Italian Unification Test Questions

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1796
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Napoleon’s army overruns Italy.
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French Revolution
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1787 – 1799
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Who ruled where before Napoleon’s invasion?
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Piedmont and Sardinia – House of Savoy Lombardy – junior members of Hapsburg Family, most advanced part of Italy economically Venetia – local aristocracy with heavy Austrian influence Tuscany, Modena and Parma – own Dukes with heavy Austrian influence Papal States – the Pope , weak economically and relied on support from other Catholic countries Naples and Sicily – (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) Bourbon Family, largest and poorest region of Italy
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How did Napoleon split Italy?
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Kingdom of Naples – Napoleon’s brother became king. Sicily ruled by British and no longer included. 1/3 became Kingdom of Italy ruled by Napoleon – included Lombardy and Venetia. 1/3 annexed to France (part of the French Empire) – included central Duchies, Papal States, and Piedmont.
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Results of French Rule
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Educated rich – inspired by French ideas. Benefited financially. French rule often fell short of standards it aspired to. Many Italians wanted to overthrow French rule. Peasants – struggled to survive, very poor. 80/90% of population.
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Napoleon 1815
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Defeated at Waterloo – his final defeat. Ends French rule of Italy. All Napoleon’s boundary changes were set aside and Congress of Vienna met to restore Italy to how it was before French invasion.
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Congress of Vienna 1815
Congress of Vienna 1815
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Europe’s powers met to return Italy roughly to how it was before 1796. Piedmont – given to King Victor Emmanuel I and now included Savoy and Genoa. Lombardy and Venetia joined – controlled from Vienna. Central Duchies – returned to local Austrian rulers (eg. Ferdinand III). Papal States – controlled by Pope. Austrian forces stationed there, however. Naples and Sicily – King Ferdinand I, independent but would make no major changes without Austrian approval. Austrian hegemony was restored, believed it would created much needed stability. In accordance with plans of Austrian Chancellor, Metternich, who wanted to “extinguish the spirit of Italian unity and ideas about constitutions”.
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2 progressively ruled states in 1815?
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Tuscany and Parma.
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4 states which were backwards in 1815?
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Piedmont – Victor Emmanuel I returned it very much back to pre-Napoleonic days. Old customs and barriers were reintroduced, such as Church being in charge of education. Modena – Habsburg Duke hated Liberals and returned small Duchy to pre-Napoleonic days, much the same as in Piedmont. Papal States – series of hard line Popes (the zealots) established a tight hold on government, education, culture and politics. Religious persecution increased, any religion other than Roman Catholic was forbidden. Poorest and most backward of the Italian states. Naples – Bourbon King Ferdinand bought Sicily back under control of Naples (cancelled Sicilian constitution of 1912 which allowed the people to have a say in government). Ferdinand’s rule was oppressive and reactionary, with little success, and in Naples and Sicily began the first of a series of revolutions in 1820.
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5 Barriers to Unification
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Tradition of localism and separatism – little cooperation between Italian States, geographically very few roads and many mountains, backward, no single dialect so communication was hard. A North/South divide. Autocratic Rule – rule of aristocracy, many poor people, the educated elite was few and very rich. Papal states was especially backwards. Local rulers opposed plans for unity as that would mean loss of power and privileges. Austria – important conservative Catholic power. Considerable influence in Italy after 1815 and stopped many attempts at the unification of Italy. Kept the Pope in place in the central states. Hegemony restored at Congress of Vienna in 1815, life is good for rich and bad for poor. Lack of popular support for Liberalism and Nationalism – majority were illiterate peasants. Most concerned with immediate grievances, not politics, and many didn’t even know what was going on outside own villages. Papacy – fierce opponents to ideas of Liberalism and Nationalism coming from French Revolution.
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Carbonari
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Secret revolutionary society formed from the influence of the French Revolution. Revolutions of 1820 – 1831 principally associated with them. Earliest secret societies influenced by freemasonry, rational thinking of the enlightenment, success of revolutionary France, and the impact of French rule in Napoleonic period. Societies made up of educated middle-class and junior army officers as well as progressive aristocrats/rich. Tended to support political change along the ideas of the Spanish Constitution of 1812. Key figures – Count Santarosa, Mazzini, General Pepe.
