Latin II Final Exam

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Nominative Subject
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agrees in person and number with verb
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Predicate Nominative
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occurs w/ linking verb
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Genitive of Possession
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“The book of the queen” “The queen’s book”
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Subjective Genitive
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“The anger of the queen against the enemies”
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Objective Genitive
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“We rebelled because of the hatred of/for the queen”
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Partitive Genitive
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“We could glimpse only part of the queen”
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Genitive of Description
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“The queen was a person of great wisdom” ” a man of great courage”
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Dative, Indirect Object
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occurs w/ verb of giving, showing,telling “I gave a book to the queen”
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Dative of the Possessor
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occurs w/ verb “be” “To the queen there are many jewels”
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Dative of Purpose
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most often involves a thing (rather than a person) “The queen was sent as a source of aid”
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Dative of Reference
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always involves a person or persons “To the queen the people are important”
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Double Dative Construction*
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a dative of purpose and a dative of reference together “The queen was sent as a source of aid to the people”
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Dative of Advantage
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person(s) benefited by the action of the clause “We bought flowers for the queen”
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Dative of Disadvantage
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person(s) harmed by the action of the clause “We planted a bomb for the queen”
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Dative with Intransitive Verb
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used with, for example, placeō (“be pleasing to”), pareō (“be obedient to”)
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Dative of Agent
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used with passive paraphrastics; translated with “by” “having to be -ed by”
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Dative with Compound Verb
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used sometimes with verbs that contain a prepositional prefix (e.g. praesum, īnferō)
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Accusative, Direct Object
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occurs w/ transitive verb
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Predicate Accusative
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occurs w/ main verb habēre (“consider”) “I consider that woman our queen”
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Accusative of Place to Which
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w/ prep in, ad, propter, sub, post, ante
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Accusative of Duration of Time
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w/ NO PREP (translate with “for”)
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Subject Acc in Indirect Statement
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the subject of an infinitive that depends on a main verb (or idea) of saying, thinking or perceiving
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Ablative of Place Where
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w/ in (except names of cities, etc.), prō, sub
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Ablative of Accompaniment
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w/ cum
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Ablative of Means
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w/ NO PREP
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Ablative of Personal Agent
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w/ ā/ab (translate “by”)
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Ablative of Manner
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w/ cum (prep is optional if there’s an adjective present)
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Ablative of Respect
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w/ NO PREP
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Ablative of Separation
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w/ ā/ab, ē/ex, dē or with NO prep
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Ablative of Cause
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NO PREP
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Ablative of Place from Which
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w/ ā/ab, ē/ex, dē (except names of cities, etc.)
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Ablative of Time When
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w/NO PREP
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Ablative of Time Within Which
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w/ NO PREP
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Ablative of Description
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w/ NO PREP
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Ablative of Origin
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sometimes with ē/ex, dē; sometimes with NO prep
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Ablative of Comparison
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w/ NO prep; used with comparative adjectives to answer the question “How much _er?”
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Ablative Absolute
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w/ NO PREP; translate using “with”
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Vocative, Direct Address
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Some person or thing is being addressed
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Locative
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expressed location with names of cities, towns, small islands, domus and rūs
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Apposition
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One noun specifying or further describing another noun (with which it agrees in case)
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Syntax of Adjectives
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Attributive
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Predicate
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in Nom. or Acc. occurs with a linking verb
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Substantive
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supply “man/men” if masc supply….
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Syntax of Verbs, Infinitive
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Complementary Infinitive
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occurs with dēbeō or possum or passive of videō
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Object Infinitive
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functions as direct object of main verb
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Subject Infinitive
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functions as subject of main verb
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Infinitive in Indirect Statement
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functions in concert with a main verb (or implied idea) of saying, thinking or perceiving. Tense shows time relative to the main verb: simultaneous (present infinitive), prior (perfect infinitive), or subsequent (future infinitive)
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Syntax of Verbs, Independent Subjunctive
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Hortatory/Jussive
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pres subj (“let…”) if negated use nē
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Negative Command
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nē + pres or perf subj (“do not”)
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Potential
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pres time, with perf or pres subj “would, could, might” past time, with impf subj “would have, could have, might have” if negated use nōnō
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Optative
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Future Capable of Fulfillment Pres Subj “if only…would” “may” Pres Incapable of Fulfillment Impf Subj “If only…were” Past Incapable of Fulfillment Plupft Subj “If only…had” if negated use nē
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Deliberative
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about the future, with pres subj “Am I to…?” “Should I…?” about the past, with impf subj “Was I to…?”” “Should I have…?” if negated use nōn
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Syntax of Verbs, Subjunctive in Dependent Clause
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NOTE: Sequence of Tenses
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The tense of a subj verb in a subordinate clause is always determined by its relationship to the verb in the main clause PRIMARY Verb in Main Clause Indicative: Pres Fut Perf(pres completed) FutPerf Verb in Subordinate Clause Subjunctive: Pres Perf SECONDARY Verb in Main Clause Indicative: Impf Perf (past simple) Plupft Verb in Subordinate Clause Subjunctive: Impf Plupft
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Purpose Clause
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(ut/nē + subj verb “in sequence”) purpose clauses explain why the action of the main clause was undertaken in primary sequence (which puts subj verb in the pres tense), a purpose clause must be translated with the formula “in order that…may [not]” In secondary sequence (which puts subj verb in the impf tense) a purpose clause must be translated with the formula “in order that…might [not]”
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Indirect Command
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(ut/nē + subj verb “in sequence”) Indirect command clause tell what was commanded, advised, urged, etc. In both primary and secondary sequence, a clause of indirect command should be translated with “that” and the basic, present tense form of the english verb. For example “I commanded that he depart without delay” Imperāvī ut sine morā discēderet
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Relative Clause of Purpose
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like a purpose clause (it explains why an action was taken), except introduced by a relative pronoun (quī, quae, quod) or a relative adverb (quō, unde etc.)
