Life Development Chapter 8 Essay

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According to Erikson, once children have a sense of autonomy, they A) Achieve the psychological conflict of the preschool years B) Become less contrary than they were as toddlers C) Become hesitant to try new things D) Have a new sense of purposefulness
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B) Become less contrary than they were as toddlers
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According to Erikson’s theory, children best learn to cooperate to achieve goal through A) Play B) Discipline C) Modeling D) Scaffolding
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A) Play
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According to Erikson, preschoolers’ exuberant play and bold efforts to master new tasks break down when they A) Are threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults B) Identify too closely with the same-sex parent C) Identify to closely with other-sex parent D) Have an overly lenient superego
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A) Are threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults
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When asked “Tell me about yourself,” which of the following is 3-year-old Riley the most likely to say? A) “I have new blue shoes” B) “I am cheerful” C) “I am shy” D) “I am friendly”
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A) “I have new blue shoes”
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In observational research on Irish-American families in Chicago and Chinese families in Taiwan A) Chinese parents rarely told their preschoolers stories about children’s transgressions B) Irish-American parents told their preschoolers stories about the child’s misdeeds C) Irish-American parents told stories interpreting the child’s misbehavior as a negative act D) Chinese parents told stories stressing the impact of the child’s misdeeds on others
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D) Chinese parents told stories stressing the impact of the child’s misdeeds on others
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The attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that we believe define ourselves comprise our ________, whereas the judgments we make about our worth and the feelings associated with those judgements are our ______. A) Self-concept, self-esteem B) Identity, self-concept C) Self-esteem, self-concept D)Self-concept, identify
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A) Self-concept, self-esteem
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Between ages 2 and 6 A) Self-esteem develops from repeated experiences with failure B) Emotional self-regulation improves C) The ego begins to cause children to feel guilt D) Preschoolers focus less intently on qualities that make them unique
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B) Emotional self-regulation improves
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The more parents ______, the more “emotion words” children use and the better developed their emotional understanding. A) Label emotions, explain them, and express warmth and enthusiasm when conversing with preschoolers B) Encourage peer sociability and demand that their children share with peers C) Label their children’s successes and failures and point out when their children make errors D) Expect their children to behave like adults
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A) Label emotions, explain them, and express warmth and enthusiasm when conversing with preschoolers
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Warm parents who _____ strengthen children’s capacity to handle stress. A) Explain strategies for controlling feelings B) Rarely express emotion C) React boldly when angry or frustrated D) Label children’s feelings as overemotional
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A) Explain strategies for controlling feelings
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As the ability to take another’s perspective improves, A) Children rely less on words to convey empathic feelings B) The tendency to focus on ones own anxiety increases C) Sympathetic feelings decrease D) Empathic responding increases
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D) Empathic responding increases
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Four-year-old Harry has parents who show sensitive, empathic concern for his feelings. When another child is unhappy, Harry is likely to respond with A) Sympathetic concern B) Fear and anger C) Frowning and lip biting D) Anxiety and distress
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A) Sympathetic concern
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According to Mildred Parten’s research on peer sociability, play develops in what sequence? A) Nonsocial, parallel, cooperative, associative B) Nonsocial, parallel, associative, cooperative C) Cooperative, parellel, nonsocial, associative D) Associative, cooperative, parallel, nonsocial
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B) Nonsocial, parallel, associative, cooperative
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Parents should be concerned if their preschooler engages in more parallel play than nonsocial activity A) More parallel play than nonsocial activity B) Nonsocial functional play involving repetitive motor action C) More solitary play than play with peers D) More make-believe play than parallel play
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B) Nonsocial functional play involving repetitive motor action
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Preschoolers understand that a friend is someone who A) Understands you and cares about you B) Likes you and shares toys C) Will be in a relationship with you for a long time D) Trusts you and who you trust
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B) Likes you and shares toys
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Roger wants to promote his preschool son’s peer interaction skills. Which of the following is a particularly effective technique for Roger to try A) Roger should encourage his son to make his own play dates B) Roger should talk to his son about the values associated with friendship C) Roger should encourage his son to play group sports D) Roger should arrange informal peer play activities
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D) Roger should arrange informal peer play activities
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All theories of moral development recognize that conscience begins to take shape A) Prenatally B) At birth C) In early childhood D) In late childhood
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C) In early childhood
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According to Freud, children A) Listen to the id to avoid shame and doubt B) Behave morally when adults point out the effects of their misbehavior on others C) Obey the ego to avoid feelings of mistrust D) Obey the superego to avoid guilt
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D) Obey the superego to avoid guilt
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When parents use inductive discipline, they A) Threaten to withdraw their love to motivate good behavior B) Model the behavior that they want their child to follow C) Rely on rewards and punishment to shape their child’s behavior D) Point out the effects of their child’s misbehavior on others
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D) Point out the effects of their child’s misbehavior on others
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According to social learning theorists A) Prosocial acts often occur spontaneously in early childhood B) Morality is acquired through reinforcement and modeling C) Children behave morally because they are capable of effortful control D) Guilt is the only force that compels us to act morally
