KNH 212

Travel for recreational, business, or leisure purposes. Tourism revenues were about $1.5 trillion in 2012. Tourism accounts for over 30% of global exports or services
People traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes
Tourism, defined by Ritchie
demand, supply, impact
Ritchie – Demand side consists of the tourist market and its characteristics
Ritchie – Supply side consists of the tourism industry which forms a tourist destination area
Ritchie – Impact side is where consequences of tourism can have direct or indirect positive or negative impacts on a destination area or on the tourists.
Real Tourism
Ritchie – Real tourism must include components of Tourists, Businesses that provide goods and service to tourists, The government in a tourist destination, The host community and the people who live there.
Sports Tourism – definition
Leisure-based travel that takes individuals temporarily outside of their home communities to participate in physical activities to watch physical activities or to venerate attractions associated with physical activities – GIBSON
Sports Tourism
one of the fastest growing segments of the travel industry – created approximately $600 billion last year
Types of Sport Tourism – Gammon and Robinson
Hard Sport Tourism and Soft Sport Tourism – an extension of these concepts is active and passive tourists
Hard Sport Tourism
Gammon and Robinson – a large quantity of people participate at the sport event in some way. Mega events attract large numbers of people in this area
Soft Sport Tourism
Gammon and Robinson – the tourist travels to the destination to take part in some kind of recreational or leisure interst
Types of Sport Tourism – Gibson
Active, Event, and Nostalgia sport tourism
Active Sport Tourism
Gibson – a trip in which the tourist takes part in a sport such as golf. This has grown exponentially over the last decade, due to cruises, amateur sports, and golf and skiing because of their season variable patterns.
Event Sport Tourism
Gibson – a trip in which the tourist watches a sport event such as the Super Bowl.
Nostalgia Sport Tourism
Gibson – a trip in which the tourist visits a sport-themed attraction such as the Baseball Hall of Fame, taking sport-themed vacations on cruise ships or resorts, attending fantasy camps, or touring famous sport stadiums. The fantasy camp segment of this tourism market is one of the fastest growing in sport tourism
Destination Image
Part of Event sport tourism – the impression that people hold of a certain location
Part of Event sport tourism – the interaction between two components such as tourism and sport
Hallmark Events
Part of Event Sport Tourism. Include Leverage and Small Scale EST – major one-time or recurring events of limited duration developed primarily to enhance the awareness, appeal and profitability of a tourism destination in the short and/or long term
Related to Hallmark Events and Event Sport Tourism – the strategies utilized to optimize the benefits or outcomes associated with an event
Small Scale EST
Related to Hallmark Events and Event Sport Tourism – regular season sporting competitions, international sporting fixtures, domestic competitions, masters or disabled sports and related. Minimal investment and no new infrastructure created.
Sustainability issues of sport tourism
Social, economic, environmental, and ethical dimensions.
Social dimensions
Include psychic income effect of hosting a sport event. Benefits of hosting include improved destination image, urban transformation, civic and national pride/patriotism, and creation of experienced volunteer base for future events
Psychic Income
Part of Social dimensions of sport tourism. Refers to the pride that people have in their community, generated by hosting a sport event.
Economic Dimensions
Economic assessments preventing debt due to a poorly managed sporting event. Include Time Switchers, Casuals, and Displacement Effect
Time Switchers
Part of Economic Dimensions – visitors who had been planning to visit destination but switched time to coincide with event; spending is not because of the event
Part of Economic Dimensions – people who were already visiting the destination and chose to attend the event; it was not their prime reason for being there
Displacement Effect
Part of Economic Dimensions – the process whereby potential tourists are discouraged from visiting a destination because of perceptions of hassles from event or issues like terrorism
Environmental Dimensions
sports often need natural geography to occur and their participants can harm the natural landscape and flora/fauna. For example, skiing can damage mountain terrain and scuba-diving can damage coral reefs
Ethical Dimensions
The impact of hosting on local communities and if it is truly done democratically continues to be an issue. Many countries struggle to get their population behind their ideas for hosting large events.
Sport Marketing
Pitts & Stotlar – The process of designing and implementing activities for the production, pricing, promotion, and distribution of a sport product or sport business product to satisfy the needs or desires of consumers and to achieve the company’s objectives in a socially responsible manner that creates a favorable exchange relationship
Unique Characteristics of Sport
Mullin, Hardy, and Sutton – Aspects of sport are intangible. Sport involves emotions. Sport is subjective and heterogenous. Sport is generally socially consumed. Sport experiences are inconsistent and unpredictable. Sport is perishable.
