Italian Grand Tour

question

Definition of Grand Tour
answer

in the 1700s, wealthy aristocrats sent their children to study in Italy and other European countries. – Rome was the main destination for the study of art – late teens and early twenty year olds were sent – last touch of education, right of passage
question

Golden Age of the Grand Tour
answer

1660-1840, a time of commerce and travel – traveling became necessary to anyone looking to find knowledge and intelligence
question

standard grand tourists
answer

male, rich, late teens and early twenties – went for self realization, fun, new experiences, education, history, literature, – broaden the education of young men in ruling classes – a reprieve from responsibility – traveled sometimes with wives, with servants, helpers,
question

Golden Age: attraction to italy
answer

Rome – political situation: europeans felt it was an expression of power and wealth – historical ruins of fragmented empires – to be seen as superior and civilized – saw italy as fragmented and helpless – conquer intellect
question

portraits- why made
answer

power, wealth, status, worldliness, superiority, confidence, accomplishment,
question

grand tourists- portrait elements
answer

paleness, snobby attitude, dogs, crossed legs- relaxed personality, – statues, paintings, books, architecture, clothes, – worldly, open minded, powerful, relaxed
question

italy political situation
answer

– italy was divided, no nationalism, not stable government, no progress, ruins, backward society – felt italians were helpless to take control of their land and their people
question

Britain politically
answer

britains felt superior, new more italians, ideas of conquest in italy not helping them, – forefront of civilization, industrial revolution and reform – economy and science – constitutional monarchy – broke with catholic church
question

art
answer

a boom of art in italy – artists such as michelangelo, raphael, da vinci, in rome – raphael more traditional – michelangelo more independent dynamic
question

william hamilton
answer

interested traveller, appreciates culture, products of history – buys many works or art and shares them – relaxed and at ease – luxurious travel brings and purchases everything he is interested in – only sees what he wants to see, picturesque view – not open minded, unaware of real culture – cared high aspects of life – not very attentive more unaware of culture and concerned with what he wants to be
question

Italy Political
answer

– fragmented into states, controlled by foreign powers – decadent society, stuck in the past, denial of civilization – ruins, reflect the state in one of decay – italians unable to emancipate themselves from their condition
question

year of unification of italy and government
answer

1861, kingdom of italy unifying the states under a Sardinian king Victor Immanuel 2nd
question

italy controllers prior to unification
answer

spanish government in south, pope in the center, austrian family in tuscany, savoy family in north west
question

travel literature
answer

travel writing of literary value – the protagonists journey through a different country
question

travelogue
answer

itinerary or blog, is a text/work of travel writing
question

features of travel writing
answer

– first person account, personal experience and departing point of travel – fiction, the incorporation of memory or dramatization, not entirely objective – includes biases – comparisons to home country – background of the writer – audience
question

fictionalization
answer

a literary work based partly or entirely on facts but written as if it were fiction, inserting a few non factual events
question

“a sentimental journey through france and italy”
answer

– new trend in travel literature – emphasis on inner feelings, and emotions of the protagonist – interior traveling, accompanies the real action of traveling – effects of traveling on the mind and spirit of the traveler are stressed – previous texts only reflected information about specific places itself and not about the traveler as a person through self realization
question

audience influence on style and content of travel writing
answer

– stendhal in his journal does not elaborate about his feelings as much as he does in his published works. – he is aware of his audience, what they want to hear and what they are interested in. – goethe writes to his colleagues and friends so he includes information they are interested in, not just what he finds appealing
question

how is our idea of italy constructed
answer

– stereotypes, fixed standard mental pictures – prejudice, preconceptions, ideas formulated prior to experiences – idealization, to believe something is perfect and dismiss reality – memory, not always exact or objective, not up to date – expectation, built in other peoples accounts, guidebooks, readings, movies etc.
question

author background
answer

– travel writing is a perception of the other land and is intercultural exchange – italy represented by foreign travelers is half created by them in a personal interpretation and a recreation
question

intercultural exchange
answer

when your expectations and prejudices made in your home country meet the actual reality of the culture through experience
question

Goethe different from typical grand tourist
answer

Goethe is more immersed in the culture and people of the country he visits – humble, curious, independent – opinionated and critical – highly intelligent – travels in cognito, under a different name – travels with one other person – does not attend many social gatherings
question

goethe
answer

curious, independent, goes to the theater, critical, enjoys architecture, art, plants, botany, goes beyond facades, beyond appearances, journey of self realization, reflection of places and events
question

goethe style and audience
answer

diary style, based on daily entries writes to his colleagues and friends, not completely informal mostly intellectual
question

goethe- objectivity
answer

– not completely objective, in the beginning writings, he compares the city to his country of germany. cleanliness, the people, personalities, comparative to germany. – becomes more objective in his journey’s to other countries
question

goethe – personal feelings
answer

– reveals his feelings constantly throughout his writing – he expresses his self in realization, “i seem to be a completely different person” “I was glad to study, here I want only to life, forgetting myself and the world” “One would like to think, but feels too incompetent”
question

Goethe from Venice to Naples
answer

– goethe definitely becomes less critical when moving from venice to naples – in venice he is anxious to get to rome and is critical of everything, he comments about “the uncleanliness of the streets” “people sweeping their rubbish into the corners” he is in awe of the beauty but remains critical of the people and theater – in rome he is in awe of the beauty he is very happy to be there and has been waiting to see the arts. “Only in Rome can one educate oneself for Rome” “I set eyes on the two Colossi. To grasp them is beyond the power of the eye” – In Naples, he is much more content as a traveler. he has seen in rome what he was very anxious to see and now he can relax, he attends social gatherings, is less critical and more lively. “In Rome, I was glad to study: here I want only to live, forgetting myself and the world”
question