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B) Morality is acquired through reinforcement and modeling
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Parents are most likely to use forceful methods of discipline when A) They want to foster long-term goals B) Very serious transgression occur C) Immediate obedience is necessary D) Children are verbally aggressive towards others
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C) Immediate obedience is necessary
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Research on corporal punishment shows that african-american and Caucasian-American parents A) Consider physical punishment to be wrong B) Seem to mete out physical punishment differently C) Culturally approve of physical discipline D) Are usually highly agitated when they use physical punishment
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B) Seem to mete out physical punishment differently
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A growing number of studies confirm that playing violent video games A) Increases the likelihood of aggressive children B) Does not spark hostile behavior in nonaggression children C) Impacts girls more than boys D) Has a greater impact on teens than on preschool and young school-age children
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A) Increases the likelihood of aggressive children
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The V-chip A) Allows parents to block undesired TV programs B) Identifies violent TV and computer programs C) Violates the First Amendment right to free speech D) Remains optional for new television sets in the US
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A) Allows parents to block undesired TV programs
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The ______ perspective regards children as active thinkers about social rules. A) Cognitive- developmental B) Psychoanalytic C) Behaviorist D) Social learning
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A) Cognitive- developmental
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Gender _____ refers to any association of objects, activities, roles, or traits with ones or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes A) Identify B) Selection C) modeling D) Typing
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D) Typing
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Which of the following situation would most likely evoke a negative reaction from preschool peers? A) A boy quietly looking at a book B) A boy playing with a Barbie doll C) A girl running in a race D) A girl wearing overalls
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B) A boy playing with a Barbie doll
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Research found that girls exposed prenatally to high levels of androgens showed a preference for A) Quiet over active play B) Girl playmates C) “ladylike” behavior D) Trucks and blocks over dolls
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D) Trucks and blocks over dolls
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Research on environmental influences on gender typing shows that A) Girls are especially intolerant of “cross-gender” play in other girls B) Preschoolers often engage in “cross-gender” activities at home but rarely do so in the presence of peers C) When preschoolers engage in “cross-gender” activities, peers criticize them D) Preschoolers play in mixed-gender groups more than they play in same-sex groups
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C) When preschoolers engage in “cross-gender” activities, peers criticize them
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According to cognitive-development theory, ______ comes before _____ in the development of gender identity A) Behavior, self-perceptions B) Gender constancy; gender identity C) Self-perceptions, behavior D) Gender constancy; gender awareness
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A) Behavior, self-perceptions
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Authoritative parents A) Exert control, yell, command, criticize, and threaten their children B) Simply lack confidence in their ability to influence their child’s behavior C) Combine low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy D) Insist on mature behavior and give reason for their expectations
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D) Insist on mature behavior and give reason for their expectations
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Many permissive parents A) Are emotionally detached and depressed, with little time and energy for children B) Insist on mature behavior and give reasons for their expectations C) Lack of confidence in their ability to influence their child’s behavior D) Exercise firm, reasonable control over their children
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C) Lack of confidence in their ability to influence their child’s behavior
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______ sharply reduces child maltreatment A) The use of anti-aggression medication B) The use of anti-depression C) Providing social supports to families D) Involvement with Child Protective Services
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C) Providing social supports to families
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Over time, maltreated children show A) Cognitive gains B) Improved executive function C) Serious adjustment problems D) Few long-term problems
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C) Serious adjustment problems
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The majority of abusive and neglectful parents A) Lack “lifelines” B) Have developmental problems C) Hyperfocus on their children D) Are skilled at establishing social relationships
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A) Lack “lifelines”
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Whether a child is maltreated largely depends on A) The child’s temperament B) The parents’ characteristics C) Family size D) The child’s gender
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B) The parents’ characteristics
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Rates of physical and emotional abuse are A) Higher for mothers than for fathers B) Higher for fathers than for mothers C) Lower than rates of sexual abuse D) Fairly similar for mothers and fathers
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B) Higher for fathers than for mothers
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Which of the following statements about child maltreatment is true? A) Child abuse is modern problem and is especially common in non-industrialized nations B) Parents commit more than 80 percent of abusive incidents C) Neglect includes ridicule, humiliation and intimidation D) Nonparent relatives commit about 30 percent of abusive incidents
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B) Parents commit more than 80 percent of abusive incidents
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Which of the following children is the most likely to evoke warm, constant discipline? A) Ryan, who is fearless B) Brigham, who has low self-esteem C) Isabella, who is cooperative D) Bonny who is impulsive
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C) Isabella, who is cooperative
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Uninvolved parents A) Are overindulgent B) Sometimes engage in neglect C) Engage in psychological control D) Promote maturity and adjustment in children of diverse temperaments
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B) Sometimes engage in neglect
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Emotionally detached parents with depression often have a _____ style of child rearing A) Uninvolved B) Permissive C) Authoritarian D) Authoritative
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A) Uninvolved

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