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Lifespan Test- Ch 9,10, 11

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Creativity
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Jan is able to find innovative and novel solutions to problems. This would mean she is high on
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Pragmatics
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When children make progress in understanding how to use language in a culturally sensitive way
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Concrete Operational
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Piaget defined the _____ stage as a time when children can logically think about things as long as they can solidly relate it to examples
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IQ scores
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The criterion most commonly used to identify gifted children eligible for special programs is
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85%
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What percent of children with attention disorders are both inattentive and hyperactive
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Processing sensory Information
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The major difficulty for children with learning disabilites lies in
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No Child Left Behind
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Congress adopted an act to improve educational accountability, parental options, and local flexibility. This act is called
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Writing and Science
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According to your text, gender differences in school achievent are largest and most reliable between
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Authoritative
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Which parenting style seems to promote high-achieving children
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Mnemonic
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The saying “In 1492, Colombus sailed the ocean blue” is an example of
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Elaboration
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Freddie is trying to learn the names of the first five presidents of the United States. To help him, his mother makes up a story using the five names in it, and then teaches the story to Freddie. Freddie’s mother is using the mnemonic device of
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Seriation
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Brent’s history teacher has asked him to make a timeline for important events that occurred during the Civil War. According to Piaget, what cognitive ability will Brent need to complete this project
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Trampolines
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Because of danger associated with thier use, which of the following does the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend parents never buy for their children or allow their children to use?
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“What would happen if the sun exploded”
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Elsa, now in Piaget’s concrete operational stage, can answer all of the following except
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Poverty
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____ can harm children’s development through its impact on parents’ emotional state.
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Industry vs Inferiorority
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Which of Erik Erikson’s stages typically occurs during middle to late childhood?
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Family relationships and Cognitive Functioning
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The most important protective factor, which seems to help children overcome stress and be resilient is good,
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Children have difficulty concentrating and sleeping
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Which of the following characteristic of children who grow up surrounded by violence in their environment
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Greatly Increased
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In recent years, the use of drug therapy to threat children has _____ in the United States
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Childhood Depression
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Katherine cries a great deal, is often tired, seems unable to concentrate or have fun, has no friends, and is doing poorly in school, She probably has..
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May be suffering from separation anxiety disorder
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Mary Beth, age 10, finds excuses not to sleep overnight at her friends house and shows no interest in going back to camp this summer. When she went on a weekend trip with her school chorus, she became sick and had to come home. This sort of thing has been going on for several weeks, ever since her pet cat died. Mary Beth . . .
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Middle childhood
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A prime time for bullying to take place is during
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Prejudice
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Negative attitudes toward certain groups are referred to as
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The children tend to have positive relationships with their parents
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Which of the following statements regarding children raised by gay or lesbian parents is TRUE?
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Authoritative
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According to research described in the text, parents of high school students who earned the highest grades were likely to be
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Social perspective take, Discuss love justice freedom, Speak a different language with adults and peers
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With formal thought, adolescents are able to
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Metacognition
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The awareness and monitoring of one’s own mental processes and strategies is called
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Formal operational thought
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The fact that Cameron can respond to the question “What do you think would happen if all the oceans dried up?” suggests that Cameron is capable of
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Native American males
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Which of these groups has the highest rate of suicide
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Accidents
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When adolescents die, it is usually from which of the following?
