juvenile delinquency chap 1-4

juvenile delinquency
an act committed by a minor that violates the penal code of the government with authority over the area in which the act occurs

juvenile
a youth at or below the upper age of a juvenile court jurisdiction in a particular state

adolescence
The life interval between childhood and adulthood; usually the period between the ages of 12 and 18 years

PAST TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENCE
-treated as small adults
-expected to work in the home or outside the home at a young age
-education is seen as a minor significance and usually extends only a few years
-adolescent girls are expected to marry and raise a family
-minimal emotionally attachment to children because of high infant death rates
-children are punished like adults
-children were seen as having few rights
PRESENT TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENCE
-adolescence is seen as preparation for adulthood
-employment takes place after school or on weekends and is usually seen as making extra money
-compulsory education and increased emphasis is placed on attending college
-growing equality for female adolescence
-emotional investment in children from birth
-children, especially those who commit minor crimes, are protected by the state and are placed in a separate system from adults
-special legal protections were granted to juveniles in the final decades of the late nineteenth century

Positive Youth Development (PYD)
A comprehensive way of thinking about adolescence that challenges the traditional deficit-based perspective by pointing out that youths can sometimes thrive even in the presence of multiple risk factors

delinquent youth
A young person who has committed a crime or violated probation

status offense
A nondelinquent/noncriminal offense; an offense that is illegal for underage persons but not adults.includes: curfew violations, incorrigibility, running away,truancy, and underage drinking

status offender
A juvenile who commits a minor act that is considered illegal only because he or she is underage

developmental life-course (DLC)
A framework suggesting that four key factors determine the shape of the life course: location in time and place, linked lives, human agency, and timing of our lives

Human agency
the active role juveniles take in their lives; the fact that juveniles are not merely subject to social and structural constraints but also make choices and decisions based on on the alternatives that they see before them

parens patriae
a medieval English doctrine that sanctioned the right of the crown to intervene in natural family relations whenever a child’s welfare was threatened. the philosophy of the juvenile court is based on this legal concept. under this the court assumed the parental role over juvenile lawbreakers

delinquency
-when a youth has been accused of committing an act, which would be considered criminal, if they were an adult
-when a youth has been accused of committing a status offense

dependency/neglect
if a court determines that a child is being deprived of needed support and supervision

the juvenile justice and delinquency prevention (JJDP) act of 1974
a federal law that established a juvenile justice office within the then existing Law Enforcement Assistance Administration to provide funds for the prevention and control of youth crime
-required status offenders to be kept separate from delinquents in secure facilities, in order to receive funding
-violations of the requirement are not uncommon

Three themes of the text
-delinquency prevention
-developmental life course theory
-delinquency and social policy

delinquency prevention
resiliency: the capacity to regain personal power and develop a strong care sense of self in the face of poverty, sever family hardship, and community devastation
-occurs when youth live in environments that:
1. offer caring and supportive relationships
2. hold high expectations for behavior and attitudes
3. provide opportunities for meaningful participation

developmental life course theory
-a framework suggesting that four key factors determine the shape of the life course: location in time and place, linked lives, human agency, timing of lives
-holds that human development and aging are lifelong processes, and that people are rational actors who make decisions as they go through life
-the choices can be influenced by the turning points that change or modify the strength of social ties
-crime is more likely to occur when an individual’s ties to the wider society are disrupted

delinquency and social policy
-asks what can be done to improve the quality of young people’s lives
-provides ideas for effectively treating and controlling youth crime
-social programs based on evidence derived from research are evidence based
– the two basic tools of social science are research and theory

free will
the ability to make rational choices among possible actions and to select one over others

utilitarianism
a doctrine that holds that the useful is the good and that the aim of social or political action should be the greatest good for the greatest number

felicific calculus
a method for determining the sum total of pleasure and pain produced by an act; also the assumption that human beings strive to obtain a favorable balance of pleasure and pain

