Islam Study Guide

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Bedouins
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Nomads in the Arabian Peninsula They were organized into tribes to which they were loyal.
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Islam
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“submission to the will of Allah”, a religion similar to Christianity developed in the Arabian peninsula that follows the five pillars
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Muslim
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A follower of Islam
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Baghdad
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Abbasid capital
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Arabian Peninsula Climate
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dry, hot, and sandy, with few oases. often sandstorms.
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Muhammad
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Founder of Islam and prophet of Allah who was supposedly visited by an angel who told him to spread word of Islam
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Monotheism
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the belief in only one god
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Oases
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green areas in the desert fed by underground water. refuge for nomads in the Arabian Peninsula.
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Caliph
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A successor to Muhammad; the debate over who these should be led to the separation of the Sunnis and Shiites
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Arabic
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A language that is the official language of several countries of North Africa and the Middle East, as well as the religion of Islam.
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Sunna
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A recording of Muhammad’s words and acts; basis for Islamic society
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Quran
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Also transliterated as Qur’an and Koran, this is the most holy text of Islam, recording the revelations given to the prophet Muhammad
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Cordoba
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Capital of Islamic Spain
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5 Pillars
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The basis of the Islamic religion. //1. you must accept and confirm that Allah is the only god and his prophet is Muhammad // 2. Give to the poor // 3. Fast during the holy month of Ramadan // 4. Make one pilgrimage to Mecca in your life // 5. You must pray five times a day facing Mecca
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Allah
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Arabic word for God
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People of the Book
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Jews and Christians, according to Muslim reference
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Sunni
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A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
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Shiites
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Muslims that believe that only direct descendants of Muhammad should become caliph
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Kabaa
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Square building in Mecca believed by Muslims to be the house Ibrahim built for God and the focus of Muslim worship
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Mosque
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A Muslim place of worship
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Abassid
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An Islamic empire that constructed Baghdad; later overthrown by their own soldiers (the Seljuk turks)
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Golden Age of Islam
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A time during the Abbasid Dynasty (with a capital in Baghdad) when the arts and scholarship were flourishing. Astronomy, surgery, algebra, science etc. were all having inventions in their fields, and Baghdad was a center of scholarship.
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Mecca
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A city formed by the Bedouins as the crossroads and trading place of several countries; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.

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