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Revolution 1820
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Naples. Spaniards had successfully revolted over disputed about their Constitution of 1812. Inspired similar movements in Italy. General Pepe (leading Cabonaro) forced a democratic constitution on the King Ferdinand I. He agreed to enact it. Revolutionaries failed to gain popular support and fell to Austrian troops of the Holy Alliance. Ferdinand abolished the constitution and began to persecute known revolutionaries. Failed.
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Revolution 1821
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Piedmont. Leader was Count of Santarosa. Wanted to remove Austrians and unify Italy under constitutional Piedmontese monarchy. Radicals forced King Victor Emmanuel I to abdicate. Charles Albert (acting as regent for Charles Felix who was in Modena during the revolutions) granted the Spanish Constitution of 1812 to appease revolutionaries. Charles Felix returned and disavowed (denied responsibility and support for) the constitution and called on Austria to help him. Santarosa’s troops defeated by the Austrians at Novara in 1821. Demonstrated the power of Austria and lack of support for nationalism. Failed.
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Revolutions 1830/1831
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Disorder spread throughout Central Italy in a chain reaction from Modena (Menotti is leader) to the Papal States. Revolutionaries planned to get freedom from Austria. Provisional governments formed. 1831 – rebels in the Papal states demanded civilian government. Pope appealed to Austria and rebellion was crushed. Failed.
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What do the failed revolutions of 1820 – 1831 show?
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There is no force strong enough in Italy to change the political map. The Austrians are too strong – they are able to put down every attempt at revolution and change.
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2 types of Nationalism
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Cultural – believe people will come together through a common Italian culture which is being created from the 18thC onwards. Italian language is invented in the 1800s, very few people are literate but those that are realise there is a common culture developing and informally these people decide that they need a common language. Political – believe problem with Italy is that its under Austrian hegemony, the Catholic church/Papacy, and absolutist monarchies. Need constitutional governments to create unity.
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Key Figures in the Risorgimento
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CULTURAL NATIONALISM – Alfieri. POLITICAL NATIONALISM – Manzoni, Mazzini, Gioberti, Balbo, Cattaneo, Manin, Cavour.
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Alfieri
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1870s. Poet and dramatist who starts using the phrase Risorgimento. Is keen on Italian culture, arguing that there is one.
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Manzoni
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Writes “I Promessi Sposi” (The Betrothed) in 1827 about foreign domination of Italy. Believes Italy would be fine without Austria.
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Mazzini
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Born in Genoa, seen as radical and his ideas were controversial for the 19thC. From a social perspective, he is a typical Italian revolutionary: educated and from university. Has been influenced by French and American revolutions. Believes there should be a single Italian state which is a Republic (controlled by the people). Starts “Young Italy” in 1831. Believes in “bottom up” revolutions, and his ideas were inspiration to many (such as Garibaldi), although, he was exiled for long periods and so was seen as out of touch and very idealistic by many. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICAN.
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Gioberti
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From Turin. Aware that Italy is a very poor country and has gone backwards. He thinks the problem is the autocratic duchies and the Austrians. He wants all states to embrace constitutional government (not democracy, parliaments elected by the landowners and well-educated). Doesn’t think there should be one unitary state. This idea is less scary than Mazzini’s as Gioberti is a Catholic Priest, so less radical. Seems more moderate and practical but is still a utopian idea. He suggested in 1843 that the Italian states should form a Federation with the Pope as President. His ideas were popular, with his book selling 5000 copies, but the corruption and oppression associated with the Papal States was too big an obstacle for these ideas to be put into operation. Situation changed in 1846 with election of Pius IX who was seen as Liberal. PAPAL FEDERALIST/NEO-GUELF.
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Balbo
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From Turin. Believes Austria and the autocratic monarchies are a large cause of all problems. Thinks there needs to be constitutional reforms. Wants a confederation led by the strongest of the Italian states (Piedmont) and the House of Savoy should take on the Austrian Empire to do so. “Top down” revolution. This is not very realistic but it is gradually moving towards something that is a little more pragmatic. MONARCHIST.
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Cattaneo
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From Milan (in Lombardy). Sees himself as Italy’s Thomas Jefferson. Republican who wants the Italian people to throw off their rulers and create democracy – “bottom up” revolution like Mazzini. Doesn’t think Italy will be able to create a unitary state because everyone is so different but he wants to create a United States of Italy, set up the way that the USA is. Too radical for the Catholics and property owners. FEDERAL REPUBLICAN.
