Juvenile Delinquency (Ch. 5)

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Commitment to the Social Bond
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the attachment that a juvenile has to conventional institutions and activites
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Containment Theory
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a theoretical perspective that strong inner containment and reinforcing external containment provide insulation against delinquent and juvenile behaviors
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Control Theory
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any of several theoretical approaches that maintain that human behavior must be held in check or somehow be controlled, if delinquent tendencies are to be repressed
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Differential Association Theory
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the view that delinquency is learned from others and that delinquent behavior is to be expected of individuals who have internalized a preponderance of definitions that are favorable to law violators
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Differential Identification Theory
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a modification of differential association theory that applies the interactionist concept of the self, allows for choice, and stresses the importance of motives
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Drift Theory
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the theoretical perspective that juveniles neutralize the moral hold of society and drift into delinquent behavior
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Neutralization Theory
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a theory examining how youngsters attempt to justify or rationalize their responsibility for delinquent acts
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Social Control Theory
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a perspective that delinquent acts result when a juvenile’s bond to society is weak or broken
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Social Development Model
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a perspective based on the integration of social control and cultural learning theories that proposed that the development to attachments to parents will lead to attachments to school and a commitment to education as well as belief in and commitment to conventional behavior and the law
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Social Process Theory
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a theoretical approach to delinquency that examines the interactions between individuals and their environments, especially those that might influence them to become involved in delinquent behavior
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Soft Determinism
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the view that delinquents are neither wholly free nor wholly constrained in their choices of actions
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Differential Association Theory
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suggests that individuals learn from their association with small groups
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Social Control Approaches and Bonding Theory
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the more strongly adolescents are attached by positive social bonds, the more likely they will refrain fro delinquent behavior
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Containment Theory
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states that positive experiences in the home, the school, and the community will lead to the development of a positive self-concept, thereby insulating individuals from delinquency
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Process Theories
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are helpful in understanding the continuation of or desistance from, delinquency across the life course. Bonding with significant others, drifting in and out of delinquent behavior, and developing self concept are key ideas in these theories.
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Gottfredson and Hirschi
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creators of the general theory of crime, which defines the lack of self control as the common element underlying problem behaviors
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Theory Integration
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usually implies the combinations of two or more existing theories on the basis of their perceived commonalities
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Elliot and Colleagues
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creators of an integrated social process theory which contends that the experience of living in socially disorganized areas leads young people to develop weak social bond with conventional groups, activities, and norms. High levels of strain, as well as weak bonds, lead some youths to seek out delinquent peer groups
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Thornberry
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the creator of the Interactional theory which suggests that delinquency leads to the formation of delinquent values, which then contribute to the disintegration of conventional bonds and greater attachment to antisocial peers
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Hawkins and Weis
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the creators of the social development model
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Social Process Theories
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Differential Association theory, Drift theory, social control theories
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Sutherland
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the creator of differential association theory
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Matza
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the creator of drift theory and neutralization theory
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5 techniques of Neurtalization
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Denial of Responsibility, Denial of Injury, Denial of Victim, Condemnation of the Condemners, Appeal to Higher Loyalties
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Reckless
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the creator of containment theory
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Integrated Theories
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Four of these are discussed. Gottfredson and Hirschi (General Theory of Crime) Elliot and Colleagues (Integrated Social Process Theory) Thornberry (Interactional Theory) Hawkins and Weis (Social Development Model)

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