Latin participles and infinitives (Wheelocks chapter 23 and 25)

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A verbal adjective (adjective formed from a verb stem)
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What is a participle?
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Four
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How many participles does a regular transitive verb in Latin have?
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present active and future passive (gerundive)
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Which participles are formed on a verb’s present stem?
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perfect passive and future active
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Which participles are formed on a verb’s participial stem?
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Begin with the infinitive, then drop the infinitive ending -re.
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How is the present stem of a verb found?
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Drop the endings from the perfect passive participle (usually the fourth principal part)
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How is the participial stem of a verb found?
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present stem + -ns (gen -ntis)
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How is the present active participle formed?
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participial stem + Å«rus Å«ra Å«rum
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How is the future active participle formed?
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participial stem + us a um
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How is the perfect passive participle formed?
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present stem + ndus nda ndum
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How is the future passive participle formed?
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āgēns āgēntis; actūrus a um; āctus a um; agendus a um
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For agō, list the present active, future active, perfect passive, and future passive participles.
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doing; about to do; done/having been done; about to be done/deserving to be done
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For agō, list the English equivalent for present active, future active, perfect passive, and future passive participles.
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The participles based on the present stem (present active and future passive/gerundive) include -ie-
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What is special about the participles of fourth conjugation and third conjugation -io verbs?
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laudāns laudāntis; laudātūrus a um; laudātus a um; laudandus a um
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For laudō, list the present active, future active, perfect passive, and future passive participles.
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audiēns audiēntis; audītūrus a um; audītus a um; audiendus a um
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For audiō, list the present active, future active, perfect passive, and future passive participles.
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capiēns capiēntis; captūrus a um; capturus a um; capiendus a um
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For capiō, list the present active, future active, perfect passive, and future passive participles.
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All participles except the present active are declined according to 1st/2nd declension rules; the present active participle is declined as a third declension adjective.
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Which participles belong to which declensions?
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the ablative singular sometimes ends in e, sometimes in Ä«
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What form of the present active participle is sometimes unusual and why?
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agēns agentis agentī agentem agentī (agente) agentēs agentium agentibus agentēs agentibus
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Decline agēns as a masculine adjective.
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agēns agentis agentī agentem agentī (agente) agentēs agentium agentibus agentēs agentibus
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Decline agēns as a feminine adjective.
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agēns agentis agentī agēns agentī (agente) agentia agentium agentibus agentia agentibus
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Decline agēns as a neuter adjective.
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pars + capere – to take part/share in
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What is the etymology of the term “participle”?
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As adjectives, they agree in gender, number and case with the words they modify. Sometimes, like adjectives, they can function as nouns themselves. As verbs, they have tense and voice, may take direct objects, and may be modified by an adverb or an adverbial phrase.
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How is a participle both like an adjective and a verb?
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Patrem in casā videntēs, puella et puer ad eum cucurrērunt.
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Seeing their father in the house, the boy and girl ran up to him.
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Contemporaneous with that of the main verb
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How is the time of the action indicated by a present participle determined in Latin?
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Prior to that of the main verb
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How is the time of the action indicated by a perfect participle determined in Latin?
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Subsequent to that of the main verb
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How is the time of the action indicated by a future participle determined in Latin?
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Graecī nautae, videntēs Polyphēmum, timent.
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The Greek sailors, seeing Polyphemus, are afraid.
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Graecī nautae, vīsī ā Polyphēmō, timent.
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The Greek sailors, seen by Polyphemus, are afraid.
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Graecī nautae, visūrī Polyphēmum, timent.
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The Greek sailors, about to see Polyphemus, are afraid.
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When, since, although
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In translating Latin into idiomatic English, what subordinating conjunctions are appropriate when transforming a participial phrase into a subordinate clause?
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The mother, loving her son, gives him assistance. Since she loves her son, the mother gives him assistance.
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Translate literally and idiomatically: Māter, fīlium amāns, auxilium dat.

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