ITM 105 – Space

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Two major types of system software programs.
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Utility programs and the operating system
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The ____ of the operating system enables users to communicate with the computer system.
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User interface
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OS X is the operating system developed by _____?
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Apple
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NOT a network operating system
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MS-DOS
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UNIX developed by Ken Thompson and Dennis Richie, who worked where?
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AT and T’s Bell Labs
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Operating system used by supercomputers
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Linux
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Operating system used on tablets
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Android and iOS
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Operating system used by smartphones
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Google and Apple
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Operating system used by desktop and labtops
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Windows
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OneDrive
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accounts for easy access and storage of online files (used by Windows 8)
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Latest version of Mac OS X
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Mavericks
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NOT a user interface
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GUI (Graphical user interface)
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Virtual memory
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using hard disk space to temporarily store data or instructions from RAM
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Device driver
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enables the device and operating system to communicate with each other (each device connected to computer comes with this program)
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First step in boot process
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BIOS is activated
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basic input/output system (BOIS) is stored on
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ROM chip
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top level directory
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ex; C: top of the filing structure of a computer
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(Windows 8 File explorer) view that provides most info at a glance
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details
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CANT be used in OS X file name
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:
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File path
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location of a file ex) C:\WindowsSystem32driversetcprotocol
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Disk Defragmenter
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arranges pieces of files on your hard drive to allow for faster access
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File Compression
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removes redundancies in a file to reduce the file size.
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Windows Task Manager
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check on a nonresponsive program
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Time machine
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backup utility, Mac OS X includes
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Gaming consoles DO need an operating system.
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A personal computer CAN have more then one operating system installed on it.
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Computer runs out of RAM it DOES NOT borrow from CPU
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CMOS is NOT a special kind of memory that uses a great deal of power
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Preemptive multitasking
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the operating system processes higher- priority tasks before lower-priority tasks.
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File names in Windows is NOT case-sensitive
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Moore’s Law
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rule of thumb that predicts the CPU capacity will double every 2 years
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Processor market for desktop and laptops is dominated by_____?
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Intel
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Does NOT determine processor power
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Speed of the motherboard
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Activity carried out by the ALU
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Perform arithmetic calculations
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NOT a part of the machine cycle
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encode
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CPU consists of two parts
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The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit
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Control unit is one component of the ______
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CPU
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Overclocking
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running the CPU at a faster speed than the manufacturer recommends
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There are _____ levels of cache memory
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three
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Hyperthreading
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provides high speed info processing by enabling a new set of instructions to start before the previous set is finished.
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Speed level of cache memory is impacted by
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the chips proximity of the CPU
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RAM is an example of ________ storage measure in _______ Type used in current systems?
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volatile GB DDR3
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SuperFetch
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monitors which application you frequently use and preloads them into your system memory.
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Referring to hard drives, access time is measure in _________
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milliseconds
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Solid-state drive
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uses electronic memory and has no motors or moving parts
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optical disc with greatest storage capacity?
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Blu-ray
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NOT an optical disc format
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Read-erasable (RE)
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________ has the largest capacity of any storage device?
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Mechanical hard drive
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NOT used to connect to a video card?
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USB
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_______ is installed on video cards to speed up display of graphics
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GPU
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Sound card
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enables the computer to drive the speaker system
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In Dolby Digital 7.1 the 1 =
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subwoofer speaker
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Disk defragmentor utility
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will make the hard drive work efficiently
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Disk cleanup utility
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quick way to clear out unnecessary files
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(Windows) Refresh Utility
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returns your computer to the state it was in when it came from the factory.
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To securely erase data, the US Department of Defense suggest that the data be overwritten _______ times
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7
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Multiple cores on one CPU chip allows the execution of 2 or more sets of instructions at the same time.
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Cache memory is NOT a form of ROM
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Level 1 cache contains least amount of storage.
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Faster to access data from hard drive by sending to CPU
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Optical discs store data using tiny pits and lands.
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Video cards include their own RAM
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RAID 0 does NOT auto duplicate your data and save it to 2 identical drives
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Thunderbolt can NOT carry 3 channels of info to same connector.
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Computer network
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is 2 or more computers connected using software and hardware so that they can communicate with each other
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Node
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device connected to a network such as a printer or game console.
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Throughput
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actual speed of data transfer that is achieved and is always less than or = to the data transfer rate.
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NOT used to classify network architectures
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Speed of the network
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Bandwidth
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max speed data can be transferred between two nodes.
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HAN
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network located in home that connects to all your digital devices
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WAN
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network spans a large physical distance ex) internet
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MAN
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network designed to provide access to specific geographic area, such as large city.
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Fiber-optic cable
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transmission medium that transmits data the fastest
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Normal telephone cable is a type of _____
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twisted-pair cable.
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client/server network is an ex) of_____
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central administration
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P2P network is an ex) of
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local administration
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Fastest version of wireless Ethernet
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802.11ac
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Cable NOT used in wired networks
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Unshielded coaxial
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NOT a type of UTP cable used in wired Ethernet
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Cat 7B
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UTP (unshielded twisted-pair)
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most popular transmission media option for wired Ethernet networks.
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Wireless network devices use ______ to communicate with each other
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radio waves.
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network adapter (each nodes needs this)
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for nodes on a network to communicate with each other and access the network.
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switch (on a network)
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helps prevent data packets from colliding with each other
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Sophisticated networks use ________ to ease the flow of data through the network
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Routers and Switches
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Router
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to transfer data packets between two or more networks.
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Packets
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data are sent through a network in bundles
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Does NOT support P2P
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Unix
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Network operating system (NOS)
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client/server network controlled by a central server that runs specialized software.
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NAS
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facilitates file sharing and data backup
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piggybacking
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using a network without the network owner’s permission.
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-P2P, one computer does NOT act as a central computer -it IS most common on home networks -does NOT need operating system software installed on every node
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Current Ethernet in US is NOT based on IEEE 802.11ac
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Ethernet networks are NOT always connected twisted pair cable tech.
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Most popular transmission media option for wired Ethernet networks
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UTP cable
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Router does NOT act as traffic sign
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WEP NOT stronger form of security than WPA
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Form 1 3D printer founders used crowfunding site _______ to ask for $100,000 in pledges
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Kickstarter
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Digital convergence
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use of a single unifying device that handles media, internet, entertainment, and telephone needs.
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define iOS
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operating system for mobile devices
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operating system of cell is stored in ______?
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ROM
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primary input devices for smartphones
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microphone and touch pad
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Google Play
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online store that delivers software for Android devices
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Analog-to-digital converter chip
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converts sound waves from a voice into digital signal
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Digital signal processor chip
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in cells, to handle the compression of data for it to be quickly transmitted to another phone.
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Bluetooth
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uses radio waves to transmit data signals over short distances.
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Many mobile devices include a micro _____ port
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USB
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Text messaging also called limited to _____ characters
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short message service (SMS) 160
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Multimedia message service (MMS)
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can send photos and videos
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Data plan
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internet connectivity plan
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VoIP disadvantage
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reliability
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global positioning system is a network of 21 _____ + 3 spares
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satellites
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distance between two near field communication (NFC) devices is limited to
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1.5 in
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in US, ebooks account for ____ of book sales
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20-30%
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E-text
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digital textual info that can be stored, manipulated and transmitted by electronic devices
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Digital rights management
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allows only limited use of media that have been legally purchased
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Sampling rate
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number of times an analog wave is measured each second during an analog to digital conversion
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digital image format compresses the image file
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JPEG

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