Marketing Plans
Comprehensive strategic and tactical frameworks for identifying and achieving a sport organization’s marketing goals and objectives
Marketing Mix
The elements of product, price, place, and promotion, which sport markets alter, modify, or manipulate to achieve marketing goals and objectives. The 4 Ps are central to the sport marketing plan, manipulated by sport marketers’ strategic and tactical plans, and integrated with other elements for optimal success (10 Ps)
Four Ps of Marketing Mix – the thing you are selling
Four Ps of Marketing Mix – actual value dollar
Four Ps of Marketing Mix – where the product gets sold, promoted
Four Ps of Marketing Mix – getting product out there, now consumers are aware of actual good or product
10 Ps
Purpose, Product, Projecting the market, Positioning, Players, Packaging, Pricing, Promotion, Place, Promise – help develop sport marketing plan along with 4 Ps
Steps for Developing a Sport and Marketing Plan
1) Identify the purpose of the sport marketing plan. 2) analyze the sport product. 3) project the market climate. 4) Position the sport product. 5) pick the players. 6) package the sport product. 7) price the sport product. 8) promote the sport product. 9) place – distributing the sport product. 10) evaluate the promises of the sport marketing plan
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan – Step 1
Identify the purpose of the sport marketing plan
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan – Step 2
Analyze the Sport Product – dynamic and complex nature of the sport product, dimensions of the sport product, core product, product extensions
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan – Step 3
Project the Market Climate – influence of market conditions, assessing the sport climate: examining internal and external factors
SWOT Analysis
Part of Step 3 – Assessing internal strengths and weaknesses, and assessing external opportunities and threats. Marketing plans should maximize strengths and opportunities and minimize weaknesses and threats
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan – Step 4
Position the Sport Product – differentiating the product from competing products, creating a distinctive image of the product, elements of effective communication practices, using honest and nonoffensive communication
Using a name, design, or symbol to differentiate a sport product – brand awareness, brand image, brand equity, brand loyalty
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan – Step 5
Pick the Players – analyzing and targeting consumers: grouping and selecting the right consumers
Market Segmentation
Part of Step 5 – used to identify target audiences; segmenting consumers into four areas: demographics, psychographics, media preferences, purchasing behavior
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan – Step 6
Package the sport product – presenting the product in the best possible manner; packaging – tangible sport product, core product, product extensions; licensed merchandise and sport sponsorship
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan – Step 7
Price the sport product – determining the value of the product; price is the most visible and flexible element; factors to consider when developing pricing strategy; unique aspects and complexity of sport pricing
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan – Step 8
Promote the sport product – communicating the desired image; educating the informing target audiences; persuading target audiences to purchase
Elements of Promotion Strategy
Part of Step 8 – advertising, publicity, activities and inducements, public relations, community relations, media relations, personal selling, sponsorship
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan – Step 9
Place: Distributing the sport product – product location, distribution point of origin, geographic location of target markets, other channels
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan – Step 10
Evaluate the promises of the sport marketing plan – evaluating the extent to which plan met its promise, obtaining and analyzing feedback from internal and external sources
Market Research
information needed to develop marketing plan – the product; targeted consumers; social, cultural and economic trends; direct and indirect competitors
Practical application
technology, social media, and sport marketing; critical thinking in sport marketing – infusion of hip-hop nuances into marketing plans
Ethics in Sport Marketing
Part of Practical Application – communicating honesty in images and integrity in messages; impact of technology on sport marketing practices; increasing consumer diversity
Types of Sport Facilities
single purpose, single purpose specialized, multi purpose, nontraditional.
Single Purpose
Designed for only one sport
Single Purpose Specialized
Designed for specialized events but might not be single-purpose facilities
Designed to host a variety of events
May or may not have roof, walls, spectator seating areas
Management positions and responsibilities
Facility director, Operations manager, Event coordinator
Event Management
Every event is a product, an outcome, and an occurrence. Events come in many shapes and sizes.
Event management includes planning, coordinating, staging, and evaluating.
Event Management Personnel
Executive director, Operations division manager, Public relations, marketing, and hospitality division manager.
Seven Basic Steps of Event Management Plans
Settling with the promoter
Cleaning up
Prevent Management Tasks
Scheduling the event, Negotiating the event, Coordinating the event
Staging the Event
Parking and seating,Customer service, Alcohol policies, Crowd management
Crowd management
defined as techniques used to manage lawful public assemblies before, during and after the event for the purpose of maintaining their lawful status.

This can be accomplished in part through coordination with event planners and group leaders, permit monitoring, and past event critiques

Crowd Management Plan
Staff training, Emergency planning, Ensuring accessibility for disabled, Procedures for ejecting disruptive people, Efficient communication system, Effective signage
Post event Tasks
Event cleanup, Settlement – with suppliers, distributors, retailers, vendors, security, all other related businesses. , Evaluating the event
The sports industry takes advantage of its global mass audience appeal to focus its products to a truly global economy.The process of globalization in sport especially has been referred to as “Americanization” due to the emulation of the North American perspective of sport.