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25%
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What percentage of American tens are binge drinkers
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Marijuana and Prescription drugs
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In recent years, there has been a drop in adolescents’ overall use of drugs. The exception to this is an increase in the use of
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Also called a wet dream
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Nocturnal emission is
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Encourage participation in sports
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Helps parents of older children and adolescents to reduce violence by their children
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Are better able to express their feelings and share them with friends
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Friendships are likely to be more intimate, loyal, and supportive in adolescence than in middle childhood, probably because teenagers
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Early
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Involvement in cliques is most prominent in _____ adolescence
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Prudential
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In terms of disclosure, issues such as smoking and drinking fall under which category
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Individuation
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_____ is the search for autonomy and differentiation
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Greater medical risks than women in their twenties, regardless of prenatal care
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Most pregnant teenagers are likely to have
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50%
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Of the 4.1 million new HIV infections each year, about ____ are in young people 15 to 24
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Herpes
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Painful blisters in the genital area are a symptom of
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Parents, Media, Friends
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Teenagers generally get their information about sex from
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Rough and tumble play
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Vigorous play involving wrestling, hitting, and chasing, often accompanied by laughing and screaming
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Body Image
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Descriptive and evaluative beliefs about one’s appearance
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Hypertension
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Chronically high blood pressure
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Acute medical conditions
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Illnesses that last a short time
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Chronic Medical conditions
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Illnesses or impairments that persist for at least three months
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Diabetes
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Disease characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood due to defective or ineffective insulin action
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Asthma
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A chronic respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing
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Concrete Operations
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Third stage of Piagetian cognitive development (age 7-12) during which children develop logical, but not abstract thinking
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Seriation
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Ability to oder items along a dimension
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Transitive Inference
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Understanding of the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object
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Class inclusion
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Understanding of the relationship between a whole and its parts
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Inductive reasoning
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Type of logical reasoning that moves from particular observations about members of a class to a general conclusion about that class
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Deductive reasoning
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Type of logical reasoning that moves from a general premise about a class to a conclusion about a particular member or members of the class
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Identity
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Knowledge that a substance retains its nature even when it looks different
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Reversibility
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Knowledge that reversing an action will cause the substance to revert to its former appearance
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Decenter
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Ability to focus on more than one feature of a stimulus at a time
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Rigid Obedience to Authority
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First stage in Piaget’s moral reasoning theory in which children are egocentric and cannot imagine more than one way of looking at a moral issue
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Increasing Flexibility
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Second in Piaget’s moral reasoning theory in which children begin to disregard the idea of a single standard of right and wrong, and to develop their own sense of justice based on fairness or equal treatment for all
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Equity
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The belief that one person may be treated differently than another because of special circumstances that are taken into account
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Executive Function
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the conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems
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Selective attention
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The ability to deliberately direct one’s attention and shut out distractions
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Inhibitory Control
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The voluntary suppression of unwanted responses
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Metamemory
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Understanding the processes of memory
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Mnemonic strategies
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Techniques used to aid memory
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External memory aids
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Mnemonic strategies using something outside the person
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Rehearsal
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Mnemonic strategy to keep an item in working memory through conscious repetition
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Organization
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Mnemonic strategy of categorizing material to be remembered
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Elaboration
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Mnemonic strategy of making mental associations involving items to be remembered
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Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
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Individual intelligence test for schoolchildren, which yields verbal and performance scores as well as a combined score
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Otis-Lennon School Ability Test
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Group intelligence test for kindergarten through 12th grade students
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Culture free tests
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Describing an intelligence test that, if it were possible to design, would have no culturally linked content
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Culture fair tests
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Describing an intelligence test that deals with experiences common to various cultures, in an attempt to avoid cultural bias
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Theory of multiple intelligences
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Gardner’s theory that each person has several distinct forms of intelligence
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Triarchic theory of intelligence
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Sternberg’s theory describing three types of intelligence: componential (analytic ability), experiential (insight and originality), and contextual (practical thinking)
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Componential element
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Sternberg’s term for the analytic aspect of intelligence
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Analytic
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In Sternberg’s theory, the ability to process information efficiently, as in problem solving
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Experiential element
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Sternberg’s term for the insightful aspect of intelligence
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Insightful
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Ability to think originally and creatively
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Contextual element
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Practical aspect of intelligence
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Practical
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Ability to size up a situation and decide what to do: adapt to it, change it, or get out of it
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Tacit knowledge
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Term for information that is not formally taught or openly expressed, but is necessary to get ahead
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The Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test