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Manin
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From Venice. Really wants to re-establish the Venetian Republic. Thinks this could be done through the framework of a United States of Italy, similar idea to Cattaneo. Young Italians who are politically educated would be favourable to this, but still pretty radical for Catholics. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICAN.
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Camillo Cavour
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Becomes prime minister of Piedmont in 1852. Thinks Italy is a very poor backwards country and wants it to be more like Great Britain. His great hero is Sir Robert Peel (Conservative PM). He thinks the best things about Britain are that it has a constitutional monarchy that is controlled by the aristocracy. Doesn’t like democracy. Thinks that the ruling should be in the hands of the educated elite that will be responsible and take decisions to care for everyone; thinks the problem with democracy is tyranny of the majority that can occur. Aristocracy in Italy like this idea as it means they will be able to be in charge. Cavour wants Piedmont as a constitutional monarchy which is not a democracy, he wants to get rid of the Austrians and replace them with the hegemony of Piedmont. Similar ideas about constitutional government dominated by educated elite as Gioberti. MONARCHIST.
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Pope Pius IX
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Becomes Pope in 1846. Was initially seen as a Liberal Pope, was very emotional and impressionable, easily influenced by stronger personalities. However, turned out to be reactionary and not nearly as Liberal as expected. Political atmosphere heightened at his election. The reforms he made in the Papal States made him seem like the Pope that Gioberti envisaged.
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What reforms made Pope Pius IX seem Liberal?
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Amnesty given to exiles and political prisoners. Limited freedom of speech grated and press censorship modified. 1847 – agreed to a Council of Ministers to help in governing the Papal States. Actions can simply be seen as Pope worried about anti-Catholic ideas rising from Enlightenment, and so taking part in charitable actions to give the Papacy a better image.
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1844 – 1849
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Mazzinian style uprisings across Italy.
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1844
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Failed uprising by the Bandiera brothers in Naples – Nationalists from Venice. Followers of Mazzini – had correspondence with him and Young Italy. Founded their own secret society in 1841 and led the rising in Naples. It failed, and they were executed. This added fuel to the Nationalist cause as they were seen as martyrs.
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Where were the revolutions 1848 – 1849?
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Tuscany Piedmont Lombardy Papal States Sicily Venetia
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Why did the revolutions of 1848 – 1849 happen?
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1847 – Bad weather, bad harvest, worldwide economic depression, lots of unrest, especially among poorest peasants. 1848 – Vienna had fallen to revolution, and revolutionaries in Italy saw this as a chance to revolt against Austrian hegemony.
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Results of the 1848 – 1849 revolutions?
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Piedmont – Statuto (constitution) granted by an afraid King. Milan – 5 days of protest (which started as abandoning smoking to annoy Austrians who dominated the tobacco trade) drives the Austrians out. Papal States – Pius IX grants a constitution in Rome. The Liberal Pope is living up to expectations here. The order in Europe is beginning to fall – autocratic rulers and Austrians wondering if they will survive this. People are seeing success and thinking that anything is possible.
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Beginning of War Against Austria 1848
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Charles Albert – tries to take control of situation in Europe and declares war on Austria. He would say he is trying to save Italy from Austrians. Many radicals and revolutionaries see him as opportunist – trying to exploit the situation to replace Austrian hegemony with Piedmontese hegemony.
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Italia fara de se
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“Italy will make itself by itself” Charles Albert says this when he is getting carried away with war and revolution.
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The Allocution
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April 1848 Pope Piux IX issues a public statement condemning the war against Austria. Can’t be seen to support it as the Austrians hold up the Papacy. Significant in turning moderate Catholic opinion against nationalism/revolution, as the spiritual and political leader was not supporting it, so it made them not want to support it.
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Battle of Custoza 1848
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June. Charles Albert and the Piedmontese army is defeated. The Austrians begin reasserting order in the North after this.
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Novara 1849
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March. Final defeat of the Piedmontese army by Austria. Charles Albert abdicates and hands over throne to Victor Emmanuel (his son).
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Where does the Pope take refuge in 1849?
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Naples. He flees from Rome after the Piedmontese defeat.
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Roman Republic 1849
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Crushed by the French and Neapolitan troops. Puts Mazzini in power and brings Garibaldi to prominence.
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Mazzini’s Roman Republic 1849
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Mazzini was elected head of a governing body in Rome after the Papacy was crushed by the French and Neapolitan troops. Governed for 100 days. Ruled in a fair, tolerant and enlightened way. Made many reforms to the Republic.
