key terms Marketing Research #2

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Outside Agency
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An independent research firm contracted by the company that actually will benefit from the research (ADVANTAGES= -fresh perspective -more objectivity -special expertise -market knowledge)
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In-House Research
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Research performed by employees of the company that will benefit from the research (ADVANTAGES= -quick turn around -better collaboration w/ employees -cheaper costs -secret process)
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Research Suppliers
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commercial providers of marketing research services
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Syndicated Service
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A marketing research supplier that provides standardized information for many clients in return for a fee.
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Standardized Research Service
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Companies that develop a unique methodology for investigating a business specialty area EX: retail forward provides location services for retail firms.
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Limited Service Research Suppliers
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Specialize in particular research activities, such as syndicated service, field interviewing, data warehousing, or data processing.
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Custom Research
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Projects that are tailored specifically to a clients unique needs
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Size of marketing research firm SMALL FIRM
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<100 employees VP of marketing may be in charge of all significant marketing research
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MID SIZED FIRMS
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100-500 Employees
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LARGE FIRMS
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>500 employees
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Cross Functional Teams
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Composed of individuals from various functional areas such as engineering, production, finance, and marketing who share a common purpose.
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Benefits of Cross Functional Teams
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-help organizations focus on a core business process, such as new-product development -reduce the tendency for employees to focus single mindedly on an isolated functional activity -help to better communicate customers’ desires and opinions across the firm
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Marketing Ethics
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The application of morals to behavior related to the exchange environment
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Moral Standards
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Principles that reflect beliefs about what is ethical and what is unethical
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Ethical Dilemma
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A situation in which one chooses from alternative courses of actions, each with different ethical implications.
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Relativism
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-A term that reflects the degree to which one rejects moral standards in favor of the acceptability of some action -This way of thinking rejects absolute principles in favor of situation based evaluations
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idealism
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a term that reflects the degree to which one bases ones morality on moral standards EX: the golden rule
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Placebo
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A false experimental effect used to create the perception of true effect
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debriefing
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research subjects are fully informed and provided with a chance to ask any questions they may have about the experiment
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mystery shoppers
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employees of a research firm that are paid to pretend to be actual shoppers
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CHAPTER 5
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CHAPTER 5
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Decision Statement
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A written expression of the key question(s) that the research user wishes to answer
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Problem Definition
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The Process of defining and developing a decision statement and the steps involved in translating it into more precise research terminology, including a set of research objectives
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problem
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occurs when there is a difference between the current conditions and a more preferable set of conditions
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Problem Definition Process Steps
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1. Understand the business situation–identify key symptoms 2. Identify key problem(s) from symptoms 3. Write a managerial decision statement and corresponding research objectives 4. Determine the unit of analysis 5. Determine the relevant variables 6. Write research questions and/or research hypotheses
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Situation Analysis
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involves the gathering of background information to familiarize researchers and managers with the decision making environment
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Interview Process
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-develop many alternative problem statements -think about possible solutions to the problem -make lists -be open-minded
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unit of analysis
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indicates what or who should provide the data and at what level of aggregation
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research proposal
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a written statement of the research design
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dummy tables
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Tables placed in research proposals that are exact representations of the actual tables that will show results in the final report with the exception that the results are hypothetical (fictitious)
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CHAPTER 6
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CHAPTER 6
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Qualitative Marketing research
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research that addresses marketing objectives through techniques that allow the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of market phenomena without depending on numerical measurement (its focus is on discovering true inner meanings and new insights)
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Researcher Dependent
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Researcher must extract meaning from unstructured responses such as text from a recorded interview or a collage representing the meaning of some experience.
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QUANTITATIVE Marketing Research
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DESCRIPTIVE AND CONCLUSIVE -addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and statistical analysis
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QUALITATIVE Marketing Research
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EXPLORATORY -uses small versus large samples -asks a broad range of questions versus structured questions -subjective interpretation versus statistical analysis
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Major categories of qualitative Research
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1. Phenomenology- originating in philosophy and psychology 2. ethnography- originating in anthropology 3. grounded theory- originating in sociology 4. case studies- originating in psychology and in business research
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qualitative data
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data that are not characterized by numbers but rather are textual, visual, or oral (stories, visual portrayals etc.)
