Italian 20X Midterm

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“We have made Italy. Now we must make Italians!”
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• Said by Massimo D’Azeglio • From a book he wrote entitled Miei Ricordi or Memoirs: about how to become men of character • Self sacrifice instead of self-interest in order to become a man • 1867 • Importance: He stated this after Italy officially became a nation or city state but wanted to make it known that Italians needed to figure out what their culture was and what they were defined with. Importance to making Italians: Was the main quote showing that the country needed to unify and make Italians! Stated that now that they have officially been unified, they need to unify in their culture as well
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“L’Europe finit a Naples!” (Europe ends at Naples)
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• A section of a book written by Nelson Moe • “The south was on the one hand more backward and uncivilized, on the other more natural and picturesque” • An article about the southern question and the way the south was seen as uncivilized but also beautiful • French traveler and Napoleonic administrator Augustin Creuz de Lesser was the one who stated that Europe ends at Naples which completely disregards the southern part of Italy. Is degrading. Calls the southern part of Italy Africa. Importance to Making Italians: depicts a moment in their history when racial discrimination was prominent and how they needed to show the rest of Europe that the South was a part of Europe as well
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1912
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• Italo-Turkish War • Also known as Libyan War • The conquest of Libya was proof of modernity for Italy • Socialist nationalization thru army • Was a significant precursor of the First World War because it showed other countries how weak the Ottoman Empire was Importance to Italian Making: Was a prominent moment in their history because it was the first battle they won showing their unification and importance in the world and Europe
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Brigantaggio
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• 1860-1867 • Was a banditry from 19th cent related to end of feudalism • Was a large scale peasant rebellion w/ soldiers of disbanded armies • Rebels labeled “brigands”; liberal left/ right agree peasants are instrument of the Vatican (their common enemy) • Pica Law (1863): dehumanizing of Southerners/ rebels by death penalty; would shoot them from the back and then decapitate them and put their heads on poles • Did this to them because Southerners were from African background • Was a construction of a savage south reversing the picturesque of Italy • Some say it was good for Italy because it showed the true nature of humans and how they must do rebellious things to get what they want whereas most people thought it was bad Importance to Italian making: was a rebellion that showed the racial discrimination against the south and further depicts the stereotypes of the south. By some the rebellions were seen as inspirational
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Commedia dell’arte
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• was a form of theatre art in the beginning of Italian culture • Was almost satirical; references to sex; made fun of people • Related to carnival masks; each mask was from a different city in Italy and they all spoke different languages: this was a satire of how dysfunctional and not unified Italy was • Italian-ness was defined by this art form • It highlighted regional differences & disunity but in a satirical way • Civilta italiana = evolution of this • As it evolved, it became negative because it began to be for the social class and not for peasants; also became scripted which was not a part of the origins of it; also contributed to the rise of bourgeoisie; Carlo Goldini responsible for demise of it with creation of scripts and bcuz no masks from southern italy Importance to Italian making: was the definition of the beginning of Italian-ness. Because of it’s depiction of different cultures and languages of Italians it showed the variety and diversity of the nation
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Giuseppe Mazzini
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• Emerges as masculine leader of revolutionary patriotic elite • 1805-1872 • Projected that Italian-ness is European-ness • Appealed to migrant workers • “On the Duties of Man” (1840): authority > sovereignty ~ duties > rights… blood & sacrifice • All about virilization: differences btw man and women/ masculinity vs feminity • Not a friendly dude • Thought the Italian’s blood and sacrifice would rebuild the nation • Sense of duty rather than rights Importance to Italian making: He thought that in order to make an Italian with character one needed to be masculine and show their pride for the country with blood and sacrifice. Tried to define the Italian this way and be a guide to how a true Italian should act
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Giuseppe Sergi
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• Best known for his opposition of Nordicism (idea of white race being the best & that races such as Italians should not be let into countries such as the USA) • 1841-1936 Importance to Italian Making: he attempted to stop the racial discrimination of Italians by opposing the concepts of Nordicism and let it be known that Italians are not inferior. He could be considered a “protector” of Southern Italians this way.
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picturesque
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• Late 17th- mid 19th c. moral- educational travel by young mobility/ middle classes thru Europe (Grand tour) • Known as the face of a country by the rules of pictorial beauty • An 18th-century aesthetic criterion for beautifying painted landscapes that celebrated social and natural harmony • Romantic art and literature describe Italian culture • Was about antiquity (ancient), nature, natural people vs civilization • Naples is the center of production for picturesque ideology (aka- was a Northern movement) • Painting of Vesuvius is an example of the picturesque • It gave positive association to Italian-ness Important of Italian-making: showed the beautifulness of the country and how it is a picturesque.. almost perfect. Describes Italian-ness and was a great depiction of what Italy was: beautiful
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The “Southern Question”
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• The discourse around the backward conditions of the Italian south after unification • People thought that Europe ended at Naples because the Grand Tour ended there • South was seen as barbaric and uncivilized • Southerners treated poorly: Pica Law made it so that southerners were killed under a death penalty and their heads displayed on stick • Seen as equivalent as Africans (like slaves) • Heavier taxation on southerners • Mafia born here; south still stricken with poverty • Not included in politics and basically disregarded • Started the beginning of the Brigantaggio • Pasquale Villari “Southern Letters”: states that the south is ignored by elites and need to unify and redeem the south; need to help them as moral responsibility • answer to this often italian racial discourse (the thought of differences in race; eugenics) Importance to Italian-making: this was important to Italian making because the South is a huge part to Italy and without them Italy would not be complete. The unification of the North and South is a huge part of Italy because in order to be complete country, they need to unify the two parts. In order to do this they must find out why the South is so discriminated against
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The Grand Tour
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• Late 17th- mid 19th c. moral- educational travel by young mobility/ middle classes thru Europe (Grand tour) • Becomes a quintessential expression of enlightenment • Begins in Venice and ends in Naples • Helped give young nobles a sense of what Europe had to offer such as Shakespeare’s plays were often set in Venice but he had never traveled there; just heard stories from other nobles who had • Takes place during the carnival • Was a way of learning new languages, cultures, seeing new art, mingling with people from different countries • Renaissance and classical antiquity Importance to Italian-making: showed the country what Italian-ness was. Even though there was discrimination toward Italians, clearly Europeans thought somewhat highly of them because Shakespeare based many of his plays in Venice
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The Great Proletarian. She has Risen!