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Relative Clause of Characteristic
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A relative clause that provides info about what sort of person or thing is indicated by the antecedent. Its verb is in the subjunctive because it has a generalizing rather than a specific force.
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Subordinate Clause in Indirect Statement
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Any subord clause within an indirect statement has its verb in the subj if the clause is regarded as part of the original statement or perception that is being reported w/ ind if not integral part of the ind statement w/ subj if an integral/original part of the ind statement
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Indirect Question
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A verb in an indirect question (a subord clause introd by an interrogative word of any kind) will be in the subj mood in sequence
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Doubting Clause
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a sub-type of indirect question, dependent on a main clause in which doubt is mentioned
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Cum Clause
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Subj verbs are used in subord clauses introd by cum (“when” “since” “although”) when the force of the clause is circumstantial (past time only), causal or concessive
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Types of Conditional Sentence
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Present Simple
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pres ind in protasis and apodasis
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Past Simple
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Impft or Perf ind in p and a
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Future More Vivid (FMV)
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Fut ind in p and a does/will
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FMVE
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fut perf ind in p, fut ind in a does/will
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FLV
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pres subj in p and a should/would
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Mixed Future
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pres sub in p, fut ind in a should/will
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Present Contrary to Fact
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impf subj in p and a were/would
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Past Contrary to Fact
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plpft subj in p and a had/would have
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Mixed Contrary to Fact
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plupft subj in p and impf subj in a had/would
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Rhetorical Terms
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Alliteration
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rep of the same sound at the beginning of successive words
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Anaphora
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rep of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses
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Antithesis
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opposition or contrast of two ideas
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Assonance
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rep of identical or similar sounds in words
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Asyndeton
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absence of connective b/w phrases or clauses
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Chiasmus
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ABBA arrangement of pairs, the second element of which is in inverted order
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Ellipsis
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omission of one or more grammatical elements that may be supplied from context
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Hendiadys
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one idea expressed through two nouns connected by “and ” when a closer relation is suggested
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Hyperbaton
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separation of two words that normally belong together
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Tricolon
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three-part structure comprising three words, phrases, or clauses
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Relative Pronoun and Relative Clause
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quī quae quod + ind “who/which/that…”
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Attributive and Circumstantial Participles
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pres act “-ing” perf passive “having been -ed, -ed” fut. act. “about to -” fut pass “having to be -ed”
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Active and Passive Periphrastics
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active: “is/was/will be going to -” passive: “is/was/will be having to be -ed”
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Constructions with Comparative and Superlative Degrees
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Comparative with quam
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“-er than”
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Ablative of Comparison
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“-er than…”
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Superlative with partitive genitive
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“greatest of the …”
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quam + superlative
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“as ___ as possible”
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Subordinate Clause
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Purpose, Indirect Command or Relative Clause of Purpose Primary or secondary Time or prior time pres/fut time–> primary seq past time–> secondary seq
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She Wears a Giant Diamond
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subj perf act add -eri- perf pass 4th pp and sim sīs… pluperf act add -issē- pluperf pass 4th pp & essem…
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Pres Subj of Possum
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possim possīs…
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Pres Subj of eo
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eam eās…
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hic haec hoc
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also, when used in conjunction with ille, means “the latter”
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ille illa illud
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also, when used in conjunction with hic, means “the former” can mean “that famous” or “that well known” with use with the name of an important person