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Fall of the Roman Republic June 1849
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Fell after Pope appealed to France, Spain and Naples to help free Rome from Mazzini. An army was sent to destroy the Republic, and they did this, although Garibaldi heroically defended it and therefore became of the legends of the Risorgimento.
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Influence of Events 1830 – 1849
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Showed that there was no force within Italy that could change the political map – not strong enough. Charles Albert – wrong when he said “Italia fara de se” because of divisions amongst revolutionaries, class differences, the Papacy, Austria and tradition of localism and separatism. Austria proven to be the single biggest problem. Revolutionary divisions – splits between republicans (Mazzini, Garibaldi) and monarchists (Balbo, Cavour) and Neo-Guelfs (Gioberti). Importance of Allocution – significant in turning moderate Catholic opinion against nationalism/revolution.
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Neo-Guelfism
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Movement of nationalists who wanted a united Italy under the Pope as King.
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Risorgimento
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Literal translation – “resurgence”. Movement for the unification and independence of Italy, which was achieved in 1870 – an attempt to get back to the good state of Italy before 18thC. Past Italy was idealised, and present Italy was less than perfect (in the words of Lucy Riall). Term first used by Alfieri. Cultural phenomenon – literature and opera contained notions of Risorgimento. It appealed to the small number of educated elite, and especially in terms of opera, an urban audience.
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Italian Language
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Largely decided by nationalist intellectuals. Came from the Tuscan dialect, as this was the language of famous poets such as Dante. To be the language of the Italian Peninsula. Reality – most people still used dialect.
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Key Figures of the Risorgimento
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Cavour (architect of Piedmont dominated Italy) Garibaldi D’Azeglio La Ferina
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Garibaldi
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Mazzinian ideas – influenced by him. Had part in revolutions of 1820 – 1831. Defended the Mazzinian Roman Republic in 1849 – gained prominence and was seen as brave and heroic by nationalists.
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D’Azeglio
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Prominent Piedmontese politician. PM of Piedmont before Cavour. Thought violent uprisings and revolutions were heroic but not the way forward – believed it was politics and continued pressure of public opinion that would cause unification. However, fought in 1848 – 1849 revolutions and supported Cavour’s Wars of Unification.
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La Ferina
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Key figure in the Nationalist Society (1857). Agreed to work with the Piedmontese monarchy as thought this would achieve unification.
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Nationalist Society 1857
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Made up of ex-Mazzinians/Republicans.
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1852
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Cavour becomes PM of Piedmont and Sardinia – replaces D’Azeglio. Failures of 1848/1849 tend to discredit Mazzini and Garibaldi and helped Cavour seek opportunity to front the cause for unification. Napoleon III becomes emperor of France.
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Development of Piedmont
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Under Cavour. Programme of economic and political reform. Building of railways, trade treaties, implementation of Church Reforms under the Siccardi Laws. Cavour used church resources to help with education. This caused conflict with the church – saw Cavour as too radical (even though he was less so than Mazzini) and they didn’t like power being taken away from them.
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Siccardi Laws 1850
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Anti-clerical laws. Stopped church from having separate law courts for priests, restricted rights of religious groups to buy property, limited number of feast days where people could not work.
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Crimean War
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1853 – 1856 Britain, France and Piedmont fighting with Turkey against Russia. Leading role was taken by Victor Emmanuel but Cavour was prepared to support intervention in the war in order to avert a domestic crisis between King and Parliament and open up foreign policy possibilities. Piedmont was not crucial in the winning of the war – Cavour would like to say it was though.
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1857
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Crisis point for many Mazzinians – Pisacane was trying to stage a Mazzinian style rising in Sapri and it failed. Dawning of Realism. Creation of the Nationalist Society – ex-Mazzinians and Republicans.
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Carlo Pisacane
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Similar views to Mazzini. Regarded rule of the House of Savoy as no better than Austrian rule. An atheist who represented the extreme left during the Risorgimento.
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1858
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Orsini’s attempt on the life of Napoleon III. Orsini is put on trial and to be killed, but Napoleon allows him to write a letter saying why he tried to kill him. Orsini says he thinks Napoleon should do more for Italy, and Napoleon is so touched by this that he lets him live and decides he’s going to do something about Italy. Opportunity created for The Pact of Plombieres.
