Lifespan Chapter 1-Teague

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The field of __________________ is the scientific study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotion, and personality.
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Human Development
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2) The Christian doctrine of ________ is the basis for the theory that human development occurs as a result of how well or how poorly someone does at overcoming their innately sinful nature.
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Original sin
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3) Which of the following believed that humans are selfish by nature and must seek spiritual rebirth through religious training?
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Augustine
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4) Who was the philosopher who believed that children are born with a mind which is a blank slate?
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John Locke
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5) The ideas of the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau would suggest that the basis for human development is
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an individual’s response to external, environmental influences
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6) As a developmental psychologist I believe that humans possess no inborn abilities and that a child’s parents can mold them into whatever they want them to be. Which of the following would best describe my beliefs?
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Empiricism
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7) The idea that the earth contains a wide variety of life forms and that humans have developed as a result of the interaction of heredity and environment was proposed by
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Charles Darwin
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8) Which of the following assertions regarding lifespan development can be attributed to both G. Stanley Hall and Charles Darwin?
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Norms should be identified for each developmental stage
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9) What is the term that Arnold Gesell used to describe genetically programmed sequential patterns of change such as puberty or menopause?
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Maturation
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10) What term is used to describe standardized tests that compare an individual child’s score to the average score of others her age?
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Norm-referenced tests
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11) Which of the following best describes your text’s approach to human development?
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Human development begins at birth and continues throughout the lifespan.
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12) If you are born in the 21st century, which of the following statements might apply to you?
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You may well live to be 100 years old
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13) Because of our increasing lifespan, theorists have to include many types of information gathering to complete their research. Which of the following is one of the key elements emphasized in the newer approaches to lifespan development?
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Interdisciplinary research
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14) Which of the following theorists is known for his emphasis on the positive aspects of aging?
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Paul Batles
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15) What term is used to describe changes in size, shape, and characteristics of the body?
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Physical domain
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16) What term is used to describe changes in thinking, memory, problem solving, and other intellectual skills?
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Cognitive domain
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17) What term is used to describe changes in variable that are associated with the relationship of an individual to others?
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Social domain
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18) Michael, age 16, has recently gained a considerable amount of weight but has not grown any taller. Developmentalists would suggest that there is a problem in which of the following domains of developmental psychology?
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Physical
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19) Which domain of developmental psychology examines interactions with others?
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Social
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20) Stella, age 12, is in the 6th grade but still reads at a 3rd grade level. Developmentalists would suggest that there is a problem in which domain of development?
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Cognitive
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21) The three broad categories that are used to classify changes over the lifespan are called
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Domains of development
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22) Periods of development describe which aspect of developmental theories?
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Age-related changes
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23) Not all cultures define the boundaries of adolescence in the same way. For example, if you grew up in Great Britain you could do which of the following?
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Join the military at the age of 16
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24) According to your text, when does middle childhood occur?
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Once a child enters school
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25) Which of the following are central to the nature-nurture controversy?
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Biological process and experiential factors
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26) Juanita’s father died when she was just a baby, but her family insists that she not only looks like him, she acts like him as well. This might indicate that which of the following had a large impact on her development?
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Nature
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27) Developmental psychologists have observed that babies seem to be born predisposed to respond to people in certain ways, such as crying or smiling, in order to elicit attention from a caregiver. Psychologists call these inherent tendencies
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inborn biases
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28) Which of the following is an example from your text of an inborn bias?
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The fact that, universally, children’s speech begins with single words before proceeding onto sentences.
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29) \”Mom, he’s looking at me! Make him stop!\” These remarks imply that the very act of being looked at is offensive to this child. Mom, on the other hand, doesn’t see the problem. This typical family dilemma illustrates
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Internal models of experience
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30) Qualitative is to quantitative as
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Discontinuous is to continuous
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31) Which of the following terms best describes a change in amount?
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Quantitative
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32) Which of the following terms best describes a change in kind or type?
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Qualitative
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33) If puberty begins for girls with the onset of menstruation, puberty could be considered a matter of
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Discontinuity
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34) Which of the following is an example of a normative age-graded change?