International Sport
Context in which an individual, organization, or event operates within the international sport enterprise., Degree to which action by an individual, organization or event focuses primarily on the international stage.
Factors in Unprecedented International Growth
Olympic Games , Opportunities for women, Redefinition of international sport , Extension of recruitment and marketing , Emerging economies as potential hosts, International sidebar: Sport Mega Events in Brazil: Initial Repercussions
Dramatic Changes in the Olympic Games
1968 Mexico City Games, Summer Olympics of 1972-Permanently altered safety and security procedures Conflict between amateurism and professionalism, Controversy involving individual athletes, Debate over inequities in team sports
Title IX
Set off revolution in women’s sports worldwide. Women and men now nearly equal in number of athletes, sports, events.
Title IX continues to develop opportunities for female athletes all over the United States, but as already discussed, not without controversy.
Women assuming leadership roles in international federations
Women and Sport Working Group
Olympic Games go corporate and professional
no more amateur status, reference is completely eliminated from Olympic Charter.
Shift in the balance of power and players
no more universal dominance by USA in Int’l sport scene.
Soccer: the world’s sport obsession
no other sport has expanded globally and aggressively as soccer
Ambush marketing
a tactic whereby a company attempts to undermine the sponsorship activities of a rival that owns the legal rights to sponsor an event intended to cerate the sense that the ambusher is officially associated with the event.
Numerous options of athletes and teams
other countries have improved their sporting mgmt infrastructure and offer more competitive athlete products.
Enhanced access of consumers
media and technology give us all the access we demand
Concerns associated with governance
Corporate sponsorship , Drug testing and arbitration , Assistive devices, Paralympic governance concerns
Nike’s ability to globally sell its product and to incorporate a variety of athletes under its brand image has made the most significant impact on the sports industry’s emergence as a globalization trend-setter for other industries.
Issues with international sport expansion
Drug Testing and Arbitration –
Doping issues are handled by WADA (World Anti-Doping Association) at international events.
The CAS (Court of Arbitration for Sport) mediates sport-related disputes that cross national boundaries.
Blood doping
the practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells, which transport oxygen, to enhance athletic performance.
Social Media and Olympic and Paralympic Games
Social media guidelines and athletes
Critical thinking in international sport
Expanded leisure time and extended life expectancy, Effect of recreational and sport facilities on the environment
Ethics in international sport
Relocation of sporting goods manufacturing companies
A foreseeable one time event, highly probable yet very low, or narrow in scope, of consequence. There is usually no loss of organisational resilience in these situations
A situation or series of events that can have negative or positive consequences. , Managing such issues properly can either reduce damage to you and your business, or create a profit, or growth opportunity.
A situation that will impact an organisation or person on multiple levels., It is highly improbable, yet highly devastating to a wide range of stakeholders. , It is formed from a series of seemingly unimportant trigger events that grow in impact exponentially to affect multiple areas at once.
These plans are prepared in advance, to deal with various situations, and have to consider the pluses and minuses of each contingency.
Risk management
is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities (Hubbard, 2009).
AS/NZS 4360
In 2004 the Australian and New Zealand govt.’s amended the code due to 9/11 and related issues which proved the need to adjust it to growing global economic complexity
Common RM strategies include
Identify and characterize threats, Assess the vulnerability of critical assets to specific threats, Determine the risk (i.e. the expected likelihood and consequences of specific types of attacks on specific assets), Identify ways to reduce those risks, Prioritize risk reduction measures based on a strategy
eliminate, withdraw from or outright avoid any situations deemed potentially capable of developing into crisis
optimize through reduction the severity of the risk occurring to you. There must be a balance struck between action taken for reduction and the outcome.
transfer via sharing with another party the burden of loss or the benefit of gain, from a risk, and the measures to reduce a risk. This is often mistakenly seen as a way to avoid accountability from a risk or disaster.
accept and budget accordingly for any loss or gain from a risk
safety and well-being
From Lee, Farley, and Kwon (2010); “The basic philosophy of a RM plan is to reduce the potential for injury to all participants and to reduce the potential of lawsuits against recreational sport program professionals at universities
Sports Events
From Jennings & Lodge (2009); “the complex interdependence of infrastructure and operations at sporting mega-events makes them high risk, when compared with regular athletics meetings or football league competitions. Mega- events therefore represent a site for all kinds of organisational and technological failures, combined with elevation of the threat level from terrorists incidents duet to the global profile of events such as the Olympics and the World Cup.”
Crisis Management (or Leadership
Has grown out of RM due to the increasing complexity of society and its problems., CM is directed at seeking proactive solutions to situations that threaten to become crises if not properly handled. , CM is concerned with seeking methods to recognize problems before they happen, and lead, rather than manage.

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