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Pact of Plombieres 1858
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Napoleon III wants to do something about Austria but cannot be seen as provoking war in Europe, and so this pact is devised. Piedmont must provoke war with Austria. Piedmont will gain Lombardy and the Veneto. France will receive Nice and Savoy. The Pope will be left undisturbed. The Duchies will be left alone (but will actually come under the rule of Piedmont.) Kingdom of Naples will be left alone.
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Piedmontese-Austrian War 1859
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Victor Emmanuel – intensified provocation of war. “Grido di dolore” speech (Piedmont could not ignore the cry of pain coming from misgoverned Italians). War is nearly avoided by diplomacy – it looks like Cavour will have to respond to Austria with diplomatic pressure, largely from the British. Cavour’s plans were saved by Austrian intemperance (lack of moderation/restraint) which allowed Napoleon III to intervene after Austria declares war.
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Peace of Villafranca 1859
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Napoleon III realises the war is getting very expensive and will not be easy to win. He doesn’t want massive losses, huge expense, a long drawn-out war, and loss of popularity amongst French Catholics. Napoleon III, without any reference to his Piedmontese allys, makes a deal with the Austrians. An armistice is arranged called the Peace of Villafranca. Later on there is a formal treaty. The deal is that Austria will give Lombardy to Piedmont, but nothing else. Cavour resigns.
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1860
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Plebiscite in Central Duchies/Papal States – rigged, asking for unification with Piedmont. Cavour returns to exploit a fast developing situation
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Treaty of Turin 1860
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Gives France Nice and Savoy.
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Garibaldi’s Thousand
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Garibaldi leads army to Sicily in support of an already started rising. Cavour loses control over events when his agent, La Farina, is expelled from Sicily. Garibaldi conquers Naples by June then marches to papal states. Piedmontese army invades Papal states in September. Defeats Papal army.
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Outside Influences
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Unification was dominated by outside influences, such as Austria. Cavour often had to react to decisions being made by foreign powers. Example – Britain putting pressure on Piedmont to deal with conflict with Austria in 1859, which almost causes the war not to happen, and Cavour is going to have to respond to this but Austria shows little restraint and declares war. Even while Italian events were happening, such as plebiscites and Garibaldi’s Thousand, British diplomacy was still important. PM Palmerston and the Foreign Minister were sympathetic to the unification cause, and while Cavour was not trusted, Garibaldi was admired. Britain was happy to see the end of Austrian influence, and also Protestants were in favour of ending the temporal power of the Papacy and the end of absolutist monarchies.
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Napoleon III’s Victories
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They were French victories. Piedmont had a small/unimportant presence at the battles (such as Solferino and Magenta) – similar to their input in the Crimean War. Without French intervention victories there would have been no opportunities for revolts/plebiscites in the Duchies, Garibaldi’s Thousand, or Cavour’s response. Napoleon III was a great influence – he was the driving force of the movements towards unification after Orsini’s assassination attempt, as he wanted to take action and was a genuine liberal.
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Important Points 1850s – 1860
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Mazzini – extent to which him and his followers showed how not to achieve unification (risings/revolutions). This forced many Mazzinians to adopt more pragmatic approaches (such as those in the Nationalist Society) and Piedmontese monarchy and Liberals such as Cavour. Cavour – he is very important.Untrusted but used work of other nationalists to his advantage and was pragmatic. Tried to make things work for him and made effort to seek out opportunities (such as when he became PM the second time). His ability to respond to outside influences (1859) gave others (Garibaldi) the opportunity to bring about unification. Victor Emmanuel – his importance in provoking war with Austria in 1859. Helped give Garibaldi the opportunity to bring the South into the union. Napoleon III – unification wouldn’t have happened without him. Helped give Garibaldi the opportunity to bring the South into the union. Chance – a lot of this is down to chance. Orsini might not have attempted assassination, Napoleon may not have reacted as he did and decided to help Italy, and the Austrians may have shown more restraint in 1859, which could have resulted in resolution of conflict through diplomacy, and the opportunity for unification may not have been created.
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Southern Italy 1861
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Garibaldi hands Southern Italy to Victor Emmanuel. Plebiscites in Southern Italy (Naples and Sicily) vote for union with Piedmont.