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iste ista istud
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second person demonstrative, used to point to something associated with a person being addressed can sometimes carry an undertone of contempt
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Special Uses of Relative Pronoun
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With indefinite or generic antecedent As a connective relative With antecedent placed inside or after the relative clause
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Deponent Verbs
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All forms use passive endings but should be translated with the English active voice In the third conjugation, when forming the imperfect subjunctive, you must first replace the final -ī on the 2nd principal part with -re. Then add the passive personal endings. For example: sequī–> sequere–> sequerētur
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Semi-deponent verbs
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Use active endings in the present, imperfect, and future tenses; passive endings in the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect. Translated throughout with English active voice. Only one: audeō, audēre, ausus sum
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Infinitives
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Perf Active 3rd pp stem + isse “to have _ed” Perf Pass 4th pp + esse “to have been _ed” Future Active future active participle + esse “to be about to/going to _” ex. vocātūrus -a -um esse
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Indirect Statement and the Subject Accusative
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Is introduced by a verb of perception Lacks a subordinating conjunction equivalent to the English “that” Has a subject in the acc case Has a verb in the infinitive, which corresponds as closely as possible to the tense and voice in the direct statement being reported indirectly and shows time relative to the main verb PRES –> Simultaneous PERF–> Priot to FUT–> Subsequent to
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Interrogative Words to Introduce Direct Questions
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nōnne (expect yes, “…didn’t you?”) num (expects no “you didn’t…did you?”) -ne utrum, -ne or nothing may introd double direct q’s quis, quid quī, quae, quod cūr, quam ob rem (on account of which thing), quārē (why) ubi-when ubi-where unde- from where quō-to where quemadmodum-how quō modō- how uter, utra, utrum
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Indirect Q’s
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introduced by num, an or any other interrog word when double, may be introd by utrum, -ne or nothing with the conj an (“or”) introducing second Q have verbs in the subj according to the rules of sequence
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Doubting clauses
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preceded by a verb or other expression of doubting introd by num, an, or other interrog word are introd by quīn when doubt is negated or virtually negated have verbs in subj according to sequence
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Cum Clauses
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Temporal Ind “(at the time) when” Circumstantial Ind (primary, rare) “under the circumstances) when” Circumstantial Subj (secondary) ” Causal Subj “since/because” Concessive Subj “although”
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When cum is followed by a perfect ind and the verb in the main clause is pres ind cum should be translated “whenever” and the perf ind should be translated as present When cum is followed by a pluperfect ind and the verb in main clause is imperfect ind, cum should be translated “whenever” and the pluperfect ind should be translated as imperfect for “although” often with tamen
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be willing, want, wish
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volō velle voluī vīs vult volumus vultis volunt velim velīs velit velīmus velītis velint pres act participle volēns volentis
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be unwilling, not want, not wish
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nōlō nōlle nōluī nōlō nōn vīs nōn vult nōlumus nōn vultis nōlunt subj–> same endings as volō nōlēns nōlentis nōlī and nōlīte pres act imperative
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want more, prefer
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mālō mālle māluī mālō māvīs māvult mālumus māvultis mālunt
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Adjectives and Adverbs
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Comparative Degree -ior/-ius -ius Superlative Degree -issimus -limus -rimus -ē Comparison with Quam Ablative of Comparison NO PREP Ablative of Degree of Difference NO PREP Relative Clause of Purpose Quam + Superlative
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Irregular Adjectives
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bonus -a um melior melius optimus -a um malus -a um peior peius (worse) pessimus (worst magnus maior maius maximus (greatest) parvus minor minus minimus (smallest) multus plūs/plūrēs, plūra plūrimus (most) _____ prior prius (earlier) prīmus (first)
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Irregular Adverbs
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bene melius optimē male peius pessimē magnopere magis maximē parum 9too little) minus minimē multum plūs plūrimum ___ prius prīmum saepe saepius saepissimē diū diūtius diūtissimē
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Deponent Verbs
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cōnor cōnārī cōnātus sum try fateor fatērī fassus sum confess sequor sequī secūtus sum follow morior morī mortuus sum die experiōr experīrī expertus sum experience
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nostrum and vestrum Partitive Gen only
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nostrī and vestrī may be Obective Gen only
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Meter
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long by nature and long by position letter x counts as a double consonant short vowels before consonantal i count long the consonant groups qu, gu and su count as single consonants a syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants, the first of which is a mute (p, ph, b, t, th, d, c, g) or the fricative f followed by a liquid (l, r) or a nasal (m, n) can be either short or long the consonant h does not count toward making a syllable long by position dactyl and spondee dactylic hexameter elegiac couplets elision caesura
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ABL OF CAUSE
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Sum
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eram eras etc. impf ero eris etc….erunt fut fui fuist fuit etc. perf fueram etc. pluperf fuero etc. fut perf imperative es este perf subj fuerim etc. pluperf subj fuissem etc.

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