Goethe’s reason for traveling
answer

– a journey of self realization – to experience his fathers memories – he works in political relations and felt trapped in Germany. he went off the path, he took a job at the weimer to get back on a good path. – went to discover italy in order to get out of the box he felt he was in, he felt constricted, wanted a new experience
question

Goethe Michelangelo v Raphael
answer

– Raphael at the time of Goethe was the favored artist and the most revered. he was simple and took art in a serious, traditional way – Michelangelo was the more dynamic, different artist and Goethe preferred him as a painter – this was a bold choice during the time period
question

Goethe and feelings about Italian Art
answer

– very passionate about the art that he sees and very often feels an out of body experience – he was very outward about is passions about art as stendhal is in his writings – he learns a lot from rome and accepts rome as his teacher -he appreciates the classical art of the renaissance rather than the gothic art and architecture – stendhal syndrome
question

stendhal syndrome
answer

rapid heartbeat, dizziness, fainting – had these feelings when exposed to art, a large amount of art in a single place
question

Goethe in Naples v Rome
answer

Naples: nature, natural beauty, less stringent and structure, accepts social invitations, relaxed, humble- teaches him how to live Rome: appreciates germany more, built memories, reborn, experiences what is father did, out of body experience, learns a lot from and in rome, anxious, structured itineraries
question

what does goethe find in naples that helps to open him up
answer

nature is what goethe experiences in naples unlike anywhere else – it helps him to relax, and appreciate the small things – “every time i wish to write words, visual images come up, images of the fruitful countryside, the open sea, the islands veiled in a haze” “I lack the mental organ which could describe them”
question

Goethe’s rebirth in rome
answer

– accept things how they are – becomes less critical – giving up bad habits – appreciates germany now that he doesnt feel trapped – out of body experience – bigger than his ego – roman antiquity, feels accomplished after seeing the architecture and art, feels like a new person
question

goethe’s approach to travel
answer

highly critical, deep thinker and analyzer – but ready to step back and take a second look at what he is criticizing, he knows he is critical
question

german v italian
answer

-italians are more free, sensual- free of moral constraints than the germans are – italians are a coveted people, talked about, interesting and dynamic history – germany is of a higher standard than italy, more progressive – germany and its people are much different than italy, completely different lifestyles
question

Goethe’s thoughts on italians
answer

-passionate, expressive talkers – natural people, like children, childlike attitudes – carefree, vibrant – happy – easily satisfied – not so serious, naiive, no worries – have a lot of energy – not progressive
question

Goethe desire to go to sicily
answer

– at first in rome, he was not sure if he was going to make it to sicily – sicily will be greener, more nature,
question

Stendhal as a romantic writer
answer

-writing during the classical, romantic period of the late 18th century – style was very emotional, passionate, exaggerated, descriptive, irrational, imaginative – romantic period characterized by people who dont want to be controlled with order and constraint matches his political views of freedom
question

stendhal emphasis in florence
answer

– in florence, stendhal emphasizes the places and landmarks of the city – he discusses santa croce, san lorenzo church, palazzo pitti and the uffizi, palazzo vecchio and all other important landmarks
question

stendhal language
answer

romantic – irrationality – contemplation – analyzation – emotional language: soul, heart – exaggeration words: beloved, sublime, essence, utterly – feelings: intense happiness
question

stendhal v goethe
answer

stendhal- explains places, highlights specifics about main attractions in the city, systematic approach to exploring writing, doesn’t talk so much about leisure or companions goethe- talks about hidden places, remote, except in rome, talks about leisure activities, discusses companions – both talk about feelings and emotions, how they feel in a place
question

stendhal- fictionalization
answer

– his writing is much fact based because it centers around places and their possessions – his emotions are exaggerated
question

stendhals reaction to art
answer

– in his published work, he discusses out of body experiences when seeing art, heart palpitations, really overtaken, stendhal syndrome – in his journal his emotions are less exaggerated and may result in a few tears – when sharing his experience of art he stresses his feelings and his emotions when seeing the places, “tide of emotion which overwhelmed me flowed so deep” “all these things spoke volumes to my soul”
question

Stendhal in santa croce
answer

– went their first to see the tombs of michelangelo, macchiavelli, galileo, dante, boccaccio and petrarch
question

Stendhal medieval v classical
answer

prefers medieval – gothic: clean finish, artistry, massive structures – does not like classical, feels that the later periods lack the energy to build massive structures, lazy just did the facades, not impressed with facades
question

Stendhal- Palazzo Vecchio
answer

– grand – reflection of medieval times – fortress – brickwork battlements – towering walls – put in a beautiful piazza – links to the history of the signoria and power, violence and passion
question

stendhal elective country
answer

– his love of medieval art and architecture – ballet, theater, very cultural – medicis, florence is the center for the arts, and cultivation of the arts centered in florence – his love of the paintings and art drew him to italy and its historical background
question

stendhal and italians
answer

– he likes that they are a passionate, careless, happy go lucky, relaxed people – doesn’t care for the florentines because they are more progressive, they care about wealth and they are not inspired by the artwork around them, not keeping up with it, knows they are appreciative. they are not like typical italians he enjoys being around
question

stendhal political ideas and florentines
answer

– feels that florentines are a weaker people because florence and its people was controlled by an austrian duke. the florentines were content with this control, they were flourishing and making money so they made no effort to become a republic and govern their own people – stendhal’s political philosophy was one of freedom, independence, romantic view, free from order and constraint. he looked down on the florentines for not standing up for their land. he admired passionate, strong willed people, self determination,

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member