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night\”
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John Hollander: By the Sound
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\”Dawn rolled up slowly what the night unwound\”
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Hayden Carruth: Saturday at the Border
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\”Here I am writing my first villanelle\” (different style)
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Sonnet
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14 Lines of Iambic Pentameter. Petrarchan and Shakespearean are the two types.
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Petrarchan
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Italian origin, octave and sestet. Rhyme scheme: ABABCDCD CDECDE
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Shakespearean
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Rhyme schme: ABABCDCEFEFGG. No specific structure besides final couplet.
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Blank Verse
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Iambic line with 10 stresses and 5 beats. Unrhymed. Closest poetic form to speech.
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William Shakespeare: From Julius Caesar
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\”Friends, Romans, countrymen…\” / \”Hath told you Caesar was ambitious\” / \”And Brutus is an honourable man.\”
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John Milton: Paradise Lost*
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\”Anon out of the earth a fabric huge\” / \”Nor was his name unheard or unadored/in ancient Greece and Ausonian land/Men called him Mulciber and how he fell…\”
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Tennyson: Ulysses*
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\”It little profits that an idle king,\” / \”There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail:\” / \”Death closes all; but something ere the end,\”
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Heroic Couplet
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Rhyming pair of lines with a usual iambic pentameter. AABBCC.
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Anne Bradstreet: The Author to her Book* (123)
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\”Thou ill-formed offspring of my feeble brain\” / \”The visage was so irksome in my sight;\” / \”In critic’s hands beware thou dost not come,\”
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Alexander Pope: from An Essay on Criticism* (129)
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\”Of all the causes which conspire to blind\” / \”New distant scenes of endless science rise!\” / \”We cannot blame indeed– but we may sleep.\”
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Robert Browning: My Last Duchess* (130)
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\”That’s my last duchess painted on the wall\” / \”Though his fair daughter’s self, as I avowed/At starting is my object\”
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Wilfred Owen: Strange Meeting* (132)
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\”It seemed that out of battle I escaped\” / \”With thousand pains that vision’s face was grained\”
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Stanza
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Can be made up of lines that are same or different lengths. It is any reoccuring meter and rhyme.
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Isometric Stanza
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Lines are same length.
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Heterometric Stanza
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Lines are different length.
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Edmund Spenser: From The Faerie Queene: Mutabilitie Cantas* (141)
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\”So having ended, silence long ensewed,\” / \”The silence broke, and gave her doome in speeches few.\”
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William Blake: The Tyger
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\”Tyger! Tyger! burning bright\” / \”When the stars threw down their spears,\”
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Emily Dickenson: I died for Beauty– but was scarce
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\”I died for Beauty– but was scarce\”
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Charlotte Mew: A Quoi Bon Dire
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\”Seventeen years ago you said\” / \”So I, as I grow stiff and cold\”
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Jean Toomer: Song of the Son
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\”Pour O Pour that parting soul in song,\”/ In time, for though the sun is setting on\”
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Claude McKay: The Tropics of New York
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\”Bananas ripe and green, and ginger root,\” / \”My eyes grow dim, and I could no more gaze;\”
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Sevie Smith: Not Waving but Drowning
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\”Nobody heard him, the dead man,\” / \”And not waving but drowning\”
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Elegy
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Sad, a lament. Sets out circumstances and character of a loss.
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Ben Jonson: On My First Son
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\”Farewell, thou child of my right hand, and joy;\” / \”And, if no other misery, yet age?\”
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Anne Bradstreet: Here Follows Some Verses Upon the Burning of Our House
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\”In silent night when rest I took/ For sorrow near I did not look\”
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Thomas Gray: Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
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\”The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,\” / \”Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid\”
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W.H. Auden: In Memory of W.B. Yeats
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\”He disappeared in the dead of winter:\” / \”But for him it was his last afternoon as himself,\”
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Ode
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Heroic, elevated form. Usually about an upbeat occurrence.
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Shelley: Ode to the West Wind* (244)
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\”O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn’s being\”
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Keats: To Autumn* (245)
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\”Season of mist and mellow fruitfulness,\”
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Crane: from The Bridge
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\”How many dawns, chill from his rippling rest\”
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Moore: The Paper Nautilus
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\”For authorities, whose hopes\”
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Harjo: Perhaps the World Ends Here
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\”The world begins at a kitchen table. No matter what, we must eat to live.
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T.S. Eliot: The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
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\”Let us go then, you and I,\”
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Langston Hughes: I, Too
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\”I, too, sing America\”
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Allen Ginsberg: America
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\”America I’ve given you all and now I’m nothing.\”
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Adrienne Rich: \”Diving into the Wreck\”
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\”First having read the book of myths, / and loaded the camera\”
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Pun
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Play on words that sound alike. \”His sins were scarlet, but his books were read.\”
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Conceit
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Extended metaphor, simile, or pun that persists throughout the entire work.
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Irony
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Word contrary to sense. Story in two realities, parallel editing.
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Paradox
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Statement that contains a contradiction that is true. \”Terrible beauty\”
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Abstraction
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Nonspecificity, usually used to describe the bases of civilization, government, emotion, and literature. \”Truth\” is an example.
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Image
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A word picture.
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Symbol
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Sign that represents something else. \”A figure in black with a sickle = death\”
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Allegory
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Form of narrative in which the meaning has a literal and a second meaning that may be political, religious, moral, or historical.
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Apostrophe
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Direct address of an absent or personified thing. \”Oh Heat, why do you agonize me?\”
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Synesthesia
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Talking about one of the senses in terms of another. \”The coffee tasted grey.\”
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Aposiopesis
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Emphasizing a word by deleting it. \”If you do that, why I’ll —–.\”
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Allusion
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Implicit reference to something outside the text.
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Metonymy
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Use of name of one thing for another thing associated with or suggested by the first thing. IE: \”the Crown announced\” = \”the Queen announced.\”
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Synecdoche
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Substitution of the name of a part for the name of the whole. \”Farm hand\” represents the whole man.
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Periphrasis
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Lack of conciseness, roundabout. \”The flaming orb of day\” = the sun.
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Iamb
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Short then Long (unstressed/stressed).
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Trochee
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Long then Short (stressed/unstressed).
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Dactyl
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Long, Short, Short (stressed/unstressed/stressed).
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Anapest
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Short, Short, Long (unstressed/unstressed/stressed).
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Spondee
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Long then Long (stressed/stressed).
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Caesura
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Break between words w/in a metrical foot.
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Pastoral
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Work consisting of country life.

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