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quantitative data
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represent phenomena by assigning numbers in an ordered and meaningful way
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idea generation
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can generate ideas for new products, advertising copy, promotions, and product improvements
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concept testing
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a frequently performed type of exploratory research representing many similar research procedures all having the same purpose: to screen new, revised, or repositioned ideas.
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Phenomenology
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-a philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined in which people live. -seeks to describe, reflect upon, and interpret experiences
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Hermeneutics
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an approach to understanding phenomenology that relies on analysis of texts through which a person tells a story about him or herself.
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Hermeneutic Unit
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A text passage from a respondent’s story that is linked with a key theme from within the respondents story or provided by the researcher
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Ethnography
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Represents ways of studying cultures through methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture
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Participant-Observation
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An ethnographic research approach where the researcher becomes immersed within the culture that he or she is studying and draws data from his or her observations
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Grounded Theory
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represents an inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records (what is happening here? How is it different?)
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Case studies
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The documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event
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Themes
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are identified by the frequency with which the same term (or synonym) arises in the narrative description
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Focus Group Interview
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An unstructured, free flowing interview with a small group (6-10 people) led by a moderator who encourages dialogue among respondents.
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Focus Group Moderator
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A person who leads a focus group interview and insures that everyone gets a chance to speak and contribute to the discussion.
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Depth Interview
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A one on one interview between a professional researcher and a research respondent conducted about some relevant business or social topic.
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laddering
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a particular approach to probing asking respondents to compare differences between brands at different levels
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conversations
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an informal qualitative data gathering approach in which the researcher engages a respondent in a discussion of the relevant subject matter
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semi structured interviews
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written form and ask respondents for short essay responses to specific open ended questions.
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free association techniques
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-record a respondents first cognitive reactions (top of mind) to some stimulus -allo researchers to map a respondents thoughts or memory
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Thematic perception Test (TAT)
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-presents subjects with an ambiguous picture in which consumers and products are the center of attention -investigator asks the subject to tell what is happneing in the picture now and what might happen next -picture frustration
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projective technique
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an indirect means of questioning enabling respondents to project beliefs and feelings onto a third party, and inanimate object, or a task situation. -particularly useful in studying sensitive issues
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discussion guide
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incudes written introductory comments informing the group about the focus group purpose and rules and then outlines topics or questions to be addressed in the group session.
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videoconferencing
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marketing managers can watch on television rather than having to take a trip to a focus group facility
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streaming media
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consist of multimedia content such as audio or video that is made available in real time over the internet or a corporate intranet.
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focus blog
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a type of informal, “continuous” focus group established as an internet blog for the purpose of collecting qualitative data from participant comments.
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CHAPTER 7
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CHAPTER 7
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secondary data
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data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current project
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Data conversion
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the process of changing the original form of the data to a format suitable to achieve the research objective
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cross-checks
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the comparison of data from one source with data from another source to determine the similarity of independent projects.
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TYPICAL OBJECTIVES FOR SECONDARY DATA RESEARCH DESIGNS
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-Fact Finding -model building -database marketing
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Fact Finding
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-Identification of consumer behavior for a product category -Trend analysis —-market tracking: the observation and analysis of trends in industry volume and brand share over time -enviornmental scanning
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Neural Network
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a form of artificial intelligence in which a computer is programmed to mimic the way that human brains process information
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Market Basket Analysis
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a form of data mining that analyzes anonymous point of sale transaction databases to identify coinciding purchases or relationships between products purchased and other retail shopping information
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customer discovery
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involves mining data to look for patterns identifying who is likely to be a valuable customer.
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database marketing
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the use of customer relationship management databases to promote one to one relationships with customer and create precisely targeted promotions

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