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You are taller now than when you were two years old
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35) Our sense of \”the right time\” to go to college, marry, have children, or retire is determined by our
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Social clock
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36) Roberta married for the first time at age 39, and at age 40 she is pregnant for the first time. She is now considering starting college to become a computer systems engineer. When Roberta laughingly tells her friends, \”I have never done anything when I was supposed to!\” what is she referring to?
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Her social clock
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37) What is the term for a general negative attitude about aging, typified by the belief that older persons are incompetent or unable to complete required job functions?
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Ageism
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38) What is the term for changes that occur in most members of a cohort as a result of factors at work during a specific, well-defined historical period?
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Normative history-graded change
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39) What is the term for changes that result from unique, unshared events?
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Non-normative change
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40) The basic idea that there may be significant periods in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence or absence of some particular kind of experience or influence is referred to as a
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Critical period
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41) Humans learn languages best in their childhood. In fact, some research indicates that if a child doesn’t learn to speak a formal language before the age of 6, they may never learn to speak well at all. This would best illustrate which of the following?
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Critical period
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42) Which of the following best defines sensitive period?
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A specific period in development when an organism is particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence.
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43) Which of the following is the best example of an \”off-time\” event that could have negative effects upon an individual’s development?
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The death of one’s spouse at the age of 30
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44) Adults in London, England, who were teenagers living there during the bombings of World War II all report that their lives were changed by those events. This exemplifies which of the following?
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Normative history-graded changes
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45) Which of the following is a finding of Glen Elder, et al., on individuals who grew up during the Great Depression?
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Teenagers whose families experienced severe economic difficulty assumed adult responsibility prematurely
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46) Which of the following developmental outcomes would be illustrative of the concept of vulnerability?
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Very low IQ scores are more common among children who were born with a low birth weight and who are reared in highly stressed, uninvolved families
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47) Which of the following best defines a system of meanings and customs shared by an identifiable group and transmitted across generations?
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Culture
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48) Which of the following best describes the goals of developmental science?
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To describe, explain, predict, and influence development
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49) Sets of statements that propose general principles to explain development are known as
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Theories
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50) Predictions that can be tested in an effort to explain human development are known as
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Hypothesis
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51) Which of the following statements is the BEST example of a hypothesis about human development?
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If breast milk is a superior supplement for infant brain development, children who were breast-fed as infants should perform better on psychological tests than children who were not breast fed.
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52) Of the following, which is the BEST example of naturalistic observation?
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Researchers interested in children’s gender-related interactions videotape children while they are playing during recess and while they are engaged in cooperative learning assignments in their classrooms
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53) The Maple Leaf Elementary School counselor, social worker, and the parents of eight-year-old Jimmy Jackson are working as a cooperative team to determine why Jimmy exhibits a pattern of highly aggressive behavior toward his peers and teachers. Jimmy’s behavior has been extensively observed, he has been subjected to a battery of psychological tests, and his parents have been interviewed. This in-depth examination of Jimmy Jackson is an example of
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a case study
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54) How does observation in the laboratory differ from naturalistic observation?
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The researcher in a laboratory setting has some level of control over the variables which might influence the participants’ behavior.
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55) What is the term for the research method in which data is collected through participant responses to questions?
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Survey
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56) Which of the following is a true statement about correlations?
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Correlations can range from -1.00 to +1.00 and describe the strength of a relationship between two variables.
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57) Researchers have found that children born to mothers who smoke during and after pregnancy are more likely to develop respiratory illness. This is an example of which of the following?
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A positive correlation
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58) You are a taking part in a survey which asks about your attitudes toward physical punishment of children. Even though you believe that spanking is sometimes necessary, you answer that you are opposed to any sort of physical punishment. Which of the following terms best describes why you answered the way that you did?
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Social desirability
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59) Which of the following is a key feature of an experimental study?
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An independent variable
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60) An experiment is designed to study the effects of long lectures on the sleeping behavior of college students. In such a study, the dependent variable is
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Sleeping behavior of college students
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61) Researchers designed an experiment to study the effects of a professor’s sense of humor on enrollment numbers. What is the independent variable in this study?