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Test that seeks to measure each of the three components of intelligence through multiple choice and essay questions in three domains: verbal, quantitative, and figural
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Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
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Nontraditional individual intelligence test designed to provide fair assessments of minority children and children with disabilities
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Dynamic tests
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Testing of intelligence based on Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development and the zone of proximal development
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Simile and Metaphor
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Figures of speech in which a word or phrase that usually designates one thing is compared or applied to another
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Syntax
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How words are organized into phrases and sentences
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Pragmatics
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Set of linguistic rules that govern the use of language for communication
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English immersion
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Approach to teaching English as a second language in which instruction is presented only in English
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Bilingual Education
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System of teaching non English speaking children in their native language while they learn English, and later switching to all English instruction
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Bilingual
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Fluent in two languages
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Two-way Learning
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Approach to second language education in which English speakers and non English speakers learn together in their own and each other’s languages
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Decoding
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Process by which a child sounds out a word, translating it from print to speech before retrieving it from long term memory
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Visually based retrieval
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Process by which a child simply looks at a word and then retrieves it
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Phonetic, or code emphasis approach
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Approach to teaching reading that emphasizes decoding of unfamiliar words
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Whole language approach
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Approach to teaching reading that teaches visual retrieval and use of contextual cues
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Metacognition
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Awareness of one’s own thinking process
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Self efficacy
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Belief that one’s actions will bring about a particular result, either favorable or unfavorable
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Authoritative
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Parenting style that blends respect for a child’s individuality with an effort to instill social values
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Authoritarian
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parenting style that emphasizes control and obedience
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Permissive
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Parenting style that emphasizes self expression and self regulation
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Social capital
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Family and community resources on which a child can draw
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Intellectual Disability
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Significantly subnormal cognitive functioning
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Dyslexia
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Developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age
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Learning disabilities
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Disorders that interfere with specific aspects of learning and school achievement
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Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
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Syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility, impulsivity, low tolerance for frustration, and inappropriate overactivity
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Creativity
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Ability to see situations in a new way, to produce innovations, or to discern previously unidentified problems and find novel solutions
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Convergent thinking
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Thinking aimed at finding the “one” right answer to a problem
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Divergent thinking
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Thinking that produces a variety of fresh, diverse possibilities
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Enrichment programs
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Approach to educating the gifted that broadens and deepens knowledge and skills through extra activities, projects, field trips, or mentoring
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Acceleration programs
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Approach to educating the gifted that moves them through the curriculum at an unusually rapid pace
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Representational systems
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In neo Piagetian terminology, the third stage in development of self definition, characterized by breadth, balance, and the integrations and assessment of various aspects of the self
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Real self
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Your knowledge of who you really are
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Ideal self
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Knowledge of who you would like to be or think you should be
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Global self worth
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Liking yourself as a person
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Industry vs. inferiority
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Eriksons fourth stage of psychosocial development in which children must learn the productive skills their culture requires or else face the feelings of inferiority
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Competence
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A view of the self as able to master skills and complete tasks
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Internalizing behaviors
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Behaviors in which emotional problems are turned inward; for example anxiety or depression
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Externalizing behaviors
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Behaviors by which a child “acts out’ emotional difficulties; aggression or hostility
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Co-regulation
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Transitional stage in the control of behavior in which parents exercise general supervision and children exercise moment to moment self- regulation
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Joint custody
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Custody of a minor child shared by both parents
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Open adoption
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Type of adoption in which the parties share information or have direct contact
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Prejudice
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Unfavorable attitude toward members of certain groups outside one’s own. Especially racial or ethnic group
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Sociometric popularity
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Determined by asking children which peers they like most and least
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Popular
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One of five peer status groups, these are youngsters who receive many positive nominations in sociometric popularity studies
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Instrumental aggression
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Aggression aimed at achieving an objective
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Hostile agression
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Aggression aimed at hurting its target
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Direct aggression
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aggression that is overt and more easily observed
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Indirect or social aggression
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aggression that is more covert and relational
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Proactive aggression
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Another term for instrumental aggression
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Reactive aggressor
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Another term for hostile aggression on the part of an individual
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Hostile attribution bias
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When a child sees other children as trying to hurt them and strikes out angrily in retaliation or self defense
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Bullying
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Aggression deliberately and persistently directed against a particular target or victim, typically one who is weak, vulnerable
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Mental health
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The emotional health of a person
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Disruptive conduct disorders
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Disorders having to do with undesirable behavior such as aggression or defiance, stealing, and other antisocial behavior