routine activities approach
the contention that crime rate trends and cycles are related to the nature of everyday patterns of social interaction that characterize the society in which they occur

positivism
the view that just as laws operate in the medical, biological, and physical sciences, laws govern human behavior and these laws can be understood and used

progressive era
the period from around 1890 to 1920, when a wave of optimism swept through american society and led to the acceptance of positivism

determinism
a philosophical position that suggests that individuals are driven into delinquent or criminal behavior by biological or psychological traits that are beyond their control

biological positivism
the belief that juveniles biological characteristics and limitations drive them to delinquent behavior

born criminal
an individual who is atavistic, who reverts to an earlier evolutionary level, and is unable to conform his or her behavior to the requirements of modern society-thus, an individual who is innately criminal

sociobiology
an expression of biological positivism that stresses the interaction between biological factors within an individual and the influence of the person’s particular environment; also the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior

autonomic nervous system
the system of nerves that govern reflexes, glands, the iris of the eye, and activities of interior organs that are not subject to voluntary control

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a cognitive disorder of childhood that can include inattention, distractibility, excessive activity, restlessness, noisiness, impulsiveness, and so on

emotionality
an aspect of temperament. it can range from a near absence of emotional response to intense, out-of-control emotional reactions

learning disability (LD)
a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language

orthomolecular imbalance
a chemical imbalance in the body, resulting from poor nutrition, allergies, or exposure to lead and certain other substances, which is said to lead to delinquency

psychoanalytic theory
a theory based on Sigmund Freud’s insights, which have helped to shape the handling of juvenile delinquents. they include these axioms: (1) the personality is made up of three components- id,ego, and superego; (2) a normal child passes through three psychosexual stages of development- oral, anal, and phallic; and (3) a person’s personality traits are developed in early childhood

reinforcement theory
a perspective that holds that behavior is governed by its consequences, especially rewards and punishments that follow from it

trait-based personality model
a theory that attributes delinquent behavior to an individual’s basic inborn characteristics

psychopath
an individual with a personality disorder, or a hardcore juvenile delinquent/ adult criminal; also called a sociopath

cognitive theory
a perspective on human development that says children develop cognitive abilities through interaction with the physical and social worlds

life-course-persistent (LCP) offenders
offenders who begin offending early in life and persistently engage in criminal and antisocial activities over the duration of the life course

adolescent-limited (AL) offenders
individuals who offend only for a very short period of time that is limited to the adolescent years

desistance
the termination of a delinquent career or behavior

developmental theory
delinquency occurs due to life circumstances and a lack of more development

social contract
an unstated or explicit agreement between a people and its government as to the rights and obligations of each

rational choice theory
based on the assumption that the delinquent or criminal chooses to violate the law and has free will

cultural transmission theory
an approach that holds that areas of concentrated crime maintain their high rates over a long period, even when the composition of the population rapidly changes, because delinquent “values” become cultural norms and are passed from one generation to the next

cultural deviance theory
a theory wherein delinquent behavior is viewed as an expression of conformity to cultural values and norms that are in opposition to those of the larger U.S. society

strain theory
proposes that delinquency results from the frustrations individuals feel when they are unable to achieve the goals they desire

Robert Merton
placed emphasis on two elements of social and cultural systems:
-culturally defined goals: the set of purposed and interests a culture defines as legitimate objectives for an individual
-institutionalized means: culturally sanctioned methods of obtaining these goals

mertons 5 types of adaptation
1 conformity
2 innovation
3 ritualism
4 retreatism
5 rebellion

blocked opportunity
-the limited or nonexistent chance of success
-according to strain theory, a key factor in delinquency

social structure
the relatively stable formal and informal arrangements that characterize a society, including its economic arrangements, social institutions, and values and norms

social process theories
a theoretical approach to delinquency that examines the interactions between individuals and their environments, especially those that might influence them to become involved in delinquent behavior