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The professor’s sense of humor
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62) A new medicine for headaches is in clinical trials. The patients who are receiving this new drug are members of which group?
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The experimental group
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63) In an experiment, what do we call the group of participants who receive a neutral treatment?
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Control group
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64) A researcher wants to study developing human fetuses that have already been exposed to radiation. Which type of research would be best suited for this?
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Quasi-experimentation
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65) In which of the following research designs are subjects of different ages studied at the same time and the results compared?
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Cross-sectional
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66) Which of the following is the best example of a cross-sectional research study?
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Dr. Huang assessed the eye-hand coordination of the second, fourth, and sixth graders of Maple Leaf Elementary School in September 2006.
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67) Cohort effects are most commonly associated with which type of research design?
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Cross-sectional designs
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68) Which of the following is the best example of a longitudinal research study?
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Dr. Cisneros initially studied a group of recently-divorced 40-year-olds to evaluate their communication skills and continued to study their interpersonal relationships for 30 years.
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69) Which type of research design is intended to avoid the shortcomings of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by combining features of both?
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Sequential design
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70) Your text uses an example of a sequential study in which \”Baby Boomer\” women were the participants. Which of the following was a finding of that study?
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The relationship between age and reported frequency of marital conflict was different in each cohort.
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71) Which is the best term to describe when a researcher lives in a particular culture for an extended time in order to gain a detailed understanding and description of the culture?
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Ethnography
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72) The two primary goals of cross-cultural research are to identify universal changes that cross cultures and to
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Gain information that will help improve people’s lives
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73) Which of the following statements is true about research ethics?
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Research ethics apply to both human and animal research
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74) In survey research it is very important that the participants reflect the characteristics of the whole group of people being studied. To which characteristic of the sample are we referring?
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Representativeness
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75) Participants in research projects must be told of any harmful effects or possible risks associated with the research in advance of their participation. What is this ethical responsibility called?
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Informed consent
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76) Darius participated in a study of the effects of alcohol on long term memory. More than a year after his participation ended, he received a newsletter telling him all about the results of the study. The researchers were following the ethical guideline that mandates
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Knowledge of results
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77) Which of the following best explains the protection from harm aspect of research ethics?
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If temporary harm may be caused by the research, the researchers must provide a way to relieve that harm.
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78) After reading Chapter One, which of the following should you be able to apply to your daily life?
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You will have some tools to critically evaluate research and make an informed decision as to applying the research findings to your daily life
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79) The Christian doctrine of original sin is often attributed to 4th-century philosopher _____________________.
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Augustine of Hippo
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80) The ideas of the English philosopher John Locke would suggest that at birth human beings are ________ waiting to receive information.
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Blank slates
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81) When we gather data from different sources of academia, we are taking a (n) ________ approach to research.
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interdisciplinary
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82) Celia has an outgoing, friendly personality, while her best friend Chester is shy and reserved. We are describing Celia and Chester through the ________ domain of development.
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social
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83) As we age the transition between stages of development becomes more ________ in terms of defining milestones.
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arbitrary
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84) The internal model of experience assumes that events themselves are not as important in influencing development as are the individual’s ________ of those events.
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perception
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85) Normative ________ changes are universal, in that they apply to everyone at the same period of maturation.
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Age-graded
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86) Your text suggests that the period from 6 – 12 months might be the sensitive period for ________.
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parent/infant attachment
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87) Both of Asa’s parents and all four of her grandparents have heart disease. We might assume that Asa will be more ________ to heart problems than her cohorts.
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vulnerable
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88) A major difference between a theory and a hypothesis is that hypotheses are ________.
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testable
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89) The four goals of developmental psychology are to ________, ________, ________ and ________ human behavior.
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describe; explain; predict; influence
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90) One major weakness of naturalistic observation is, according to your text, ________.
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observer bias
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91) Correlational research does not allow us to show ________ relationships.
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Causal
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92) In an experiment, if participants have equal chances of being assigned to the different groups, we say that assignment was ________.
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random
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93) A(n) _________ is a study that tests a causal hypothesis.
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Experiment

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