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Life Span Development 1

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Development
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pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span
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Normative age-graded influences
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biological, sociocultural, and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group.
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Examples of Normative age-graded influences
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puberty, menopause, beginning school, retirement
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Normative History-graded influences
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Influences that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances.
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Examples of History-graded influences
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economic, political and social upheavals like the Great Depression, WWII, Civil Rights Movement, 9/11, integration of cell phones into everyday life
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Nonnormative life events
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unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s life; events do not happen to all people
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Examples of Nonnormative life events
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death of a parent when child is young, pregnancy in adolescence, home burned down, winning the lottery, unexpected career opportunity
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Biological processes
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changes in an individual’s physical nature
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Examples of Biological processes
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genes inherited from parents, development of the brain, height and weight gain, hormonal changes of puberty
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Cognitive processes
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changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language
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Examples of Cognitive processes
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watching colorful mobile above crib, putting together two-word sentences, memorizing a poem, imagining what it would be like to be a movie star, solving crossword puzzles
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Socioemotional processes
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changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, and personality
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Examples of Socioemotional processes
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infant’s smile in response to a parent’s touch, toddlers aggressive attack on playmate, development of assertiveness, joy at senior prom, actions of elderly couple
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Prenatal Period
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conception to birth: tremendous growth from a cell to organism with a brain and behavior capabilities, lasts about nine months
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Infancy
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birth to 18 or 24 months: extreme dependence on adults, psychological activities are just beginning- language, sensorimotor coordination, and social learning
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Early Childhood
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end of infancy to 5 or 6 years old \”preschool years\”: become more self-sufficient, care for themselves, develop school readiness skills, first grade typically marks the end
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Middle and Late Childhood
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6 to 11 years old \”elementary school years\”: mastery of fundamental skills of reading, writing and arithmetic, increase in self control and wanting to achieve
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Adolescence
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10-12 to 18-21 years of age: transition from childhood to early adulthood, rapid physical change, independence and identity are important, more time spent away from family
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Early Adulthood
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early 20s to 30s: establish personal and economic independence, career development, selecting a mate, starting a family, raising children
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Middle Adulthood
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40 to 60 years old: expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility, reaching and maintaining career satisfaction
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Late Adulthood
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begins 60s-70s until death: time of life review, retirement, adjustment to new social roles of decreased strength and health
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Chronological Age
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the number of years that have elapsed since birth
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Psychological Age
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an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
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Social Age
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social roles and expectations related to a person’s age
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Biological Age
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a person’s age in terms of physical health (organs, diseases, accidents, nutrition, exercise)
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Nature-nurture issue
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the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
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Continuity-discontinuity issue
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Focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity).
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Psychoanalytic Theories
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Describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is merely a surface characteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior. Early experiences with parents are emphasized.
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Sigmund Freud’s Theory
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states we go through five stages pf psychosexual development
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Erikson’s Theory
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includes 8 stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved.
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Autonomy versus Shame
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1 to 3 years; the psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices
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Trust versus Mistrust
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First year of life; Erikson’s first psychosocial crisis. Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention, etc.) are met.
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Initiative versus Guilt
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3-6 years; children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them
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Industry versus Inferiority
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6-12 years; The fourth of Erikson’s eight psychosexual development crises, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.
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Identity versus Identity Confusion
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12-20 years; According to Erikson, the major developmental task of adolescence in finding a sense of who they are and where they are going in life. Failure results in developing a negative identity or in role confusion.
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Intimacy versus Isolation
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20-40 years; According to Erikson, a major developmental task of early adulthood is developing an intimate relationship. Failure to do so may lead to isolation.
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Generativity versus Stagnation
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40-60 years; Erikson’s seventh stage of psychosocial development, in which the middle-aged adult develops a concern with establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation or else experiences a sense of inactivity or lifelessness
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Integrity versus Despair
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60 +; According to Erikson, the major developmental task of older age is finding meaning in the life that one has led. Success gives rise to a sense of integrity, whereas failure leads to despair.
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Piaget’s Theory
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States that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development
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Sensorimotor Stage
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in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
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Preoperational Stage
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in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
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Concrete Operational Stage
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in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to reason logically about concrete examples
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Formal Operational Stage
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in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning between age 11-15) during which people begin to think logically about abstract and logical terms
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Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
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Involves changing the probability of a behavior’s occurrence. Rewards increase the likelihood of reoccurrence. Punishment reduces the likelihood of the behavior.