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Brigandage
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Life and practises of the Brigands (Southern Italy) – highway robbery and plunder. Has existed for a long time in Southern Italy, but evolved from outlaw movement to a political resistance. Most well known form emerged strongly after conquest of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1861. Social unrest amongst lower classes over Risorgimento only benefitting the rich and poor living conditions.
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Brigands War 1861
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Brigands took to mountains around Southern Italy to defend it from Northern forces. Brigands made up of many different people with different backgrounds and motives, but common desire to defeat the enemy (North). Included people who the Italian government considered criminals, former soldiers and loyalists to the Bourbon army, but also nobles, poverty stricken farmers and both men and women. Blamed often on just Brigands (hence the name) but a number of different people involved. Many were massacred, executed and deported. Blamed mostly on the Piedmontese authorities.
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March 1861
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Kingdom of Italy proclaimed. Turin (in Piedmont) as capital.
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1864
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Capital moved to Florence.
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Political Structure of the Kingdom
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Unitary government. Centralised bureaucracy. Bicameral legislature.
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1866
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Italy joins Prussia in war against Austria. Italians are defeated at Custoza and other places, but Prussia wins the war. Italy gains the Veneto.
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1870
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Garibaldi had attempted to march on Rome in 1862 and 1867 – both attempts are halted. Italian and Prussian troops occupy Rome when French abandon the city in order to fight the Prussians in the Franco-Prussian war after failure of negotiations with Napoleon III.
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1871
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July – Rome made capital of Italy.
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Completion of the Kingdom
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Tensions – class divide, dislike for domination by Piedmont and House of Savoy, economic problems (debts from wars of unification and from smaller states taken over by Piedmont), lack of resources, discontent amongst Catholics (Pope has less power, church and state formally separated). Foreign influence – important. Prussia played a bit part in enabling Piedmont to acquire the Veneto and Rome. Italy was in massive debt and was weak due to years of fighting etc, and Prussia was stronger and aided them greatly.
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Mazzini’s Views of the New Kingdom
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He was critical. Believes foreign countries still “own” Italy and it is a “lifeless mosaic”. Saw Italy as free, and politically united, but not united socially or economically. Italy was a monarchy, not a republic, and although it was secular, the spiritual power of the Catholic Church was still overhanging. Thinks the rich are still ruling Italy, and the views of ordinary people are not being met. Italy had not “made herself” as him and others had hoped. Thought Italians had no chance to create a new constitution and lifestyle. True democracy (which Mazzini had promised the members of Young Italy) was still far away. In his view, the spirit of Risorgimento was dead, killed by Piedmont’s politicians.
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Italian Views of the New Kingdom
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Belief in Risorgimento as a revolutionary movement tended to be strong. Because of the meaning of this being taking Italy back to its “glorious past”, the unification was heroic and magnificent. Many see the key figures of unification as heroes (Mazzini, Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel II, Cavour, Napoleon III). Believe they gave Italy unity and independence. National bias – historians were often philosophers too, and their writing often emotional and incoherent, so concrete facts are often lost, and so writing is hard to follow, but national bias is easy to spot, with historians being very positive about the Risorgimento, saying it was heroic and a great sacrifice, rather than aided by outsiders and down to chance much of the time.
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British Views of the New Kingdom
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Non-Italian historians are doubtful of the impact of the Risorgimento in unifying Italy, and even more doubtful of the impact of the “heroes”. Denis Mack Smith – argues that it was the disagreements (not agreements) of Cavour and Garibaldi which bought about unification by the power of Piedmont. Cavour united Italy not so much because he intended to or thought it was right, but because Garibaldi’s unauthorised military success in the South forced him to. British historians tend to be more down to earth in that they focus on concrete facts and what happened rather than theories, making their work easier to follow. Denis Mack Smith is practical, for instance, in that he focuses on the importance of Piedmont. Revisionist historians – point out unification was one of many possibilities as a result of the Italian struggle of independence. They believe it came about because of the French and Piedmontese policies, not from popular pressure for a unified Italy.
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Importance of Risorgimento in Unification
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Diplomacy, war, rivalries between Cavour and Garibaldi were all vital factors in unification. Nevertheless, romantic pull of Risorgimento persists and it’s ideals were important as it provided emotional and political appeal, giving at least some Italians a common identity and purpose which fuelled the nationalist cause. Nationalism did play a part in unification. Did rouse a section of public opinion to support Piedmont’s ambitions. Without Nationalist support, a united Italy as early as 1861 would not have been possible.

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