Intro to Sociology: CH 4

The term “social control” refers to
Techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
Jennifer is attending a business luncheon with several corporate executives. At one point during the meal, she reaches in front of another executive for a saltshaker and hits the executive’s arm as he is about to put a spoonful of soup in his mouth. The soup spills on his shirt, and he glares at Jennifer. The glare is an example of a(an)
informal sanction
Historically, legal measures aimed at blocking discrimination based on race, religion, gender, age, and sexual orientation have been difficult to implement because
many people tacitly encourage such violations.
Which sociological perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not operate if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?
functionalist perspective
According to a study by Stanley Milgram, individuals will
obey the commands of people viewed as legitimate authority figures, even if the behavior may harm another individual.
What type of informal social control is supported by 59 percent of pediatricians in spite of the risk of harmful effects to recipients?
spanking
Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the association between the use of surveillance techniques as a means of social control and the power of an authoritarian government?
Conflict perspective
Deviance is behavior that
Violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
Which of the following statements is true relative to stigma and deviance in the U.S.?
ALL OF THESE
-Many people with “normal” appearance have cosmetic surgery each year because of the “beauty myth”.

-People may be stigmatized for deviant behaviors in which they no longer engage.

-A person need not be guilty of a crime to be stigmatized.

Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the stigmatizing nature of formal social controls that require convicted sex-offenders to register with police agencies and have their pictures published in newspapers to make their identities publicly known?
Interactionist perspective
Which term is used in the sociological literature to describe a loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective?
anomie
According to Robert Merton, an innovator is an individual who has
accepted the goals of society, but pursues them with means regarded as improper.
Which theory was used by Edwin Sutherland to emphasize that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions with others?
cultural transmission
A sociologist studies how a teacher’s attitudes toward particular students affects students’ performance. Students of similar abilities who are “teacher’s pets” perform at a high level, and students who are viewed as “troublemakers” perform poorly. This would illustrate which explanation of deviance?
labeling theory
Which sociologist created an interactionist/conflict explanation of deviance that emphasizes that the response to an act—not the behavior—determines deviance?
Howard Becker
Which sociological perspective would be particularly concerned about studies that show that White criminal offenders receive shorter sentences than comparable Latino and African-American offenders?
conflict perspective
An important tenet of labeling theory is the recognition that some individuals or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others. This view shares the emphasis on the social significance of power as purported by the
conflict perspective.
An important aspect of a professional criminal’s work is
developing technical skills.
Which of the following statements about crime rates in the U.S. is correct?
ALL OF THESE
-Reported crime in the U.S. is high, and the public continues to regard crime as a major social problem.

-There has been a significant decline in violent crime in the U.S. in recent years.

-Crimes committed by women have increased.

Which perspective would look to the disproportionate economic and lobbying power wielded by groups such as the National Rifle Association in the debate over gun violence in U.S. society?
Conflict perspective