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• 1911 • Written by Giovanni Pascoli (an atheist and socialist) • About the selfhelpisti (depiction of how Italians must be men and have morals and character in order to help themselves) • The book shows how Italy is the “mother”land; used to think it was the father land but it is in fact feminine • Emergence of nationalism and socialism • The books answers the southern question to emigration and especially the conquest of Libya • Created a sense of nationalism for Italy • Describes the importance of proletarianism vs capitalism: the workers more important than the money Importance to Italian-making: created a sense of nationalism which unified Italy
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The Wild Broom
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• 1835 • Poem written by Giacomo Leopardi • About a Northern man that falls in love with South • Wild broom is a flower that grows in the edge of the Vesuvius • Symbolism btw this flower that is beautiful but will inevitably be destroyed by the volcano; the south as beautiful but will eventually be destroyed by the power of the north Importance of Italian-making: shows how the unification of the north and south is extremely important for the production of Italy in a figurative way. Without both working together and the North helping the South, the north will just eventually destroy the South
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Italian racial discourse
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• Many people argued that the Aryan race was the best race • Eugenics • People such as Giuseppe Sergi defied Nordicism (racial prejudice of anyone other than Aryans) • Italians seen as Africans/ slaves • Italian racial discourse as answer to southern question Importance to Italian-making: A large part of Italian history. Necessary for racial discrimination to stop in order to unify Italy
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Self-helpismo
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• Character/ conscience is what makes a man • Collection of self-made man stories such as Pinocchio • The fairy’s speech in Pinocchio is a representation of the Italian unification (the importance of work) • “Heart of a Boy” also important (about children in a war) • Two most popular books are about war and work showing what was important at this time in Italian unification • Continues the stereotype of Italian laziness Importance to Italian-making: was a concept of how Italians should be (hard workers and sacrificing themselves for war). This further made the Italians and what they wanted to become
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Emigrant nation
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• Italy as an emigrant nation • 1880-1915: 13 million Italian emigrants • By 1911: 1/6 of Italians emigrated abroad • It all started at the time Italy was supposed to have been colonized/ unified • Most went to US but there they were described as African when placed; still being stereotyped • 50% return rate
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F. T. Marinetti
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• 1876-1944 • Was experimental/ avant garde/ was a poet and the founder of the Futurist movement • Argued for the destruction of art; wanted to destroy all museums, libraries, education facilities • Was pro violence and war instead • Supported Mussolini • Began the Fascist movement – Importance to Italian-making: His idea of futurism created the Fascist movement that continues in Italy. This was a huge movement in Italy and is a huge part of its history
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Modernist nationalism
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• 1870s-1900s • Rooted in traditional political role of Italian intellectuals and artists • Italianism: mythopoetic (return of masculinity after feminist movement) construction of Italy’s civilizing mission in modernity • Modernity of art/ life/ politics = New Italy • Arts and sciences; moving from Romanticism to sciences • Rejected the picturesque • Second industrial revolution: extreme urbanization, speed • First was invention of the bike but in Italy it was inefficient for speed since Italy filled with mountains so invention of car (FIAT) was awesome for Italy • Cinema also big in modernization of Italy Importance to Italian-making: Modernization is important to any country because it includes production of new technologies and innoventions such as the car which is a huge part of Italian culture
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1896
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• Year of the first Italo-Ethiopian War which was a war between the Italians and the Ethiopians for occupation of parts of Africa • Ethiopans backed by Russia • Most important battle: Battle of Adwa where Italians were defeated by Ethiopans; very far outnumbered • After battle Italians crumbled & riots broke out • Italians forced to recognize Ethiopa as independent Important to Italian-making: was Italy’s first big battle/ war and showed that because of their disunification, they were unable to win the war. Needed to be unified with north and south in order to win or have less losses. Their side was much smaller than Ethiopian side showing that they needed to unify in order to come out a winner
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Atavism
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refers to the theories of Cesare Lombroso discussed by Mary Gibson in her article “Biology or Environment?”; the tendency to revert to ancestral type. In biology, is an evolutionary throwback, such as traits reappearing which had disappeared generations before. Can occur in several ways. One way is when genes for previously existing phenotypical features are preserved in DNA, and these become expressed through a mutation that either knock out the overriding genes for the new traits or make the old traits override the new one. A number of traits can vary as a result of shortening of the fetal development of a trait (neoteny) or by prolongation of the same
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The Futurist Manifesto
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written by F.T Marinetti; It initiated an artistic philosophy, Futurism, that was a rejection of the past, and a celebration of speed, machinery, violence, youth and industry; it was also an avocation of the modernization and cultural rejuvenation of Italy.

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